The conjecture is put forward that a better understanding of resilience may be reached by decomposing it into a number of ancillary constituent properties, in the same way as a better insight into system dependability was obtained by breaking it down into safety, availability, reliability, and other sub-properties. Three of the main sub-properties of resilience proposed here refer respectively to the ability to perceive environmental changes; to understand the implications introduced by those changes; and to plan and enact adjustments intended to improve the system-environment fit. A fourth property characterizes the way the above abilities manifest themselves in computer systems. The four properties are then analyzed in three families of case studies, each consisting of three software systems that embed different resilience methods. Our major conclusion is that reasoning in terms of our resilience sub-properties may help reveal the characteristics and, in particular, the limitations of classic methods and tools meant to achieve system and organizational resilience. It is suggested that this method may be a prelude to meta-resilient systems, which are able to adjust optimally their own resilience with respect to changing environmental conditions.
To flexibly adjust behaviour to that of other people around us requires some representation of their overt actions, but also of the driving forces behind them, that is, their goals, intentions, and emotions. Socio-affective and -cognitive functions enable such representations via creating vicarious affective states in the observer (empathy) or by accumulating abstract, propositional knowledge of another person's mental state (Theory of Mind). While the empathic sharing of another's emotions is implemented by those neural networks that also process first-hand emotion, Theory of Mind activates a widespread network that seems to process information independent of its specific modality or content. Crucially, these two routes can function independently as individual differences in the respective capacities and network activations are unrelated and selective impairments in one or the other function occur in psychopathology. However, they may co-activate and co-operate in complex social situations, determining how prosocially interactive behaviour unfolds.
Kicking in soccer has been the subject of scientific research for more than 40 years yet review articles summarizing the biomechanical fundamentals of kick optimization as a guide to coaching are scarcely to be found. The current review article aims to bridge the gap between scientific research into the maximal instep kick (including studies employing 3D motion capture and full-body biomechanical modelling) and the application of such research in coaching. It does so by supplying a scientifically founded, coaching-friendly article explaining identifiable characteristics and motor control sequencing that define this skill. Relevant biomechanical factors are identified in a way that should help coaches better develop training programmes and, at the same time, foster better understanding of the skill among athletes. Such information will contribute to both accelerated skill acquisition and, by concomitant gains in skill efficiency, the development of programmes that minimize risk of injury to athletes during training.
The publication gender gap in science has been extensively studied. Although women have been found to be less productive than men, little is known about the reasons behind gender differences. Unique longitudinal data collected by surveying a large sample of French physicists gave us the opportunity to investigate the role of family characteristics over time. Using panel data econometrics, we confirm the existence of an average gender gap of about two-thirds of a journal article per year, and about one-third when taking into account several important control variables such as age and career characteristics. We find that female scientists suffer an average productivity loss of about one article when they have a young child, while male scientists suffer an insignificant loss. We also find that female scientists benefit from having large families, with a productivity gain of 0.63 articles per year per child.
Results of two C-Change surveys of 4997 faculty and staff in medical and social sciences are analysed quantitatively and qualitatively and presented with illustrative quotations giving voice to critical personal perceptions of the culture and efforts to improve it. The C-Change survey included 12 dimensions of the culture: Vitality; Self-Efficacy in Career Advancement; Institutional Support; Relationships/Inclusion/Trust; Values Alignment; Ethical/Moral Distress; Leadership Aspirations; Work-Life Integration; Gender Equity; Black and Minority Ethnic Equity; Institutional Change Efforts for Diversity; Institutional Change Efforts for Faculty Support. Women were less positive than men on six dimensions in medical and ten dimensions in social sciences, suggesting that women's experiences are different to those of men. Both women and men were more positive about the culture in medical than social sciences. A more positive culture in medical sciences is attributed to the wide-spread implementation of Athena SWAN gender equality action plans linked to the NIHR funding incentives.
This article provides an overview of the theoretical assumptions, methods, and key results from the Evaluation Framework for Promoting Gender Equality in Research and Innovation (EFFORTI) project, which was funded by the European Commission. The purpose of EFFORTI was to analyse the impact of interventions to promote gender equality in research and innovation (R&I), and to establish criteria for more responsible and responsive research and innovation (RRI) systems in Europe. This article provides an overview of the project's main results and the lessons learnt from the empirical analysis of R&I systems in several European countries and a comparison of 19 gender equality intervention measures.
Reference Man is used for generic evaluation of ionizing radiation impacts, regulation, and nuclear licensing decisions made by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). The United States Code of Federal Regulations, 2018 edition, Chapter 10: Part 20 'Standards for Protection Against Radiation' contains eight references to 'reference man' as the basis for regulation and calculation of radiation exposure. The document was accessed January 9, 2019 ( https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2018-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2018-title10-vol1-part20.pdf ). Findings from 60 years of A-bomb survivor data show that Reference Man does not represent the human life cycle with respect to harm from radiation exposure. Findings reported here show females are more harmed by radiation, particularly when exposed as young girls, than is predicted by use of Reference Man; the difference is a much as 10-fold. Since females have been ignored in regulatory analysis, this has resulted in systematic under-reporting of harm from ionizing radiation exposure in the global population. A critique is also offered on the US Environmental Protection Agency's attempt to include females in its regulation. Recommendations for interim regulation to provide better protection, and questions for further study are offered.
It is widely acknowledged that there is an underrepresentation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). Science Foundation Ireland, the largest funder of STEM research in Ireland, has been developing initiatives to remove and mitigate any existing or perceived factors that may limit the participation of women in STEM careers. In this paper, we present a review of gender initiatives across our funding programmes since 2011 and highlight those that are supporting a stronger representation of women in STEM. Overall, we have seen an increase in female award holders from 21% in 2015, to 26% in 2017. In 2015, a gender initiative was introduced into SFI's Starting Investigator Research Grant Programme, which led to a 22 percentage point increase in female award holders compared to the 2013 call, when no gender initiative was in place. Science Foundation Ireland will continue to monitor the impacts of these actions, and to innovate and contribute to international best practice.
Engaging with the analytical categories of sex and gender in environmental health studies remains challenging in practice but promising with regards to research excellence and scientific benefit. The German Environment Agency reports on two case studies navigating this complex interaction in the fields of health risk assessment of environmental stressors and human biomonitoring studies. It is apparent that the levels of integration of the sex/gender theories and sex/gender data are differently advanced in research. In some areas the collection of sex-disaggregated data has just begun, whereas in others research started engaging with newer gender theories such as embodiment or intersectionality. The practical applications and obstacles in incorporating sex and gender dimensions into environmental health studies are presented and discussed.
This review addresses how women and men are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles. Injury statistics show that protection in the event of a crash is lower for females than males. Still, vehicle crash safety assessment for adult occupants is only using the average sized male to represent the entire adult population, while the average sized female is not represented. In order to enable car manufacturers and road safety regulators to safeguard that females benefit equally from crash safety measures as males, it is necessary to develop new dedicated occupant models. These new models must represent the female part of the population, i.e. crash test dummies and human body models representing the average female. New female models would, together with their male equivalents, make it possible to identify the vehicle occupant safety systems which provide the best safety features for both females and males.
This paper addresses the idea of having 'information experiences' in our information society, a concept that prevails in the business world but is under-explored in the sociological study of information. From the literature, I identify the three theoretical approaches to these experiences as simulated, personalized and epistemological, and adopt an interpretivist approach to explore how recent trends manifest. Simulated experience is closely related to 'virtuality', a concept developed in the early days of the internet, while personalized experience arises out of participation in social websites. Centring on the third, I use data from Yam's case studies on Wikipedia and further propose three factors that sustain the discursive environment of epistemological experience.
In this article, I look back over four decades of my career as a professional anthropologist, starting with an orientation that was heavily weighted towards the natural sciences, and ending in a project that seeks to integrate anthropology with the practices of art, architecture and design. This was also a period during which science increasingly lost its ecological bearings, while the arts increasingly gained them. Tracing the journey in my own teaching and research, I show how the literary reference points changed, from foundational texts in human and animal ecology, now largely forgotten, through attempts to marry the social and the ecological inspired by the Marxian revival, to contemporary writing on post-humanism and the conditions of the Anthropocene. For me this has been an Odyssey - a journey home - to the kind of science imbibed in childhood, as the son of a prominent mycologist. This was a science grounded in tacit wonder at the exquisite beauty of the natural world, and in silent gratitude for what we owe to this world for our existence. Today's science, however, has turned wonder and gratitude into commodities. They no longer guide its practices, but are rather invoked to advertise its results. The goals of science are modelling, prediction and control. Is that why, more and more, we turn to art to rediscover the humility that science has lost?
Empathy is usually seen as a prosocial and morally positive influence on behaviour. This article provides an overview of cases of negative acts motivated by empathy. It includes discussions of polarizations that are fueled by side-taking and empathy, selfish forms of empathy (such as sadistic empathy, vampirism, and helicopter parenting), and filtered empathy (using identification with a third person as a medium to have empathy with another). The definition of empathy used is to co-experience the situation of another.
Probably no other philosopher described the encounter with the other (human being) in a more radical way than Emmanuel Levinas. This led him to a new interpretation of responsibility as origin of all our ethical obligations towards others. He put into question a philosophical tradition of thought he accused of taking the ego as sole origin of all foundation of meaning. In this paper, I begin by outlining Levinas' criticism of the occidental tradition of thought to explain the place of the other in his writings. I go on to explicate Levinas' peculiar understanding of responsibility for the other'. I will show how important it is in Levinas' work not to isolate the question of responsibility from the question of justice. Finally, I examine what other capabilities would be required in order to act in a responsible and just way.
To share an us-feeling means to acknowledge one another. Can we share such a feeling with an extreme form of the other, for instance with a digital machine? The answer that is given in this article is no'. Relevant tests like the Turing Test are based on a third-person perspective, whereas a second-person perspective would be needed.
First produced in 1999, Complicite's Mnemonic is one of the best examples of plays to use the potential of the stage to convey complex scientific ideas. Complicite's creative utilization of dramaturgical strategies and theatrical techniques enables the company to artistically enact the complex mechanism of simulation and connection on which the act of remembrance is based. However, performativity is not the only means by which Complicite transfers science from the laboratory to stage. The complex science behind the act of remembrance is also enacted on the stage via the play's narrative structure and the internationalism that it advocates. The present study provides an in-depth analysis of the ways in which science is presented in the play, by detecting and discussing the mnemonic devices that not only hold the play's narrative elements together but also expand the proscenium arch to involve the audience, via shared images of exile, immigration, and displacement.