The Cloud computing emerges as a new computing paradigm which aims to provide reliable, customized and QoS guaranteed dynamic computing environments for end-users. In this paper, we study the Cloud computing paradigm from various aspects, such as definitions, distinct features, and enabling technologies. This paper brings an introductional review on the Cloud computing and provides the state-of-the-art of Cloud computing technologies.
The rapid progress of molecular nanotechnology has opened the door to molecular robotics, which uses molecules as robot components. In order to promote this new paradigm, the Molecular Robotics Research Group was established in the Systems and Information Division of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers (SICE) in 2010. The group consists of researchers from various fields including chemistry, biophysics, DNA nanotechnology, systems science and robotics, challenging this emerging new field. Last year, the group proposed a research project focusing on molecular robotics, and it was recently awarded a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (FY2012-16), one of the large-scale research projects in Japan, by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN). Here, we wish to clarify the fundamental concept and research direction of molecular robotics. For this purpose, we present a comprehensive view of molecular robotics based on the discussions held in the Molecular Robotics Research Group.
A knowledge push system as a proactive method of knowledge management, and is an effective way to push knowledge to designers in the product design process. Knowledge push can help to improve design efficiency and quality, but the knowledge pushed to designers is less applicable in engineering scenarios. To improve the quality of knowledge push, we propose the trust-aware and item-cluster strategies to extract the two nearest neighbors of the designers and the design knowledge. Next, we adapt a fusion model for the two nearest neighbors, which is solved based on the gradient descent algorithm. Finally, the rating prediction that the designer gives to the knowledge component is the decision point of the knowledge push system, where we propose our final hybrid knowledge push method. A knowledge push system of CNC machine tools design is used to confirm that our method outperforms the other widely adopted methods.
“Maai” is a concept that represents a relation holding spatially and temporarily among more than two people or things, at least one of which is a human being. Forming a state of “maai” means to read the intentions or movements of the other, make adjustment of physical and/or mental distance, and organize a proper way of being there physically and mentally. In the modern era in which people make free access to information beyond communities and countries and foster varieties of sense of values, the phenomena of “maai” will have growing concerns as one of the most difficult issues in communication. In this paper, we will start raising typical examples from different domains, and decipher how “maai” is being formed and holds. Then, we will make a hypothesis that feeling “energy” emitted by the opponent and one’s own body, which is empathetic cognition, from the first and second-person’s viewpoints, to associate superficial moves observable objectively with inner feelings and proprioceptive sensations, is the key to form one’s “maai”. Further, we will argue the limitation of the methodology of modern science, and raise discussions on a new methodology in which dealing with data in the subjective world of cognition beyond movements and aspects observable objectively is permitted.
In this article, we investigate a second-person viewpoint approach to an interactive phenomenon called maai, in which interactants’ own perception and sense of relation to each other are central. In the basic ideas of conversation analysis (CA), one of the powerful methodologies for the second-person viewpoint approach to social interaction, it is paramount that analysts can descriptively trace participants’ orientation to events in progress with reference to sequentiality and simultaneity between actions in interaction. If we focus on detailed practices proper to a field, however, it becomes crucial to seriously consider the “on-line, prospective understanding of ongoing interaction by analysts themselves.” We propose a new framework, field interaction analysis, that expands or complements the basic ideas of CA, putting emphasis on the understanding of participants’ activities, the membership categories relevant to them, and the material environments they are in. On the basis of this new idea, we illustrate two case studies, demonstrating how maai between participants engaged in collaborative activities is manifested in the temporal order of bodily actions and spatial configuration of participants’ bodies in ways characteristic to a particular field.
In this paper, I shall try to clarify from the standpoint of phenomenology, the essential features of the phenomenon of ma (間) and maai (間合い). I shall delineate their cultural and philosophical implications by interpreting the treatises of Noh by Motokiyo Zeami. Zeami was the most important Noh performer, playwright, and esthetic theorist. Ma is the physical/mental distance that prepares the advent of the future. It is a phenomenon which cannot be grasped by a dualistic conceptualization of object and subject; it is a phenomenon of temporalization which brings a future event and makes the present in the process of having been. Ma is an intersubjective occasion that provides us with an empty and silent place to encounter the other. Ma is the empty time–space that produces an event and rhythms. But rhythm is never a repetition of the same, but a return of the similar in a renewed form. Nature never produces the same thing, but renews things from times past. In this paper, I shall conclude that ma is finally defined as indivisible movement of life that articulates itself as rhythms; maai is an encounter of a power of life with another life. In Noh performance and martial arts, ma and maai have been attached importance because they are necessary conditions for artistic creation to renew the past and produce a return of the similar.