The association between gene deletion and spinal muscular atrophy suggests that sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) may be related to deletion. We examined the association between the genotype and susceptibility to and severity of sALS. We genotyped the copy number of and in 25 patients diagnosed with sporadic ALS and 100 healthy subjects in a Korean population. Onset age and medical research council (MRC) scale were compared among patients according to : genotypes. There was a significantly higher incidence of homozygous deletion of ( : genotype, 2 : 0) in sALS patients (20%) than in the normal controls (2%) ( <0.001). The onset age for patients with homozygous deletion of (2 : 0) was significantly younger (34Â±15.38 years) than that of patients with 2 : 1, 2 : 2 and 2 : 3 of the : genotype (59.5Â±5.09; 52.69Â±16.46 and 50Â±0.00 years) ( =0.049). The ratio of patients with an MRC scale above G4- was smaller in the 2 : 0 genotype (40%) than in the 2 : 1, 2 : 2 and 2 : 3 genotypes (83.3%, 100% and 100%) ( =0.02). The homozygous deletion (2 : 0) was statistically more frequent and associated with earlier onset age and lower MRC scale in Korean sALS patients. These suggest that deletion may be one of the factors associated with susceptibility to and severity of sALS in a Korean population.
We analyzed age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and compared with those of U.S and Japanese participants to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea. The data were collected in the 2008-2011 in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V to select a representative sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized South Korean population. Bone mineral measurements were obtained from 8332 men and 9766 women aged 10 years and older. BMD in men continued to decline from 3rd decade, however, in women, BMD remained nearly constant until the 4th decade and declined at rapid rate from the 5th decade. The prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea is 7.3% in males and 38.0% in females aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteopenia in Korea is 46.5% in males and 48.7% in females, aged 50 years and older. The lumbar spine and femur BMD in Korean females 20 to 49 years of ages was lower than in U.S. and Japan participants. There was obvious gender, and age differences in the BMD based on the 2008-2011 KNHANES IV and V, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey conducted in a South Korean population. We expect to be able to estimate reference data through ongoing KNHANES efforts in near future.
Pain from osteoarthritis (OA) is generally classified as nociceptive (inflammatory). Animal models of knee OA have shown that sensory nerve fibers innervating the knee are significantly damaged with destruction of subchondral bone junction, and induce neuropathic pain (NP). Our objective was to examine NP in the knees of OA patients using painDETECT (an NP questionnaire) and to evaluate the relationship between NP, pain intensity, and stage of OA. Ninety-two knee OA patients were evaluated in this study. Pain scores using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), painDETECT, duration of symptoms, severity of OA using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) system, and amount of joint fluid were evaluated and compared using a Spearman's correlation coefficient by rank test. Our study identified at least 5.4% of our knee OA patients as likely to have NP and 15.2% as possibly having NP. The painDETECT score was significantly correlated with the VAS and WOMAC pain severity. Compared with the painDETECT score, there was a tendency for positive correlation with the KL grade, and tendency for negative correlation with the existence and amount of joint fluid, but these correlations were not significant. PainDETECT scores classified 5.4% of pain from knee OA as NP. NP tended to be seen in patients with less joint fluid and increased KL grade, both of which corresponded to late stages of OA. It is important to consider the existence of NP in the treatment of knee OA pain.
Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and delaying the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus is very important. In this study, we investigated inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism to assess whether curcumin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy. Animals were divided into three groups: Long-Evans-Tokushima-Otsuka rats for normal controls, Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats for the diabetic group, and curcumin-treated (100 mg/kg/day) OLETF rats. We measured body and epididymal fat weights, and examined plasma glucose, adiponectin, and lipid profiles at 45 weeks. To confirm renal damage, we measured albumin-creatinine ratio, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in urine samples. Glomerular basement membrane thickness and slit pore density were evaluated in the renal cortex tissue of rats. Furthermore, we conducted adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and oxidative stress-related nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling to investigate mechanisms of lipotoxicity in kidneys. Curcumin ameliorated albuminuria, pathophysiologic changes on the glomerulus, urinary MDA, and urinary SOD related with elevated Nrf2 signaling, as well as serum lipid-related index and ectopic lipid accumulation through activation of AMPK signaling. Collectively, these findings indicate that curcumin exerts renoprotective effects by inhibiting renal lipid accumulation and oxidative stress through AMPK and Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Purpose: A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Materials and Methods: Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and pathological, problematic, and excessive Internet use. Only original research papers using Korean samples published from 1999 to 2012 and officially reviewed by peers were included for analysis. Ninety-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Results: The magnitude of the overall effect size of the intrapersonal variables associated with Internet addiction was significantly higher than that of interpersonal variables. Specifically, IA demonstrated a medium to strong association with "escape from self' and "self-identity" as selfrelated variables. "Attention problem", "self-control", and "emotional regulation" as control and regulation-relation variables; "addiction and absorption traits" as temperament variables; "anger" and "aggression" as emotion and mood and variables; "negative stress coping" as coping variables were also associated with comparably larger effect sizes. Contrary to our expectation, the magnitude of the correlations between relational ability and quality, parental relationships and family functionality, and IA were found to be small. The strength of the association between IA and the risk and protective factors was found to be higher in younger age groups. Conclusion: The findings highlight a need for closer examination of psychosocial factors, especially intrapersonal variables when assessing high-risk individuals and designing intervention strategies for both general IA and Internet game addiction.
Pelvic reconstruction after sacral resection is challenging in terms of anatomical complexity, excessive loadbearing, and wide defects. Nevertheless, the technological development of 3D-printed implants enables us to overcome these difficulties. Here, we present a case of sacral osteosarcoma surgically treated with hemisacrectomy and sacral reconstruction using a 3D-printed implant. The implant was printed as a customized titanium prosthesis from a 3D real-sized reconstruction of a patient's CT images. It consisted mostly of a porous mesh and incorporated a dense strut. After 3-months of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the patient underwent hemisacretomy with preservation of contralateral sacral nerves. The implant was anatomically installed on the defect and fixed with a screw-rod system up to the level of L3. Postoperative pain was significantly low and the patient recovered sufficiently to walk as early as 2 weeks postoperatively. The patient showed left-side foot drop only, without loss of sphincter function. In 1-year follow-up CT, excellent bony fusion was noticed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of hemisacral reconstruction using a custom-made 3D-printed implant. We believe that this technique can be applied to spinal reconstructions after a partial or complete spondylectomy in a wide variety of spinal diseases.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in memory impairment and neuronal cell death in the brain. Previous studies demonstrated that intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin (STZ) induces pathological and behavioral alterations similar to those observed in AD. Agmatine (Agm) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether Agm treatment could attenuate apoptosis and improve cognitive decline in a STZ-induced Alzheimer rat model. We studied the effect of Agm on AD pathology using a STZ-induced Alzheimer rat model. For each experiment, rats were given anesthesia (chloral hydrate 300 mg/kg, ip), followed by a single injection of STZ (1.5 mg/kg) bilaterally into each lateral ventricle (5 ÂµL/ventricle). Rats were injected with Agm (100 mg/kg) daily up to two weeks from the surgery day. Agm suppressed the accumulation of amyloid beta and enhanced insulin signal transduction in STZ-induced Alzheimer rats [experimetal control (EC) group]. Upon evaluation of cognitive function by Morris water maze testing, significant improvement of learning and memory dysfunction in the STZ-Agm group was observed compared with the EC group. Western blot results revealed significant attenuation of the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, as well as increases in the protein expressions of Bcl2, PI3K, Nrf2, and Î³-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, in the STZ-Agm group. Our results showed that Agm is involved in the activation of antioxidant signaling pathways and activation of insulin signal transduction. Accordingly, Agm may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline and attenuating apoptosis in AD.
Bone is the most frequent site of metastasis among breast cancer patients. We investigated prognostic factors affecting survival following bone-only metastasis in breast cancer patients. The medical records of breast cancer patients who were treated and followed at Gangnam Severance Hospital retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with bone-only metastasis. The median time from the diagnosis of bone-only metastasis to the last follow-up or death was 55.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 38.6-71.9] months. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival estimate at 10 years for all patients was 34.9%. In the multivariate Cox regression model, bisphosphonate treatment [hazard ratio=0.18; 95% CI, 0.07-0.43], estrogen receptor positivity (hazard ratio=0.51; 95% CI, 0.28-0.94), and solitary bone metastasis (hazard ratio=0.32; 95% CI, 0.14-0.72) were significantly associated with longer overall survival in the bone-only recurrence group. Among the treatment modalities, only bisphosphonate treatment was identified as a significant prognostic factor. Identifying the factors influencing breast cancer mortality after bone-only metastasis will help clarify the clinical course and improve the treatment outcome for patients with breast cancer and bone-only metastasis. Bisphosphonates, as a significant prognostic factor, warrant further investigation.
Surgery for lumbar spinal degeneration disease is widely performed. While posterior decompression and fusion are popular, anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is also used for treatment. Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is commonly used for noninvasive ALIF; however, several complications, such as spinal nerve and psoas muscle injury, have been reported. In the current study, we examined the clinical efficacy and complications of oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) for lumbar spinal degeneration disease. Thirty-five patients with degenerated spondylolisthesis, discogenic pain, and kyphoscoliosis were examined. All patients underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) with or without posterior decompression, without real-time electromyography monitoring. Posterior screws were used in all patients. Visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery. Surgical complications were also evaluated. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery, compared to those before surgery ( <0.05). There was no patient who underwent revision surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. Few patients showed symptoms from psoas invasion. OLIF surgery produced good surgical results without any major complication.
Purpose: Long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) is reported to be a vital regulator of the progression of various cancers. This study aimed to explore the exact roles and molecular mechanisms of TUG1 in osteosarcoma (OS) development. Materials and Methods: Real-time quantitative PCR was applied to detect the expressions of TUG1 and microRNA-132-3p (miR-132- 3p) in OS tissues and cells. Western blot was performed to measure protein levels of sex determining region Y-box 4 (SOX4). Cell viability was assessed using XTT assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity detection assays. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter experiments were employed to confirm relationships among TUG1, miR-1323p, and SOX4. Results: TUG1 was highly expressed in human OS tissues, OS cell lines, and primary OS cells. TUG1 knockdown hindered proliferation and induced apoptosis in human OS cell lines and primary OS cells. Moreover, TUG1 inhibited miR-132-3p expression by direct interaction, and introduction of miR-132-3p inhibitor partly abrogated the effect of TUG1 knockdown on the proliferation and apoptosis of OS cells. Furthermore, SOX4 was validated as a target of miR-132-3p. Further functional analyses revealed that miR-132-3p inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of OS cells, while this effect was greatly abated following SOX4 overexpression. Moreover, TUG1 knockdown suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis by upregulating miR-132-3p and down-regulating SOX4 in primary OS cells. Conclusion: TUG1 facilitated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis by regulating the miR-132-3p/SOX4 axis in human OS cell lines and primary OS cells. This finding provides a potential target for OS therapy.
Purpose: To investigate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in Koreans. Materials and Methods: This was a population-based case-control study covering 908 lung cancer patients and 908 controls selected from a random sample of people within each Korean province and matched according to age, sex, and smoking status. We developed land-use regression models to estimate annual residential exposure to particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over a 20-year exposure period. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Increases in lung cancer incidence (expressed as adjusted OR) were 1.09 (95% CI: 0.96-1.23) with a ten-unit increase in PM10 (mu g/m(3)) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00-1.22) with a ten-unit increase in NO2 (ppb). Tendencies for stronger associations between air pollution and lung cancer incidence were noted among never smokers, among those with low fruit consumption, and among those with a higher education level. Air pollution was more strongly associated with squamous cell and small cell carcinomas than with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that PM10 and NO2 contribute to lung cancer incidence in Korea.
Purpose: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) has been implicated as an oncogene in the development and progression of osteosarcoma. This study aims to explore the mechanism of NEAT1 in osteosarcoma. Materials and Methods: Expressions of NEAT1 and miR-194 in osteosarcoma tissues and cells were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The effects of NEAT1 knockdown or miR-194 overexpression on cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis were determined by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, transwell invasive assay, and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to observe the possible interaction between NEAT1 and miR-194. Results: NEAT1 was upregulated and miR-194 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cells. Knockdown of NEAT1 or overexpression of miR-194 suppressed proliferation and invasion and induced apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Luciferase reporter assay validated that NEAT1 could interact with miR-194 and negatively modulated its expression. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-194 reversed the suppression of proliferation and invasion and the promotion of apoptosis induced by NEAT1 depletion in osteosarcoma cells. Conclusion: Knockdown of NEAT1 suppressed proliferation and invasion and induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells by inhibiting miR-194 expression.
Purpose: Bioactive molecules critical to intracellular signaling are contained in extracellular vesides (EVs) and have cardioprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injured hearts. This study investigated the mechanism of the cardioprotective effects of EVs derived from hypoxia-preconditioned human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Materials and Methods: EV solutions (0.4 mu g/mu L) derived from normoxia-preconditioned MSCs (EVNM) and hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs (EVHM) were delivered in a rat IR injury model. Successful EV delivery was confirmed by the detection of PKH26 staining in hearts from EV-treated rats. Results: EVHM significantly reduced infarct size (24 +/- 2% vs. 8 +/- 1%, p<0.001), and diminished arrhythmias by recovering electrical conduction, I-Na current, and Cx43 expression. EVHM also reversed reductions in Wntl and beta-catenin levels and increases in GSK3 beta induced after IR injury. miRNA-26a was significantly increased in EVHM, compared with EVNM, in real-time PCR. Finally, in in vitro experiments, hypoxia-induced increases in GSK3 beta expression were significantly reduced by the overexpression of miRNA-26a. Conclusion: EVHM reduced IR injury by suppressing GSK3 beta expression via miRNA-26a and increased Cx43 expression. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of EVHM related with Wnt signaling pathway.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent and give rise to distinctly differentiated cells from all three germ layers. Neuronal differentiation of MSC has great potential for cellular therapy. We examined whether the cluster of mechanically made, not neurosphere, could be differentiated into neuron-like cells by growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). BMSCs grown confluent were mechanically separated with cell scrapers and masses of separated cells were cultured to form cluster BMSCs. As described here cluster of BMSCs were differentiated into neuron-like cells by EGF, HGF, and VEGF. Differentiated cells were analyzed by means of phase-contrast inverted microscopy, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and immunocytochemistry to identify the expression of neural specific markers. For the group with growth factors, the shapes of neuron-like cells was observable a week later, and two weeks later, most cells were similar in shape to neuron-like cells. Particularly, in the group with chemical addition, various shapes of filament structures were seen among the cells. These culture conditions induced MSCs to exhibit a neural cell phenotype, expressing several neuro-glial specific markers. bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could be easily induced to form clusters using mechanical scraping, not neurospheres, which in turn could differentiate further into neuron-like cells and might open an attractive possibility for clinical cell therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. In the future, we consider that neuron-like cells differentiated from clusters of BMSCs are needed to be compared and analyzed on a physiological and molecular biological level with preexisting neuronal cells, and studies on the possibility of their transplantation and differentiation capability in animal models are further required.
Patient education is important for successful management of atopic dermatitis; however, due to limited time and resources, patient education remains insufficient. This study aimed to investigate the current state of education provided by Korean dermatologists, pediatric allergists, and allergists to patients with atopic dermatitis. A questionnaire survey consisting of items regarding educational programs for patients with atopic dermatitis was conducted via e-mail. In total, 153 participants responded to the questionnaires, and 26.8% indicated that they have had separate educational programs. The workforce involved in the educational program included nurses, residents or fellows, dieticians, pharmacists, and clinical psychologists. Most education protocols addressed the characteristics and natural course of atopic dermatitis and environmental management. Overall, 96.7% of the participants replied that an additional charge is needed for education; moreover, additional assistance from an academic society or association, in the form of medical staff, organized data, and advertisement, is required to develop and provide a well-structured educational program. A standardized education protocol will effectively provide appropriate education for patients with atopic dermatitis. Arrangement of education fees, covered by the National Health Insurance Service, will lead to the establishment of a structured educational program and participation of an additional medical workforce.
PURPOSEThe aim of this study was to investigate how type I diabetes mellitus (T1D) affects the folliculogenesis and oocyte development, fertilization, and embryo development.MATERIALS AND METHODSA comparative animal study was conducted using two different mouse models of T1D, a genetic AKITA model and a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model. Ovarian function was assessed by gross observation, immunoblot, immunohistochemistry, oocyte counting, and ELISA for serum hormones (insulin, anti-Mullerian hormone, estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone). Maturation and developmental competence of metaphase II oocytes from control and T1D animals was evaluated by immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical detection of biomarkers and in vitro fertilization.RESULTSAnimals from both T1D models showed increased blood glucose levels, while only streptozotocin (STZ)-injected mice showed reduced body weight. Folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and preimplantation embryogenesis were impaired in both T1D mouse models. Interestingly, exogenous streptozotocin injection to induce T1D led to marked decreases in ovary size, expression of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor in the ovaries, the number of corpora lutea per ovary, oocyte maturation, and serum progesterone levels. Both T1D models exhibited significantly reduced pre-implantation embryo quality compared with controls. There was no significant difference in embryo quality between STZ-injected and AKITA diabetic mice.CONCLUSIONThese results suggest that T1D affects folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and embryo development in mice. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the observed reproductive effects of diabetes need to be further investigated.
PURPOSEAlzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, with a rising prevalence worldwide. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play important roles in the development and treatment of AD. However, the exact role of lncRNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) in neuronal damage in AD is largely unknown.MATERIALS AND METHODSThe AD model was established in SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells via treatment with amyloid β1-42 (Aβ). The expression of NEAT1 and microRNA-107 (miR-107) was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected by MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. The expression of phosphorylated tau protein (p-Tau) was measured by Western blot. The interaction between NEAT1 and miR-107 was explored by bioinformatics analysis, luciferase activity, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays.RESULTSNEAT1 expression was enhanced in Aβ-treated SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells, and its knockdown attenuated Aβ-induced inhibition of viability and promotion of apoptosis and p-Tau levels. NEAT1 was indicated as a decoy of miR-107. miR-107 abundance was reduced in Aβ-treated cells, and its overexpression reversed Aβ-induced injury. Moreover, interference of miR-107 abated silencing of NEAT1-mediated inhibition of neuronal damage in Aβ-treated SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells.CONCLUSIONLncRNA NEAT1 aggravated Aβ-induced neuronal damage by sponging miR-107, indicating a novel avenue for treatment of AD.
PURPOSEStatins, metformin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been suggested for treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD) due to their pleiotropic effects. Therefore, we investigated whether these drugs prevent AMD.MATERIALS AND METHODSWe conducted a nested case-control study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Using risk-set sampling of age, sex, cohort entry date, and follow-up duration, we identified incident patients with AMD and 10 matching controls in cohorts with diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. Exposure was assessed within one year before the index date using patient prescription records. We conducted conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between cardiovascular medications and AMD.RESULTSOur study included 2330 cases and 23278 controls from a cohort of 231274 patients. The ORs (95% CI) for AMD occurrence in users prescribed with statins, metformin, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs were 1.12 (0.94-1.32), 1.15 (0.91-1.45), 0.90 (0.61-1.34), and 1.21 (1.05-1.39), respectively. A duration-response was not observed.CONCLUSIONStatins, metformin, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs did not inhibit AMD in elderly patients. The absence of a duration-response supports the lack of a causal relationship.
PURPOSEThis study aimed to determine the prognostic value of new quantitative parameters of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT), including metabolic tumor volume (MTV), in patients with locally advanced and metastatic gallbladder cancer (GBC).MATERIALS AND METHODSIn total, 83 patients initially diagnosed with locally advanced and metastatic GBC and who underwent ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT at the time of initial diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed. The metabolic volume-based PET parameters of primary tumors and metastatic lesions were measured, including maximum and average standardized uptake values (SUV), MTV, and total lesion glycolysis. An overall survival (OS) analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with PET and clinical parameters. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors.RESULTSIn univariate analysis, pathologic differentiation (p<0.001), performance status (PS; p=0.003), C-reactive protein (CRP) level (p=0.009), and PET-related SUVmt max (the highest SUV among the metastatic lesions) (p=0.040) and MTVtotal (the sum of the MTVs of both the primary and metastatic lesions) (p=0.031), were significant for OS. In multivariate analysis, MTVtotal (hazard ratio: 2.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.23-3.48; p=0.006) remained significant for the prediction of OS, as did differentiation (p=0.001), PS (p=0.001), and CRP (p=0.039).CONCLUSIONIn locally advanced and metastatic GBC, volume-based PET/CT parameters of the total tumor burden of malignancy, such as MTVtotal, were found to be useful for the identification of patients with poor prognosis.
PURPOSEFamily with sequence similarity 83 member H (FAM83H) plays key roles in tumorigenesis. However, the specific roles of FAM83H in cervical cancer (CC) have not been well studied.MATERIALS AND METHODSThe RNA-seq data of 306 CC tissues and three normal samples downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used to analyze the expression of FAM83H. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw survival curves. Associations between FAM83H expression and clinicopathological factors were analyzed by chi-square test. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze prognostic factors. Loss-of-function assays were conducted to discover the biological functions of FAM83H in cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion, and migration. Real-time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to measure the expression levels of FAM83H in CC cell lines.RESULTSOur results demonstrated that FAM83H is overexpressed in CC tissues and that high FAM83H expression is associated with worse overall survival (OS). High FAM83H expression in CC was associated with clinical stage, pathologic tumor, and pathologic node. Univariate analysis suggested that FAM83H expression was significantly related to the OS of CC patients. Although multivariate analysis showed that FAM83H expression was not an independent prognostic factor for the OS of CC patients, the effects of FAM83H on CC cell growth and motility was significant. Loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that knockdown of FAM83H inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of CC cells by inactivating PI3K/AKT pathway.CONCLUSIONFAM83H might play a crucial role in CC progression and could act as a novel therapeutic target in CC.