Mitochondrial fission and mitophagy are considered key processes involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac microvascular ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury although the upstream regulatory mechanism for fission and mitophagy still remains unclear. Herein, we reported that NR4A1 was significantly upregulated following cardiac microvascular IR injury, and its level was positively correlated with microvascular collapse, endothelial cellular apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. However, NR4A1-knockout mice exhibited resistance against the acute microvascular injury and mitochondrial dysfunction compared with the wild-type mice. Functional studies illustrated that IR injury increased NR4A1 expression, which activated serine/threonine kinase casein kinase2 α (CK2α). CK2α promoted phosphorylation of mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) and FUN14 domain-containing 1 (FUNDC1). Phosphorylated activation of Mff enhanced the cytoplasmic translocation of Drp1 to the mitochondria, leading to fatal mitochondrial fission. Excessive fission disrupted mitochondrial function and structure, ultimately triggering mitochondrial apoptosis. In addition, phosphorylated inactivation of FUNDC1 failed to launch the protective mitophagy process, resulting in the accumulation of damaged mitochondria and endothelial apoptosis. By facilitating Mff-mediated mitochondrial fission and FUNDC1-required mitophagy, NR4A1 disturbed mitochondrial homeostasis, enhanced endothelial apoptosis and provoked microvascular dysfunction. In summary, our data illustrated that NR4A1 serves as a novel culprit factor in cardiac microvascular IR injury that operates through synchronous elevation of fission and suppression of mitophagy. Novel therapeutic strategies targeting the balance among NR4A1, fission and mitophagy might provide survival advantage to microvasculature following IR stress.
Remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC) induced by cycles of transient limb ischemia and reperfusion is a powerful cardioprotective strategy with additional pleiotropic effects. However, our understanding of its underlying mediators and mechanisms remains incomplete. We examined the role of miR-144 in the cardioprotection induced by rIPC. Microarray studies first established that rIPC increases, and IR injury decreases miR-144 levels in mouse myocardium, the latter being rescued by both rIPC and intravenous administration of miR-144. Going along with this systemic treatment with miR-144 increased P-Akt, P-GSK3β and P-p44/42 MAPK, decreased p-mTOR level and induced autophagy signaling, and induced early and delayed cardioprotection with improved functional recovery and reduction in infarct size similar to that achieved by rIPC. Conversely, systemic administration of a specific antisense oligonucleotide reduced myocardial levels of miR-144 and abrogated cardioprotection by rIPC. We then showed that rIPC increases plasma miR-144 levels in mice and humans, but there was no change in plasma microparticle (50–400 nM) numbers or their miR-144 content. However, there was an almost fourfold increase in miR-144 precursor in the exosome pellet, and a significant increase in miR-144 levels in exosome-poor serum which, in turn, was associated with increased levels of the miR carriage protein Argonaute-2. Systemic release of microRNA 144 plays a pivotal role in the cardioprotection induced by rIPC. Future studies should assess the potential for plasma miR-144 as a biomarker of the effectiveness of rIPC induced by limb ischemia, and whether miR-144 itself may represent a novel therapy to reduce clinical ischemia–reperfusion injury.
The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) contributes to cardioprotection by ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Mitochondria are central elements of cardioprotective signaling, most likely by delaying mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, and STAT3 has recently been identified in mitochondria. We now characterized the mitochondrial localization of STAT3 and its impact on respiration and MPTP opening. STAT3 was mainly present in the matrix of subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar cardiomyocyte mitochondria. STAT1, but not STAT5 was also detected in mitochondria under physiological conditions. ADP-stimulated respiration was reduced in mitochondria from mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of STAT3 (STAT3-KO) versus wildtypes and in rat mitochondria treated with the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic (STAT3 inhibitory compound, 6-Nitrobenzo[b]thiophene 1,1-dioxide). Mitochondria from STAT3-KO mice and Stattic-treated rat mitochondria tolerated less calcium until MPTP opening occurred. STAT3 co-immunoprecipitated with cyclophilin D, the target of the cardioprotective agent and MPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). However, CsA reduced infarct size to a similar extent in wildtype and STAT3-KO mice in vivo. Thus, STAT3 possibly contributes to cardioprotection by stimulation of respiration and inhibition of MPTP opening.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a life-threatening heart disease developing towards the end of pregnancy or in the months following delivery in previously healthy women in terms of cardiac disease. Enhanced oxidative stress and the subsequent cleavage of the nursing hormone Prolactin into an anti-angiogenic 16 kDa subfragment emerged as a potential causal factor of the disease. We established a prospective registry with confirmed PPCM present in 115 patients (mean baseline left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF: 27 ± 9 %). Follow-up data (6 ± 3 months) showed LVEF improvement in 85 % and full recovery in 47 % while 15 % failed to recover with death in 2 % of patients. A positive family history of cardiomyopathy was present in 16.5 %. Pregnancy-associated hypertension was associated with a better outcome while a baseline LVEF ≤ 25 % was associated with a worse outcome. A high recovery rate (96 %) was observed in patients obtaining combination therapy with beta-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor-blockers (ARBs) and bromocriptine. Increased serum levels of Cathepsin D, the enzyme that generates 16 kDa Prolactin, miR-146a, a direct target of 16 kDa Prolactin, N-terminal-pro-brain-natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) emerged as biomarkers for PPCM. In conclusion, low baseline LVEF is a predictor for poor outcome while pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders are associated with a better outcome in this European PPCM cohort. The high recovery rate in this collective is associated with a treatment concept using beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors/ARBs and bromocriptine. Increased levels of Cathepsin D activity, miR-146a and ADMA in serum of PPCM patients support the pathophysiological role of 16 kDa Prolactin for PPCM and may be used as a specific diagnostic marker profile.
Accumulating evidence indicatesthat programmed necrosis plays a critical role in cell death during ischemia–reperfusion. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), a small molecule capable of inhibiting a key regulator of programmed necrosis (RIP1), was shown to prevent necrotic cell death in experimental models including cardiac ischemia. However, no functional follow-up was performed and the action of Nec-1 remains unclear. Here, we studied whether Nec-1 inhibits RIP1-dependent necrosis and leads to long-term improvements after ischemia–reperfusion in vivo. Mice underwent 30 min of ischemia and received, 5 min before reperfusion, 3.3 mg/kg Nec-1 or vehicle treatment, followed by reperfusion. Nec-1 administration reduced infarct size to 26.3 ± 1.3 % (P = 0.001) compared to 38.6 ± 1.7 % in vehicle-treated animals. Furthermore, Nec-1 inhibited RIP1/RIP3 phosphorylation in vivo and significantly reduced necrotic cell death, while apoptotic cell death remained constant. By using MRI, cardiac dimensions and function were assessed before and 28 days after surgery. Nec-1-treated mice displayed less adverse remodeling (end-diastolic volume 63.5 ± 2.8 vs. 74.9 ± 2.8 μl, P = 0.031) and preserved cardiac performance (ejection fraction 45.81 ± 2.05 vs. 36.03 ± 2.37 %, P = 0.016). Nec-1 treatment significantly reduced inflammatory influx, tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels and oxidative stress levels. Interestingly, this was accompanied by significant changes in the expression signature of oxidative stress genes. Administration of Nec-1 at the onset of reperfusion inhibits RIP1-dependent necrosis in vivo, leading to infarct size reduction and preservation of cardiac function. The cardioprotective effect of Nec-1 highlights the importance of necrotic cell death in the ischemic heart, thereby opening a new direction for therapy in patients with myocardial infarction.
NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that NLRP3 inflammasome is up-regulated and mediates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. However, the signaling pathways that lead to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by MI/R injury have not been fully elucidated. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 3 or 24 h reperfusion. The ischemic heart exhibited enhanced inflammasome activation as evidenced by increased NLRP3 expression and caspase-1 activity and increased IL-1β and IL-18 production. Intramyocardial NLRP3 siRNA injection or an intraperitoneal injection of BAY 11-7028, an inflammasome inhibitor, attenuated macrophage and neutrophil infiltration and decreased MI/R injury, as measured by cardiomyocyte apoptosis and infarct size. The ischemic heart also exhibited enhanced interaction between Txnip and NLRP3, which has been shown to be a mechanism for activating NLRP3. Intramyocardial Txnip siRNA injection also decreased infarct size and NLRP3 activation. In vitro experiments revealed that NLRP3 was expressed in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs), but was hardly expressed in cardiomyocytes. Simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R) stimulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in CMECs, but not in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, CMECs subjected to SI/R injury increased interactions between Txnip and NLRP3. Txnip siRNA diminished NLRP3 inflammasome activation and SI/R-induced injury, as measured by LDH release and caspase-3 activity in CMECs. ROS scavenger dissociated TXNIP from NLRP3 and inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the CMECs. For the first time, we demonstrated that TXNIP-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in CMECs was a novel mechanism of MI/R injury. Interventions that block Txnip/NLRP3 signaling to inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes may be novel therapies for mitigating MI/R injury.
Atrial fibrosis is important for the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF) but the underlying signal transduction is incompletely understood. We therefore studied the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and its downstream target Sprouty 1 (Spry1) during atrial fibrillation. Left atria (LA) from patients with AF showed a 2.5-fold increased expression of miR-21 compared to matched LA of patients in sinus rhythm. Increased miR-21 expression correlated positively with atrial collagen content and was associated with a reduced protein expression of Spry1 and increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), lysyl oxidase and Rac1-GTPase. Neonatal cardiac fibroblasts treated with angiotensin II (AngII) or CTGF showed an increased miR-21 and decreased Spry1 expression. Pretreatment with an inhibitor of Rac1 GTPase, NSC23766, reduced the AngII-induced upregulation of miR-21. A small molecule inhibitor of lysyl oxidase, BAPN, prevented the AngII as well as the CTGF-induced miR-21 expression. Transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of Rac1, which develop spontaneous AF and atrial fibrosis with increasing age, showed upregulation of miR-21 expression associated with reduced Spry1 expression. miR-21 expression and signalling in vivo were prevented by long-term treatment of the mice with statins. Direct inhibition of miR-21 by antagomir-21 prevented fibrosis of the atrial myocardium post-myocardial infarction. Left atria of patients with atrial fibrillation are characterized by upregulation of miR-21 und reduced expression of Spry1. Activation of Rac1 by angiotensin II leads to a CTGF- and lysyl oxidase-mediated increase of miR-21 expression contributing to structural remodelling of the atrial myocardium.
Inflammation resolution is important for scar formation following myocardial infarction (MI) and requires the coordinated actions of macrophages and fibroblasts. In this study, we hypothesized that exogenous interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, promotes post-MI repair through actions on these cardiac cell types. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice (male, 3- to 6-month old, n = 24/group) were treated with saline or IL-10 (50 mu g/kg/day) by osmotic mini-pump infusion starting at day (d) 1 post-MI and sacrificed at d7 post-MI. IL-10 infusion doubled plasma IL-10 concentrations by d7 post-MI. Despite similar infarct areas and mortality rates, IL-10 treatment significantly decreased LV dilation (1.6-fold for end-systolic volume and 1.4-fold for end-diastolic volume) and improved ejection fraction 1.8-fold (both p < 0.05). IL-10 treatment attenuated inflammation at d7 post-MI, evidenced by decreased numbers of Mac-3-positive macrophages in the infarct (p < 0.05). LV macrophages isolated from d7 post-MI mice treated with IL-10 showed significantly elevated gene expression of M2 markers (Arg1, Ym1, and Tgfb1; all p < 0.05). We further performed RNA-seq analysis on post-MI cardiac macrophages and identified 410 significantly different genes (155 increased, 225 decreased by IL-10 treatment). By functional network analysis grouping, the majority of genes (133 out of 410) were part of the cellular assembly and repair functional group. Of these, hyaluronidase 3 (Hyal3) was the most important feature identified by p value. IL-10 treatment decreased Hyal3 by 28%, which reduced hyaluronan degradation and limited collagen deposition (all p < 0.05). In addition, in vivo IL-10 treatment increased fibroblast activation (proliferation, migration, and collagen production), an effect that was both directly and indirectly influenced by macrophage M2 polarization. Combined, our results indicate that in vivo infusion of IL-10 post-MI improves the LV microenvironment to dampen inflammation and facilitate cardiac wound healing.
Connexin-43 (Cx43), a predominant cardiac connexin, forms gap junctions (GJs) that facilitate electrical cell–cell coupling and unapposed/nonjunctional hemichannels that provide a pathway for the exchange of ions and metabolites between cytoplasm and extracellular milieu. Uncontrolled opening of hemichannels in the plasma membrane may be deleterious for the myocardium and blocking hemichannels may confer cardioprotection by preventing ionic imbalance, cell swelling and loss of critical metabolites. Currently, all known hemichannel inhibitors also block GJ channels, thereby disturbing electrical cell–cell communication. Here we aimed to characterize a nonapeptide, called Gap19, derived from the cytoplasmic loop (CL) of Cx43 as a hemichannel blocker and examined its effect on hemichannel currents in cardiomyocytes and its influence in cardiac outcome after ischemia/reperfusion. We report that Gap 19 inhibits Cx43 hemichannels without blocking GJ channels or Cx40/pannexin-1 hemichannels. Hemichannel inhibition is due to the binding of Gap19 to the C-terminus (CT) thereby preventing intramolecular CT–CL interactions. The peptide inhibited Cx43 hemichannel unitary currents in both HeLa cells exogenously expressing Cx43 and acutely isolated pig ventricular cardiomyocytes. Treatment with Gap19 prevented metabolic inhibition-enhanced hemichannel openings, protected cardiomyocytes against volume overload and cell death following ischemia/reperfusion in vitro and modestly decreased the infarct size after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in mice in vivo. We conclude that preventing Cx43 hemichannel opening with Gap19 confers limited protective effects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Research on cardioprotection has attracted considerable attention during the past 30 years following the discovery of ischemic preconditioning with great advances being made in the field, particularly in the description of the molecular signalling behind this cardioprotective intervention. In a time when basic research is struggling to translate its findings into therapies in the clinical setting, this viewpoint has the intention of presenting to clinical and basic scientists how the reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway has been described and dissected, as well as highlighting its relevance in cardioprotection.
Given the established anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), we investigated their effect on inflammatory cell infiltration of ischemic cardiac tissue and cardiac function. We employed two types of MSCs, human bone marrow-derived (BM) MSCs and human umbilical cord perivascular cells in an experimental acute myocardial infarction (MI) model with the immune-deficient NOD/SCID gamma null mouse. Cells were infused 48 h after induction of MI and mice assessed 24 h later (72 h after MI) for bone marrow (BM), circulating and cardiac tissue-infiltrating monocytes/macrophages. We showed that in the presence of either MSC type, overall macrophage/monocyte levels were reduced, including pro-inflammatory M1-type macrophages, while the proportion of alternatively activated M2-type macrophages was significantly increased in the circulation and heart but not the BM. Moreover, we found decreased expression of IL-1β and IL-6, increased IL-10 expression and fewer apoptotic cardiomyocytes without changes in angiogenesis in the infarct area. Fractional shortening was enhanced 2 weeks after cell infusion but was similar to medium controls 16 weeks after MI. In vitro studies showed that BM MSCs increased the frequency of alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages, in part by MSC-mediated secretion of IL-10. Our data suggest a new mechanism for MSC-mediated enhancement of cardiac function, possibly via an IL-10 mediated switch from infiltration of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory macrophages at the infarct site. Additional studies are warranted confirming the role of IL-10 and augmenting the anti-inflammatory effects of MSCs in cardiac regeneration.
NLRP3 inflammasome is a key multiprotein signaling platform that tightly controls inflammatory responses and coordinates antimicrobial host defenses by activating caspase-1 for the subsequent maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and induces pyroptosis. The assembly and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome are linked to the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes, and their major consequences—myocardial remodeling. The study of the NLRP3 inflammasome in these cardiovascular disease states may uncover important triggers and endogenous modulators of the disease, and lead to new treatment strategies. This review outlines current insights into NLRP3 inflammasome research associated with cardiovascular diseases and discusses the questions that remain in this field.
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been associated with poorer outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI), and linked with heart failure. Methylglyoxal (MG) is considered the most important AGE precursor, but its role in MI is unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of MG-derived AGEs (MG-AGEs) in MI using transgenic mice that over-express the MG-metabolizing enzyme glyoxalase-1 (GLO1). MI was induced in GLO1 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. At 6 h post-MI, mass spectrometry revealed that MG-H1 (a principal MG-AGE) was increased in the hearts of WT mice, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that this persisted for 4 weeks. GLO1 over-expression reduced MG-AGE levels at 6 h and 4 weeks, and GLO1 mice exhibited superior cardiac function at 4 weeks post-MI compared to WT mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed greater vascular density and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in GLO1 vs. WT mice. The recruitment of c-kit+ cells and their incorporation into the vasculature (c-kit+CD31+ cells) was higher in the infarcted myocardium of GLO1 mice. MG-AGEs appeared to accumulate in type I collagen surrounding arterioles, prompting investigation in vitro. In culture, the interaction of angiogenic bone marrow cells with MG-modified collagen resulted in reduced cell adhesion, increased susceptibility to apoptosis, fewer progenitor cells, and reduced angiogenic potential. This study reveals that MG-AGEs are produced post-MI and identifies a causative role for their accumulation in the cellular changes, adverse remodeling and functional loss of the heart after MI. MG may represent a novel target for preventing damage and improving function of the infarcted heart.
Remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC), induced by cycles of transient limb ischemia and reperfusion (IR), is cardioprotective. The optimal rIPC-algorithm is not established. We investigated the effect of cycle numbers and ischemia duration within each rIPC-cycle and the influence of effector organ mass on the efficacy of cardioprotection. Furthermore, the duration of the early phase of protection by rIPC was investigated. Using a tourniquet tightened at the inguinal level, we subjected C57Bl/6NTac mice to intermittent hind-limb ischemia and reperfusion. The rIPC-protocols consisted of (I) two, four, six or eight cycles, (II) 2, 5 or 10 min of ischemia in each cycle, (III) single or two hind-limb occlusions and (IV) 0.5, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 h intervals from rIPC to index cardiac ischemia. All rIPC algorithms were followed by 5 min of reperfusion. The hearts were subsequently exposed to 25 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion in an ex vivo Langendorff model. Cardioprotection was evaluated by infarct size and post-ischemic hemodynamic recovery. Four to six rIPC cycles yielded significant cardioprotection with no further protection by eight cycles. Ischemic cycles lasting 2 min offered the same protection as cycles of 5 min ischemia, whereas prolonged cycles lasting 10 min abrogated protection. One and two hind-limb preconditioning were equally protective. In our mouse model, the duration of protection by rIPC was 1.5 h. These findings indicate that the number and duration of cycles rather than the tissue mass exposed to rIPC determines the efficacy of rIPC.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of adaptive and maladaptive responses in cardiovascular diseases and hence are considered to be potential therapeutical targets. However, their role as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases still needs to be systematically evaluated. We assessed here for the first time whole-genome miRNA expression in peripheral total blood samples of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We identified 121 miRNAs, which are significantly dysregulated in AMI patients in comparison to healthy controls. Among these, miR-1291 and miR-663b show the highest sensitivity and specificity for the discrimination of cases from controls. Using a novel self-learning pattern recognition algorithm, we identified a unique signature of 20 miRNAs that predicts AMI with even higher power (specificity 96%, sensitivity 90%, and accuracy 93%). In addition, we show that miR-30c and miR-145 levels correlate with infarct sizes estimated by Troponin T release. The here presented study shows that single miRNAs and especially miRNA signatures derived from peripheral blood, could be valuable novel biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the main cause for the progression of the left ventricle towards congestive heart failure. The optimal healing after MI requires timely induction and resolution of inflammation. Primarily, there have been a number of strategies applied to inhibit the post-MI inflammation but approaches that focus on the resolution of inflammation have sparsely been used in the treatment of heart failure. The early attempts to inhibit post-MI inflammation resulted in adverse outcomes that were realized in heart failure trials. We provide here an overview on the cyclooxygenase (COX)- and lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived lipid mediators that are either impairing or resolving the post-MI inflammation. With the evolution of lipidomics there has been emerging novel bioactive-specialized lipid mediators that promise to resolve chronic inflammation rather than promoting inhibition. The current review is focused on post-MI immune cells kinetics and the unexplored array of lipid mediators that are coordinated by COX and LOX. Thus, an emphasis on COX and LOX poses key questions and potential for the development of novel targets in the heart failure treatment strategy. This updated dynamic approach aims to fuse basic pre-clinical discoveries and translational bioactive lipid-based resolvin discoveries that could be potentially used in the clinic for the treatment of heart failure.
Following an arterial occlusion outward remodeling of pre-existent inter-connecting arterioles occurs by proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. This is initiated by deformation of the endothelial cells through increased pulsatile fluid shear stress (FSS) caused by the steep pressure gradient between the high pre-occlusive and the very low post-occlusive pressure regions that are interconnected by collateral vessels. Shear stress leads to the activation and expression of all NOS isoforms and NO production, followed by endothelial VEGF secretion, which induces MCP-1 synthesis in endothelium and in the smooth muscle of the media. This leads to attraction and activation of monocytes and T-cells into the adventitial space (peripheral collateral vessels) or attachment of these cells to the endothelium (coronary collaterals). Mononuclear cells produce proteases and growth factors to digest the extra-cellular scaffold and allow motility and provide space for the new cells. They also produce NO from iNOS, which is essential for arteriogenesis. The bulk of new tissue production is carried by the smooth muscles of the media, which transform their phenotype from a contractile into a synthetic and proliferative one. Important roles are played by actin binding proteins like ABRA, cofilin, and thymosin beta 4 which determine actin polymerization and maturation. Integrins and connexins are markedly up-regulated. A key role in this concerted action which leads to a 2-to-20 fold increase in vascular diameter, depending on species size (mouse versus human) are the transcription factors AP-1, egr-1, carp, ets, by the Rho pathway and by the Mitogen Activated Kinases ERK-1 and -2. In spite of the enormous increase in tissue mass (up to 50-fold) the degree of functional restoration of blood flow capacity is incomplete and ends at 30% of maximal conductance (coronary) and 40% in the vascular periphery. The process of arteriogenesis can be drastically stimulated by increases in FSS (arterio-venous fistulas) and can be completely blocked by inhibition of NO production, by pharmacological blockade of VEGF-A and by the inhibition of the Rho-pathway. Pharmacological stimulation of arteriogenesis, important for the treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, seems feasible with NO donors.