Purpose - This paper aims to examine how organizational culture, structure and technology infrastructure influence knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach - This study is based on quantitative research, administered on 90 managerial staff in multinational corporations (MNCs) based in Malaysia. Findings - The paper explains the role of organizational cultural and structure on knowledge-sharing processes in MNCs, with the moderating effect of technology infrastructure. Learning and development, top management support and centralization are positively related to knowledge sharing, using technology infrastructure as a moderator. Research limitations/implications - The findings will help MNCs to create an appropriate environment of knowledge sharing. However, the research is limited to MNC's in Penang, Malaysia, only. Furthermore, similar research can be extended to MNCs in other Asian countries with a larger sample which may bring more statistical power and, thereby, increases generalizability. Practical implications - The outcome of this research provides useful indications of how organizations can work to ensure knowledge sharing within their work place. Originality/value - While the links between organizational culture and knowledge sharing and between organizational structure and knowledge sharing have been examined independently, few studies have investigated the association between the three concepts. This paper examines the nature of this relationship and presents empirical evidence, which suggests that the relationship between organizational culture, organizational structure and knowledge sharing is moderated by the technology infrastructure.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a structured literature review on knowledge management (KM) and KM strategy in environmental sustainability practices of logistics service providers. The paper highlights the nature and scope of existing research and identifies areas for future research. Design/methodology/approach – The study consists of a systematic review of existing research regarding KM in sustainable logistics. In all, 38 refereed research papers formed the basis of analysis. This methodology allows for the minimization of researcher bias and the maximization of reliability and replicability. Findings – The literature review made possible the identification of three basic elements through which building-up appropriate KM approaches and KM strategies in the area of environmental sustainability by third-party logistics service companies will be enhanced: customer relationship management, quality of human resources and the adoption of information and communication technology tools and systems. Research limitations/implications – This study may not have enabled a complete coverage of all articles in the field of KM in the context of environmental sustainability practices of logistics service companies. Yet, it seems reasonable to assume that the review process covered a large share of studies available. The main research implications deriving from the study concern research methods, analysis of factors hampering/supporting the implementation of KM in practices related to environmental sustainability, development of measures to demonstrate the impact of KM on sustainability practices and role of different stakeholders in the implementation of KM in environmental sustainability practices. Originality/value – To the best of the authors ' knowledge, no systematic literature review on this topic has previously been published in academic journals.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors (trust, formalization, knowledge technology, empowering leadership, effective reward systems and motivation) that influence knowledge sharing among the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia, in order to meet the challenges of today's dynamic business environment.Design methodology approach - Systematic sampling was used to select 680 manufacturing sector participants from the SME Corporation Malaysia business directory to participate in the survey, out of which 250 valid responses were returned, yielding a response rate of 36.75 percent. Factor analysis and reliability analysis were conducted before testing the seven hypotheses formulated for this study using regression analysis.Findings - The results indicate that knowledge technology, motivation, effective reward systems, trust and empowering leadership explain up to 60.2 percent of the variance observed in attitude towards knowledge sharing. It was also found that attitude towards knowledge sharing influences intention to share knowledge with an R2 of 0.387.Research limitations implications - The sample for this study is based on manufacturing sector SMEs only and it is suggested that future studies enlarge the scope to include the SMEs in the service sector.Practical implications - In order to encourage knowledge sharing within SMEs, firms need to ensure that both the technical (knowledge technology) and social (motivation, effective reward systems, trust and empowering leadership) elements are addressed. Hence, a socio-technical approach needs to be adopted to ensure the effectiveness of the knowledge management strategies formulated by SMEs.Originality value - This study highlights the importance of six factors in encouraging knowledge sharing intentions in SMEs operating within the manufacturing sector and confirms that knowledge technology, which encompasses a range of information and communication technologies does play a pivotal role vis-à-vis ensuring that SMEs have favorable attitudes towards knowledge sharing for their sustained competitive advantage.
Purpose This paper aims to explore knowledge management (KM) practices implemented by third-party logistics service companies (3PLs) and the main barriers slowing down the adoption of such practices. Design/methodology/approach The methodological approach used in this paper is based on a multiple case study analysis involving a set of 3PLs operating in Italy and Sweden. The empirical analysis has explored the KM practices used by 3PLs and the main barrier hindering their adoption. Findings In spite of some adoption, the findings suggest that 3PLs are not sufficiently realizing the full potential of KM. The evidence also indicates that there is a link between the type of 3PL company (in terms of the breadth and complexity of the services supplied) and the sophistication of KM tools adopted. Research limitations/implications From a research point of view, further research should focus on the validation of the link between the number and sophistication of KM tools used and the breadth of services supplied. Further research should also focus on exploring how KM can support 3PL companies in enhancing their performance. Practical implications From a practical point of view, the findings may help the management of 3PL companies to take a more strategic approach to KM and thus its contribution to the firms’ overall goals. Additionally, it is critical to conduct a careful analysis of current and future KM needs to identify the most suitable KM solutions linked to the specific characteristics of the business in which 3PLs operate. Originality/value This study provides fresh insights into the adoption of KM practices in logistics service organizations. The findings advance the limited body of knowledge regarding this topic and contribute to the further development of the study of KM.
Purpose – The goal of this paper is to present the main critical failure factors extracted from analyzing ten case studies of failure in knowledge management (KM) systems and projects and present a framework in which the failure factors are linked to the different stages in the cycle of KM implementation. Design/methodology/approach – “Grounded theory” as a qualitative research technique has been applied to explore the main failure factors. Data was collected reviewing scholarly articles containing KM case studies (failure in KM implementation) and after an in-depth study – applying grounded theory method – the results of main critical failure factors categorized and analyzed in specific stages of implementing KM systems. Findings – Through review and analysis of ten case studies, two main results were obtained. First, the main critical failure factors of KM projects were identified. Second, identified critical failure factors were traced along the KM implementation cycle. A framework is proposed that shows the critical failure factors' effect in each specific stage of the KM cycle. Research limitations/implications – The results of this research are generalized based on cases from prior literature. However, the authors have tried to be as inclusive as possible to ensure a representative sample of reported KM failures. In addition, organizations do not provide accurate reports of failure in their projects because of their policies, the image of their organization, and privacy, which could affect the identification of all failure factors. Practical implications – The findings are incorporated into a framework of failure factors in KM projects and the proposed framework can help practitioners in organizations to avoid factors that lead to the demise of KM systems in each stage of the KM project development cycle. This multi-case study research and its suggested framework are also useful for academics to gain a comprehensive view of KM critical failure factors for future studies. Originality/value – To the authors' knowledge this study is the first of its kind to provide an integrated perspective of critical failure factors for the implementation of KM through the inspection of ten case studies and maps the failure factors on KM implementation cycle. It provides valuable information and guidelines that will hopefully pave the way for managers to avoid failure in implementation of a KM.
Purpose - This paper seeks to examine the factors and barriers that contribute to successful knowledge sharing among the university teaching staff. Design/methodology/approach - Based on an extensive review of literature, measures of knowledge sharing are identified. These include such factors as nature of knowledge, working culture, staff attitudes, motivation to share and opportunities to share. A model is developed for the study and hypotheses are formulated. Primary data were collected through a survey from a sample of teaching staff from both public and private universities in Malaysia. Findings - Based on empirical research, the study shows some contrasting findings. As for the sample drawn from teaching staff belonging to public universities, there is a significant relationship between knowledge sharing and the independent factors mentioned earlier. Results from the sample from staff teaching in private universities do not show such relationships. Research limitations/implications - The sample size itself and the generalisation of results to teaching staff from higher education institutions in Malaysia constitute a major limitation. Practical implications - The findings of the study provide useful insights to management of higher education institutions in providing facilities to enhance knowledge sharing among teaching staff. Originality/value - The study makes a valuable contribution, given that there is a dearth of empirical studies of this nature focusing on the South East Asian region. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of interpersonal trust, team leader support, rewards, and knowledge sharing mechanisms on voluntary knowledge sharing in software development project teams in Sri Lanka.Design methodology approach - Survey methodology was used and 150 software developers who were directly involved in developing and maintaining a software product from project teams responded. Regression analysis was used for data analysis.Findings - Interpersonal trust and rewards have significant positive effects on knowledge sharing. Although it was anticipated that the team leader support would be a significant predictor of knowledge sharing, the results did not provide evidence for a positive and significant relationship. "Work-group communications" and "Personal interactions" had significant positive effects on knowledge sharing.Originality value - It is expected that the findings of this study will provide useful information to better understand the predictors of the extent of knowledge sharing at the individual level in the context of project teams. By doing so, this exploratory study will be able to establish baseline data and would be a source of general guidance in stimulating future research in this area.
Purpose - This paper aims to explore knowledge management (KM) literature to understand further the inter-relationship among KM infrastructure (KMI), KM strategy (KMS), KM process (KMP) and individual competence (IC), which are considered very much essential for achieving a heightened competence at an individual level. In the present scenario, knowledge intensive organizations are striving highly to manage competitiveness for their survival in the market. The role of knowledge capability is very much pivotal in ensuring the success of knowledge process implementation. Design/methodology/approach - A methodical review has been carried out of empirical and conceptual articles to justify the linkages among KMI, KMS, KMP and IC, particularly accessed through sources such as Pro Quest, EBSCO host, Google Scholar and other e-databases. This review integrates a conceptual framework to explore the relationship among the aforesaid constructs. Findings - This study provides valuable insight into the role of KMI and KMS in enabling various KM processes. It also contributes significantly to organizations by helping them to integrate KM processes so as to enhance IC. Research limitations/implications - This paper provides helpful suggestions to drive the KMPs by facilitating suitable congruence of infrastructure capabilities and KMSs within organizations. Further, this study would also be helpful in enhancing IC along with organizational competence. Study limitations are also discussed. Originality/value - This paper contributes to knowledge and competence management literature by adding the fact that KMI and KMS both precede KMP for better outcomes at an individual level.
Purpose - Knowledge sharing (KS) of employees has numerous benefits for organizations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide a model for KS in research centers (RCs) that can facilitate the employee's knowledge sharing behavior (KSB).Design methodology approach - Based on the extensive literature review, a valid instrument was adopted to collect the required data set on KS, KSB and intention to KS, and finally 317 complete questionnaires were collected from Iranian research centers. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the measurement model and to test the research hypotheses.Findings - The findings show that intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and intention to methods of KS play an important role in KSB. In other words, simultaneous supply of motivational factors and KS methods interesting for employees lead to their KSB. The SEM confirmed the research model and showed a good fit of it.Practical implications - The implication emanating from this study is that the employees' KSB in RCs as a significant part depends on simultaneous supplying of motivational factors (especially intrinsic motivational factors) and methods of KS that are interesting for employees.Originality value - What distinguishes this study from other studies in KS domain could be implied in two subjects. First, the presented model is simple and prepared of the introduced factors, which will lead to KSB. Second, this study was conducted in diverse research fields such as electrical and electronics, telecommunications, materials, chemistry, biotechnology, information technology, management and industrial engineering, computer network security, mechanical and manufacturing. The research model was derived from the collected data of these areas that is unique in this domain.
Purpose - This paper aims to investigate and provide insights on knowledge-based urban development (KBUD) in the context of emerging economies. KBUD has been an effective strategy and an opportunity for emerging economies for catching up with the developed economies. Design/methodology/approach - The paper scrutinizes the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) of Malaysia by focusing on the planning, development and orchestration of the knowledge corridor. Findings - The paper reveals a number of lessons and insights drawn from the development of MSC as the largest manifestation of the KBUD initiative in Malaysia. Originality/value - The paper provides lessons and recommendations on the planning, development and management of KBUD for emerging economies that are seeking a prosperous development.
Purpose - Many methodologies exist to assess the security risks associated with unauthorized leakage, modification and interruption of information used by organisations. This paper argues that these methodologies have a traditional orientation towards the identification and assessment of technical information assets. This obscures key risks associated with the cultivation and deployment of organisational knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to explore how security risk assessment methods can more effectively identify and treat the knowledge associated with business processes.Design methodology approach - The argument was developed through an illustrative case study in which a well-documented traditional methodology is applied to a complex data backup process. Follow-up interviews were conducted with the organisation's security managers to explore the results of the assessment and the nature of knowledge "assets" within a business process.Findings - It was discovered that the backup process depended, in subtle and often informal ways, on tacit knowledge to sustain operational complexity, handle exceptions and make frequent interventions. Although typical information security methodologies identify people as critical assets, this study suggests a new approach might draw on more detailed accounts of individual knowledge, collective knowledge and their relationship to organisational processes.Originality value - Drawing on the knowledge management literature, the paper suggests mechanisms to incorporate these knowledge-based considerations into the scope of information security risk methodologies. A knowledge protection model is presented as a result of this research. This model outlines ways in which organisations can effectively identify and treat risks around process knowledge critical to the business.
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to propose a methodology for organizations to use to assess the risk of knowledge loss should a specific employee leave. The article also proposes actions that can be taken by the organization to capture this knowledge before it is lost. Design/methodology/approach – Applied research based on the systems analysis approach. Findings – The paper finds that it is possible to create a system for identifying which knowledge is most likely to be lost and to guide an organization towards the appropriate actions for capturing that knowledge before it is lost. Research limitations/implications – The process has only been piloted on a single organization and with a limited number of subjects. However, the results are promising, and future research is focused on exploring generalizability. Practical implications – The paper provides a process that will assist managers in making better decisions when allocating resources for capturing knowledge from departing individuals. Social implications – The process introduces a new social dynamic in the assessment of individuals which may have an impact on organizational dynamics. Originality/value – This is a very innovative and original application of traditional risk assessment principles.
Purpose – This paper aims to offer a practical lens grounded in the relatively unexplored industry setting of medical devices. The objective of this paper is to use two in-depth case studies to highlight the key findings of an exploratory knowledge assessment framework surrounding the areas of knowledge creation, acquisition, sharing and reuse. Design/methodology/approach – An interpretivist paradigm was followed while using two case studies. The study was developed over a three-year period using 36 in-depth interviews, document analysis and observation. Findings – At the case companies, these findings were concluded: Across groups, cross-functional sharing is siloed, which leads to a lack of knowledge sharing. Cultural issues, such as hoarding of knowledge, hinder knowledge management (KM) initiatives. Employees new to the organisation find it difficult to locate knowledge. Employees are dependent on their informal network. The implementation of several KM initiatives is hindered because staff do not have sufficient time. Knowledge reuse is not given attention when targets have to be met. Due to time issues and informal network dependence, there is a lack of formal systems use. There is a lack of ownership of knowledge. There are knowledge retention problems. The organisation does not know its employees’ skills. Research limitations/implications – The usual limitations of case-study research apply surrounding generalisability; however, the author has used best practice in the application of this study using the case-study literature. Practical implications – By exploring at firm level some of the factors associated with individual knowledge acquisition and providing empirical evidence, the study contributes to richer understanding of what should be perceived by potential knowledge recipients to enhance their acquiring knowledge from others. The research shows that for increased competitiveness, knowledge should be shared among organisational members and highlights some of the pitfalls of using KM systems to achieve this. Originality/value – The proposed framework offers a lens to organisations with which they could gauge their knowledge base and ask the how and why questions. This would improve awareness in the areas of knowledge acquisition, sharing, learning and reuse.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to elaborate the connections between an organization’s knowledge management and growth management strategies. The study shows how knowledge management can support organizations’ growth objectives. Design/methodology/approach – The paper first connects the literature streams of growth management and knowledge management. This conceptual understanding about growth-oriented knowledge management is then advanced through an exploratory case study of a company aiming at rapid growth in the construction industry. Findings – The paper recognizes two knowledge perspectives to growth management. First, the perspective of knowledge assets concerns whether an organization has the needed knowledge resources to enable growth. Second, to make informed decisions, the management needs relevant and up-to-date information. From these viewpoints, the paper derives the case-specific cornerstones of growth-oriented knowledge management and suggests some paths forward in terms of future research. Practical implications – Although growth strategy defines an organization’s growth aims and clarifies how the intended growth will be attained, knowledge strategy takes a stand on the needed knowledge assets and paints a path from the existing knowledge base to a state where organization’s knowledge assets enable reaching of its business goals. The paper helps practitioners to plan growth-oriented knowledge management strategies. Originality/value – The paper contributes by extending the analysis of knowledge strategy to growth management and by providing a practical illustration of the development process where knowledge was put into prime focus of organization’s growth strategy. The paper also provides original data and perspective to the roles and interaction of the board and the management team in the case of growth management.
Purpose – This paper aims to review research on the topic of knowledge leakage to establish the current body of knowledge and, on this basis, to suggest some promising avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach – The study consists of a systematic review of 57 refereed empirical articles on knowledge leakage. Findings – The findings contribute to a more holistic view of the topic and complement the study of knowledge management. Additionally, a conceptual framework is proposed that aims at guiding and informing future research activities. Research limitations/implications – This study may not have enabled a complete coverage of all empirical articles in the field of knowledge leakage. Yet, based on the chosen research methodology, it seems reasonable to assume that the review process covered a large share of studies available. Originality/value – To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no systematic literature review on knowledge leakage has previously been published in academic journals.
Purpose - This purpose of this paper is to synthesize and propose the indicators of knowledge management capability (KMC) in different knowledge management (KM) processes to assess KM effectiveness. It also intends to provide useful indicators for those who are interested in the study of KMC to create effective KM, who can utilize the aforementioned indicators as guidelines in the development of empirical definitions by testing them.Design methodology approach - This paper is a literature review research, through which indicators of KMC for KM effectiveness are synthesized, utilizing related documents, literature and other research studies and the characteristics of which are evaluated by the KM experts as specified in qualitative research.Findings - The results of the research suggest two main aspects of KMC for KM effectiveness: first, a resource-based perspective, which comprises technology, structure and culture; and second, a knowledge-based perspective, which comprises expertise, learning and information. It is suggested that there are 84 indicators in KMC for KM effectiveness, which can be divided into: 22 indicators on KMC-knowledge acquisition; 21 indicators on KMC-knowledge creation; 19 indicators on KMC-knowledge storage; and 22 indicators on KMC-knowledge application.Originality value - Apparently the existing research concerning KMC does not reveal clear conclusions nor designate indicators of KMC in both aspects: resource-based perspective and knowledge-based perspective. The consequence is a lack of direction and precision in developing KMC to achieve its effectiveness. This paper therefore provides clear visions on important aspects of KMC whereby the various indicators of their components need to be developed to enrich the concept and further the development of KM. It also provides future researchers with useful means to assess the KM effectiveness in different KM processes.
Purpose – Contemporary offshore information system development (ISD) outsourcing is becoming even more complex. Outsourcing partner has begun “re-outsourcing” components of their projects to other outsourcing companies to minimize cost and gain efficiencies. This paper aims to explore intra-organizational information asymmetry of re-outsourced offshore ISD outsourcing projects. Design/methodology/approach – An online survey was conducted to get an overall view of information asymmetry between principal and agents (as per the agency theory). Findings – Statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences between the principal and agent on clarity of requirements, common domain knowledge and communication effectiveness constructs, implying an unbalanced relationship between the parties. Moreover, the authors' results showed that these three are significant measurement constructs of information asymmetry. Research limitations/implications – In this study the authors have only considered three main factors as common domain knowledge, clarity of requirements and communication effectiveness as three measurement constructs of information asymmetry. Therefore, researches are encouraged to test the proposed constructs further to increase its precision. Practical implications – The authors' analysis indicates significant differences in all three measurement constructs, implying the difficulties to ensure that the agent is performing according to the requirements of the principal. Using the agency theory as theoretical view, this study sheds light on the best contract governing methods which minimize information asymmetry between the multiple partners within ISD outsourcing organizations. Originality/value – Currently, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no study has undertaken research on intra-organizational information asymmetry in re-outsourced offshore ISD outsourcing projects.
Purpose – The main aim of this paper is to study the effects of organizational culture on environmental responsiveness capability (ERC), both directly and through the mediation of knowledge management (KM) in selected Iranian Industrial Research Organizations (IIRO). Furthermore, the effects of four types of organizational culture on ERC and KM in the target population are compared. Design/methodology/approach – Relationships between the ERC, KM and organizational culture are considered using survey data through the structural equation modelling approach. Five-point Likert questionnaire has been used as a tool for measuring variables. The authors sample includes 276 members of 13 selected target organizations whose names are not mentioned due to prior agreement. Findings – Results show that organizational culture has a positive and significant relationship with ERC, both directly and indirectly through the mediation of KM. Additionally, compared with other types of organizational cultures, innovativeness culture has the highest correlation with ERC, both directly and through KM as a mediating variable. Furthermore, cooperativeness culture has a direct significant relationship with ERC, whereas consistency and effectiveness cultures indirectly have significant and positive relationships with ERC through KM. Therefore, results of this research provide appropriate evidence that ERC can be affected directly by innovativeness culture and KM. Originality/value – The advantage of this paper compared to other related research is to study on ERC based on cultural and knowledge-related variables. Hence, it can extend the literature of ERC, and it can be useful for the managers who are dealing with industrial research company.
Purpose - This study aims to examine the impact of implementation of government-sponsored intellectual capital (IC) management and reporting (ICMR) programmes in Hong Kong and Japan for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) for the purpose of issuing an IC statement (ICS). Design/methodology/approach - The authors present a critical analysis using semi-structured interviews with employees and owners of Hong Kong and Japanese SMEs who participated in their respective government's ICMR programmes and who published an ICS. Findings - The authors conclude that many enterprises did not achieve the full benefit of participating in the ICMR programme because consultants funded by the government prepared the ICS. Instead, consultants should take on more of a "missionary" role, educating enterprises about IC, rather than doing the work for them. Research limitations/implications - This research is restricted to enterprises that published one or more ICS. Future research should include enterprises participating in the ICMR programme that failed to publish an ICS. Practical implications - Enterprises that are able to utilise IC in their daily business routine will think IC is useful and continue using it. Conversely, those enterprises that relied on consultants to prepare the ICS will not understand its benefits. Originality/value - Policymakers should not solely concentrate on creating new IC reporting frameworks or guidelines for enterprises to follow because this focus limits the understanding of how enterprises can utilise IC concepts with the consequence that they may eventually give up on IC reporting.