Lipoinjection is a promising treatment but has some problems, such as unpredictability and a low rate of graft survival due to partial necrosis.To overcome the problems with lipoinjection, the authors developed a novel strategy known as cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL). In CAL, autologous adipose-derived stem (stromal) cells (ASCs) are used in combination with lipoinjection. A stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing ASCs is freshly isolated from half of the aspirated fat and recombined with the other half. This process converts relatively ASC-poor aspirated fat to ASC-rich fat. This report presents the findings for 40 patients who underwent CAL for cosmetic breast augmentation.Final breast volume showed augmentation by 100 to 200 ml after a mean fat amount of 270 ml was injected. Postoperative atrophy of injected fat was minimal and did not change substantially after 2 months. Cyst formation or microcalcification was detected in four patients. Almost all the patients were satisfied with the soft and natural-appearing augmentation.The preliminary results suggest that CAL is effective and safe for soft tissue augmentation and superior to conventional lipoinjection. Additional study is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this technique further.
In 2004, the authors reported their findings with placement of tissue expanders for breast reconstruction in the partial submuscular position, the equivalent of the “dual-plane” technique for breast augmentation. Limitations with subpectoral expander placement include difficulty controlling the lower pole of the pocket during expansion, unprotected device coverage by a thin inferior mastectomy flap, possible effacement of the inframammary fold, and limited control over the superior migration of the pectoralis major muscle. This study aimed to examine the safety and efficacy of an acellular dermal sling in providing inferolateral support to the device during immediate breast reconstruction and expansion.This study prospectively investigated 58 breasts of 43 consecutive women who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with tissue expanders and acellular dermis. After completion of adjuvant therapy and expansion, the devices were exchanged for implants. The patients were tracked through January, 2007. The study parameters included demographic information, oncologic data, complications, and aesthetic outcomes.The mean time required to complete reconstruction was 8.6 months. The overall complication rate after expander/acellular dermis placement was 12%, whereas the complication rate after exchange to implants was 2.2%. The aesthetic outcome for reconstructed breasts did not differ significantly from that for the control subjects who had no surgery.Acellular dermis appears to be a useful adjunct in immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction. Acellular dermis-assisted breast reconstruction has a low complication rate, helps to reconstruct an aesthetically pleasing breast, and facilitates expeditious completion of the reconstruction.
In principle, to achieve the most natural and harmonious rejuvenation of the face, all changes that result from the aging process should be corrected. Traditionally, soft tissue lifting and redraping have constituted the cornerstone of most facial rejuvenation procedures. Changes in the facial skeleton that occur with aging and their impact on facial appearance have not been well appreciated. Accordingly, failure to address changes in the skeletal foundation of the face may limit the potential benefit of any rejuvenation procedure. Correction of the skeletal framework is increasingly viewed as the new frontier in facial rejuvenation. It currently is clear that certain areas of the facial skeleton undergo resorption with aging. Areas with a strong predisposition to resorption include the midface skeleton, particularly the maxilla including the pyriform region of the nose, the superomedial and inferolateral aspects of the orbital rim, and the prejowl area of the mandible. These areas resorb in a specific and predictable manner with aging. The resultant deficiencies of the skeletal foundation contribute to the stigmata of the aging face. In patients with a congenitally weak skeletal structure, the skeleton may be the primary cause for the manifestations of premature aging. These areas should be specifically examined in patients undergoing facial rejuvenation and addressed to obtain superior aesthetic results.This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
The aims of our study were to identify studies that evaluated patient satisfaction after transsexual surgery, analyze existing questionnaires, and summarize their development, psychometric properties, and content. A systematic review of the English-language literature was performed. Patient-reported outcome measures designed to assess patient satisfaction and quality of life following transsexual surgery were identified. Qualifying instruments were assessed for content and adherence to international guidelines for development and validation. From 796 articles, 19 studies had sufficient data and met the inclusion criteria. Included were a total of 2299 patients and 17 patient-reported outcome measures: 10 generic instruments that assessed quality of life, 4 specific for female genital or sexual satisfaction, 2 specific for transsexual body image or gender dysphoria, and 1 specific for plastic surgery. The questionnaires were analyzed by reviewers to assess the adherence to the rules of the US FDA and the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust. We identified 17 individual questionnaires that were included. All measures were limited by either their development, their validation, or their content. There is a need for a new self-assessment tool, which should include functional, psychorelational, and cosmetic components, to measure satisfaction and quality of life of patients who have undergone transsexual surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Dermal fillers have been increasingly used in minimally invasive facial esthetic procedures. This widespread use has led to a rise in reports of associated complications. The aim of this expert consensus report is to describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide guidance on their treatment and avoidance.A multidisciplinary group of experts in esthetic treatments convened to discuss the management of the complications associated with dermal fillers use. A search was performed for English, French, and Spanish language articles in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms “complications” OR “soft filler complications” OR “injectable complications” AND “dermal fillers” AND “Therapy”. An initial document was drafted by the Coordinating Committee, and it was reviewed and modified by the experts, until a final text was agreed upon and validated.The panel addressed consensus recommendations about the classification of filler complications according to the time of onset and about the clinical management of different complications including bruising, swelling, edema, infections, lumps and bumps, skin discoloration, and biofilm formation. Special attention was paid to vascular compromise and retinal artery occlusion.Clinicians should be fully aware of the signs and symptoms related to complications and be prepared to confidently treat them. Establishing action protocols for emergencies, with agents readily available in the office, would reduce the severity of adverse outcomes associated with injection of hyaluronic acid fillers in the cosmetic setting. This document seeks to lay down a set of recommendations and to identify key issues that may be useful for clinicians who are starting to use dermal fillers. Additionally, this document provides a better understanding about the diagnoses and management of complications if they do occur.This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
This study compares the incidence of local and regional recurrence of breast cancer between two contiguous time windows in a homogeneous population of 137 patients who underwent fat tissue transplant after modified radical mastectomy. Median follow-up time was 7.6 years and the follow-up period was divided into two contiguous time windows, the first starting at the date of the radical mastectomy and ending at the first lipoaspirate grafting session and the second beginning at the time of the first lipoaspirate grafting session and ending at the end of the total follow-up time. Although this study did not employ an independent control group, the incidence of local recurrence of breast cancer was found to be comparable between the two periods and in line with data from similar patient populations enrolled in large multicenter clinical trials and who did not undergo postsurgical fat tissue grafting. Statistical comparison of disease-free survival curves revealed no significant differences in relapse rate between the two patient subgroups before fat grafting and after fat grafting. Although further confirmation is needed from multicenter randomized clinical trials, our results support the hypothesis that autologous lipoaspirate transplant combines striking regenerative properties with no or marginal effects on the probability of post-mastectomy locoregional recurrence of breast cancer.
From a total of 281 patients with protruding ears who underwent a bilateral otoplasty between 1990 and 2001, a group of 28 (10%) was selected for a retrospective quality control study. The goal was to compare two methods of otoplasty, the Francesconi, a cartilage-sparing technique, and the Converse, a cartilage-cutting technique, in terms of objectively measurable and subjectively discernable differences in results. Objective parameters included measurement of the three cephaloauricular distances and the conchoscapal angle. An independent plastic surgeon performed the evaluation by means of a systematic evaluation system for rating cosmetic surgical procedures and a 5-point visual analog scale for rating satisfaction. The patients’ subjective rate of satisfaction also was investigated using the 5-point scale. The mean medial and inferior cephaloauricular distances were significantly smaller in the Francesconi group. The concoscaphal angle was 90°, or less in all the patients of the Francesconi group, but more than 90° in eight patients (57%) of the Converse group (p = 0.041). Accordingly, the independent surgeon found adequate correction of protrusion in 86% of the Francesconi group and 50% of the Converse group (p = 0.050). His satisfaction rate was significantly in favor of the Francesconi technique (p = 0.006). Not unexpectedly, the patients’ satisfaction rate was comparably high in both groups, and there was no statistical difference between them. In conclusion, the quality control led to a clear preference of the Francesconi over the Converse otoplasty. In addition, the assessment of the postoperative results with the systematic evaluation system offered an excellent information base by which to judge the results of otoplasty. Consequent use of this evaluation system will lead to progress in the surgical procedure.
Over the last 30 years there has been interest in the use of autologous fat transplantation for breast reconstructive and cosmetic purposes. Up until now injection of adipose tissue into the breast has been subject to two limiting factors. First, fat injection into the breast could result in fat necrosis, cyst formation, and indurations that could be mistaken as cancerous calcifications. Second, the degree of reabsorption of the injected adipose tissue is unpredictable. Patients included in the study were candidates for either breast reconstruction after tumor resection or breast augmentation and were divided into three groups. Group I included patients with asymmetry after mastectomy and breast reconstruction; Group II consisted of patients with congenital breast asymmetry; and Group III included patients requesting bilateral breast augmentation. All patients signed a consent form acknowledging potential complications of infiltrating fat into the breast. A total of 820 consecutive female patients were operated on between 1983 and 2007. The age distribution of the patients ranged from 19 to 78 years, with a mean of 45.6 years. There were 381 patients in Group I, 54 in Group II, and 385 in Group III. Complications included ecchymosis in 76 patients, striae in 36 patients, 12 hematomas, and 5 infections. Long-term breast asymmetry was observed in 34 cases. Six hundred seventy patients have undergone mammography and ultrasonography 6 months and 1 year after their first intervention under our care. The majority of complications resulting from lipofilling of the breast have been seen in this series during the first 6 months after each session. Breast lesions, including calcifications, cysts, and cancer, that are not apparent in the first year after the final procedure of lipofilling we believe may not be directly associated with the autologous fat grafting to the breast. This has been confirmed by the long-term follow-up of 230 patients (range = 2-25 years, mean = 11.3 years) who have been followed up yearly with mammographic examination. In the last 25 years the results of autologous fat transplantation have been predictable and satisfying on the condition that the treatment is performed in stages with small quantities of adipose tissue fat injected in each treatment session. To prevent major complications the final expected result should not be the aim of a single procedure. Mammary lipografting is a procedure that can be offered to patients for breast reconstructive and cosmetic purposes.
First described in 1997, breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) was recognised by the World Health Organisation in 2016 as a specific disease. It typically presents as a late seroma-containing atypical, monoclonal T cells which are CD30+ and anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative. Until recently, it was thought that the disease was very rare. However, it is being diagnosed increasingly frequently with 56 cases confirmed in Australia by September 2017 and the estimated incidence revised from 1 in 300,000 to between 1 in 1000 and 1 in 10,000 patients with bilateral implants. There is debate about the spectrum of BIA-ALCL. According to the current WHO classification, BIA-ALCL is a cancer in all cases. Treatment guidelines require that it is treated urgently with a minimum of bilateral removal of implants and capsulectomies. Whilst acknowledging the disease has been under diagnosed in the past, with some notable exceptions the BIA-ALCL literature has given scant attention to the epidemiological evidence. Now that it is known that the disease may occur in up to 1 in 1000 patients with a median of 7.5 years from implantation to diagnosis, understanding it in its epidemiological context is imperative. The epidemiology of cancer and lymphoma in women with breast implants strongly suggests that most patients do not have a cancer that will inevitably progress without treatment but instead a self-limiting lympho-proliferative disorder. Although the possibility of spontaneous regression has been raised and the observation made that treatment delay did not seem to increase the risk of spread, the main objection to the lympho-proliferative hypothesis has been the lack of documented cases of spontaneous regression or resolution. Because all cases currently are considered malignant and treated urgently, only case report evidence, interpreted in the proper epidemiological context, is likely to be available to challenge this thinking.New observations and interpretation of the epidemiology of BIA-ALCL are made. These are supported by the presentation of two cases, which to the best of our knowledge comprise the first documented evidence of spontaneous regression and spontaneous resolution of confirmed BIA-ALCL.The epidemiology of the disease strongly suggests that the vast majority of cases are not a cancer that will inevitably progress without treatment. The findings presented in the manuscript provide supportive clinical evidence. Consequently, an alternative view of BIA-ALCL with implications for research, diagnosis and clinical management needs to be considered.This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, affecting one in eight women. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) has become a well-established alternative to mastectomy in the treatment of breast cancer, providing a less invasive treatment. Just as life expectancy after breast cancer has improved, so has morbidity increased. One of the most relevant and debilitating consequences of oncological breast surgery is postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS). Our results published in 2011 on the treatment of PMPS in patients who had undergone mastectomy and radiotherapy and our experience in scar treatment with fat grafts were the theoretical bases for this prospective study.From April 2011 to April 2012 a total of 96 patients, who had undergone lumpectomy and radiation therapy, with the diagnosis of PMPS were considered for fat grafts. We performed autologous fat grafting in 59 patients (study group), whereas 37 patients did not receive any further surgical procedure (control group). Pain assessment was performed using the visual analog scale (VAS) before and after treatment in the treated group and in the control group at the first visit and the control visit, with a mean follow-up of 10 months. Results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test.Four patients were lost to follow-up (two patients in the control group and two patients in the treated group). A significant VAS pain decrease was detected in patients treated with autologous fat grafting (3.1 point reduction, p ≤ 0.005).Because of the safety, efficacy, and optimal tolerability of the procedure, we believe that fat grafting can be considered useful in treating PMPS in patients who have undergone BCS and radiotherapy.For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Despite civilization and progress, burns occur frequently in the world. Remarkable discoveries of wound healing mechanisms have been reported. On the other hand, long-term outcomes from burn injuries represent a barrier to improvement of patients’ social, functional, and psychological condition. Lipofilling, described since the 1980s, currently is used for several clinical applications. This study aimed to verify whether lipofilling could ameliorate scar remodeling in three clinical cases.Three adult patients with hemifacial hypertrophic scars and keloids resulting from severe burns 2 to 13 years previously were selected. The patients were treated by injection of adipose tissue harvested from abdominal subcutaneous fat and processed according to Coleman’s technique. Two injections (with a 13-month interval between) were administered at the dermohypodermal junction. Histologic examination of scar tissue punch biopsies (hematoxylin-eosin staining) before and after the treatment was performed as well as magnetic resonance scan with contrast.The clinical appearance and subjective patient feelings after a 6-month follow-up period suggest considerable improvement in the mimic features, skin texture, and thickness. Histologic examination shows patterns of new collagen deposition, local hypervascularity, and dermal hyperplasia in the context of new tissue, with high correspondence to the original.The preliminary results show that lipofilling improves scar quality and suggest a tissue regeneration enhancing process.
Microvascular anastomosis is the cornerstone of free tissue transfers. Irrespective of the microsurgical technique that one seeks to integrate or improve, the time commitment in the laboratory is significant. After extensive previous training on several animal models, we sought to identify an animal model that circumvents the following issues: ethical rules, cost, time-consuming and expensive anesthesia, and surgical preparation of tissues required to access vessels before performing the microsurgical training, not to mention that laboratories are closed on weekends.Between January 2012 and April 2012, a total of 91 earthworms were used for 150 microsurgical training exercises to simulate vascular end-to-side microanastomosis. The training sessions were divided into ten periods of 7 days. Each training session included 15 simulations of end-to-side vascular microanastomoses: larger than 1.5 mm (n = 5), between 1.0 and 1.5 mm (n = 5), and smaller than 1.0 mm (n = 5). A linear model with the main variables being the number of weeks (as a numerical covariate) and the size of the animal (as a factor) was used to determine the trend in time of anastomosis over subsequent weeks as well as the differences between the different size groups.The linear model shows a significant trend (p < 0.001) in time of anastomosis in the course of the training, as well as significant differences (p < 0.001) between the groups of animals of different sizes. For microanastomoses larger than 1.5 mm, the mean anastomosis time decreased from 19.3 ± 1.0 to 11.1 ± 0.4 min between the first and last week of training (decrease of 42.5 %). For training with smaller diameters, the results showed a decrease in execution time of 43.2 % (diameter between 1.0 and 1.5 mm) and 40.9 % (diameter <1.0 mm) between the first and last periods. The study demonstrates an improvement in the dexterity and speed of nodes execution.The earthworm appears to be a reliable experimental model for microsurgical training of end-to-side microanastomoses. Its numerous advantages are discussed here and we predict training on earthworms will significantly grow and develop in the near future.This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Patients interested in aesthetic plastic surgery procedures increasingly seek advice on social media and rely on easily accessible online information. The investigatory goal was to determine the impact of this phenomenon on the everyday aesthetic plastic surgery practice. Five hundred consecutive patients completed a questionnaire prior to their consultation with a plastic surgeon at our clinic. A questionnaire was also completed by 128 plastic surgeons practising in 19 different countries. A literature review was performed. Almost all patients (95 %) used the internet to collect information prior to consultation, for 68 % of them it being their first search method. Social media were used by 46 % of patients and 40 % of these were strongly influenced when choosing a specific doctor. The majority of plastic surgeons (85 %) thought the information found on social media could lead to unrealistic expectations. However, 45 % of plastic surgeons believed that their consultations became easier after the advent of social media, 29 % found them more difficult. A literature review showed a high percentage of poor quality internet websites regarding plastic surgery and an increase in use of social media among plastic surgeons. The internet and social media play an important and growing role in plastic surgery. This results in more informed patients but may create unrealistic expectations. Even if the internet provides ample information, it cannot replace the face-to-face consultation, which always should remain a detailed process, covering both risks and limitations of alternative procedures. Available literature on how social media influences the medical practice is still scarce and further research is needed. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Fat grafting to the aging face has become an integral component of esthetic surgery. However, the amount of fat to inject to each area of the face is not standardized and has been based mainly on the surgeon’s experience. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of injected fat volume to different facial zones.A systematic review of the literature was performed through a MEDLINE search using keywords “facial,” “fat grafting,” “lipofilling,” “Coleman technique,” “autologous fat transfer,” and “structural fat grafting.” Articles were then sorted by facial subunit and analyzed for: author(s), year of publication, study design, sample size, donor site, fat preparation technique, average and range of volume injected, time to follow-up, percentage of volume retention, and complications. Descriptive statistics were performed.Nineteen articles involving a total of 510 patients were included. Rhytidectomy was the most common procedure performed concurrently with fat injection. The mean volume of fat injected to the forehead is 6.5 mL (range 4.0–10.0 mL); to the glabellar region 1.4 mL (range 1.0–4.0 mL); to the temple 5.9 mL per side (range 2.0–10.0 mL); to the eyebrow 5.5 mL per side; to the upper eyelid 1.7 mL per side (range 1.5–2.5 mL); to the tear trough 0.65 mL per side (range 0.3–1.0 mL); to the infraorbital area (infraorbital rim to lower lid/cheek junction) 1.4 mL per side (range 0.9–3.0 mL); to the midface 1.4 mL per side (range 1.0–4.0 mL); to the nasolabial fold 2.8 mL per side (range 1.0–7.5 mL); to the mandibular area 11.5 mL per side (range 4.0–27.0 mL); and to the chin 6.7 mL (range 1.0–20.0 mL).Data on exactly how much fat to inject to each area of the face in facial fat grafting are currently limited and vary widely based on different methods and anatomical terms used. This review offers the ranges and the averages for the injected volume in each zone. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
In November 2006, the FDA approved the Premarket Approval PMA applications for the round, cohesive, silicone gel-filled breast implants of Mentor (MemoryGel) and Allergan. Since that time, the devices have been widely available to plastic surgeons and their use is rapidly eclipsing that of the saline breast implants. Patients in the Core clinical studies supporting these approvals continue to be followed through for 10 years, with comprehensive annual patient and physician-reported evaluations of safety and efficacy. One thousand and eight (1,008) female patients had data collected on 1,898 implants, and were enrolled at 48 sites. Key complication rates were recorded with Kaplan-Meier estimated cumulative incidence calculation for each. Rupture rate, suspected and confirmed, for primary augmentation was 1.1% (95% CI, 0.3-4.3), and that for primary reconstruction patients was 3.8% (95% CI, 1.4-9.8). Capsular contracture rates for clinically significant Baker III/IV contracture for primary augmentation was 9.8% (95% C I, 7.6-12.7), and that for primary reconstruction was 13.7% (95% CI, 9.7-19.1). The reoperation incidence for primary augmentation and primary reconstruction was 19.4 and 33.9%, respectively, with explantation and replacement with a study device in 3.9% of primary augmentations and 10.4% of primary reconstructions. Mentor MemoryGel Silicone Breast implants represent a safe and effective choice for women seeking breast augmentation or breast reconstruction following mastectomy.
With adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) at the forefront of research and potential clinical applications, it is important that clinicians be able to distinguish them from the fat grafting currently used clinically and to understand how the two approaches relate to one another. At times, there has been confusion in clinically considering the two therapies to be the same. This report is aimed at distinguishing clearly between fat grafting and ASC therapy with regard to the indications, harvesting, processing, application techniques, outcomes, and complications. Findings have shown that autologous fat transfer, a widely used procedure for soft tissue augmentation, is beneficial for reconstructive and cosmetic procedures used to treat patients with volume loss due to disease, trauma, congenital defects, or the natural process of aging. On the other hand, ASCs have been identified as an ideal source of cells for regenerative medicine, with the potential to serve as soft tissue therapy for irradiated, scarred, or chronic wounds. Recent advances in tissue engineering suggest that the supplementation of fat grafts with ASCs isolated in the stromal vascular fraction may increase the longevity and quality of the fat graft. Research suggests that ASC supplementation may be a great clinical tool in the future, but more data should be acquired before clinical applications.
Asians increasingly seek non-surgical facial esthetic treatments, especially at younger ages. Published recommendations and clinical evidence mostly reference Western populations, but Asians differ from them in terms of attitudes to beauty, structural facial anatomy, and signs and rates of aging. A thorough knowledge of the key esthetic concerns and requirements for the Asian face is required to strategize appropriate facial esthetic treatments with botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers.The Asian Facial Aesthetics Expert Consensus Group met to develop consensus statements on concepts of facial beauty, key esthetic concerns, facial anatomy, and aging in Southeastern and Eastern Asians, as a prelude to developing consensus opinions on the cosmetic facial use of botulinum toxin and HA fillers in these populations.Beautiful and esthetically attractive people of all races share similarities in appearance while retaining distinct ethnic features. Asians between the third and sixth decades age well compared with age-matched Caucasians. Younger Asians’ increasing requests for injectable treatments to improve facial shape and three-dimensionality often reflect a desire to correct underlying facial structural deficiencies or weaknesses that detract from ideals of facial beauty.Facial esthetic treatments in Asians are not aimed at Westernization, but rather the optimization of intrinsic Asian ethnic features, or correction of specific underlying structural features that are perceived as deficiencies. Thus, overall facial attractiveness is enhanced while retaining esthetic characteristics of Asian ethnicity. Because Asian patients age differently than Western patients, different management and treatment planning strategies are utilized.This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Seromas represent the most frequent complication following immediate breast reconstruction surgery, in particular when acellular dermal matrix or synthetic meshes are used to add coverage to implants. Little information regarding breast seroma management is available in the literature. When seroma becomes clinically significant, current methods for its management consist of repeated needle aspiration. We report a fast, efficient, easy and riskless technique to perform serum aspiration in patients who underwent breast reconstruction with a tissue expander that allows simultaneous drainage and expansion of the implant at once. This procedure is safe, painless, does not need special supplies or additional costs and can be easily performed in ambulatory setting to manage breast seromas. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
The role of active scar prevention in postoperative scar management is important. Botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) has been shown to improve postoperative scars in the past decades. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of BTXA injection for scar prevention.The authors searched the databases of Medicine, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CINAHL from inception through November 2018 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the use of BTXA in scar prevention. The outcomes were the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Vancouver Scar Scale score, scar width, patient satisfaction and adverse events.A total of nine RCTs were identified in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The VAS score was significantly higher in the BTXA group than in the control group (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06–1.58, P < 0.00001). The Vancouver Scar Scale score was significantly lower in the BTXA group (WMD = − 1.25, 95% CI = − 2.23 to − 0.26, P = 0.01). The scar width was also significantly smaller in the BTXA group (WMD = − 0.18, 95% CI = − 0.24 to − 0.12, P < 0.00001). There was a significant difference in terms of patient satisfaction between the BTXA group and the control group (relative risk (RR) = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09–1.74, P = 0.007). Only two studies reported complications, and other studies reported no complications during the follow-up period.This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that BTXA injection can reduce scar width in wounds and improve the overall appearance of postoperative scars and suggests that BTXA may be a safety therapy for scar prevention. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
This study aims to make a bibliometric analysis of the studies on breast reduction (BR) between the years 1980 and 2016 and identify important studies through trend topics as well as active authors, countries, universities, scientific journals, and citation and co-citation analyses about BR.Although BR looks like one of the cosmetic surgeries performed in order to restore the woman’s appearance, in fact it is a reconstructive surgery that eliminates back pain, stance disorder, headache, shoulder pain, back and cervical disk hernia, difficulty in breathing, hollowness caused by bra straps, hygiene problems under breasts (e.g., rash or fungal infections), and limitations in some daily activities. However, the related literature has little information about the publications on this issue.Bibliometric analysis was performed by downloading all the documents published between 1980 and 2016 from Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS; Thomson Reuters, New York, NY, USA), using the keywords including “breast reduction”, “gigantomastia”, “reduction mammaplasty”, and “reduction mammoplasty”.There was a total of 1427 publications in the WoS database. Of these publications, 869 (60.90%) were research articles. The top three research areas of these publications were surgery with 1178 (82.55%) publications, oncology with 78 (5.47%) publications, and obstetrics gynecology with 67 (4.70%) publications. The top three countries that contributed to the literature most were the USA (515), England (147), and Turkey (83), respectively; the top university that contributed most was Harvard University, and the top two authors who contributed most were Drew PJ and Iwuagwu OC (13; 0.91%). The top-cited publication was “A Simplified Vertical Reduction Mammaplasty: Shortening the Learning Curve” written by Hall-Findlay, EJ in 1999. The journals with top numbers of publications were Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (483; 33.85%), Annals of Plastic Surgery (164; 11.50%) and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (147; 10.30%) respectively.Despite the fact that the BR literature is contributed by developed countries, developing countries, particularly Turkey and Brazil, also had significant contributions to the literature.This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.