Disturbance-observer-based control (DOBC) and related methods have been researched and applied in various industrial sectors in the last four decades. This survey, at first time, gives a systematic and comprehensive tutorial and summary on the existing disturbance/uncertainty estimation and attenuation techniques, most notably, DOBC, active disturbance rejection control, disturbance accommodation control, and composite hierarchical antidisturbance control. In all of these methods, disturbance and uncertainty are, in general, lumped together, and an observation mechanism is employed to estimate the total disturbance. This paper first reviews a number of widely used linear and nonlinear disturbance/uncertainty estimation techniques and then discusses and compares various compensation techniques and the procedures of integrating disturbance/uncertainty compensation with a (predesigned) linear/nonlinear controller. It also provides concise tutorials of the main methods in this area with clear descriptions of their features. The application of this group of methods in various industrial sections is reviewed, with emphasis on the commercialization of some algorithms. The survey is ended with the discussion of future directions.
Recently, to ensure the reliability and safety of modern large-scale industrial processes, data-driven methods have been receiving considerably increasing attention, particularly for the purpose of process monitoring. However, great challenges are also met under different real operating conditions by using the basic data-driven methods. In this paper, widely applied data-driven methodologies suggested in the literature for process monitoring and fault diagnosis are surveyed from the application point of view. The major task of this paper is to sketch a basic data-driven design framework with necessary modifications under various industrial operating conditions, aiming to offer a reference for industrial process monitoring on large-scale industrial processes.
This paper provides an overview of the recent developments in data-based techniques focused on modern industrial applications. As one of the hottest research topics for complicated processes, the data-based techniques have been rapidly developed over the past two decades and widely used in numerous industrial sectors nowadays. The core of data-based techniques is to take full advantage of the huge amounts of available process data, aiming to acquire the useful information within. Compared with the well-developed model-based approaches, data-based techniques provide efficient alternative solutions for different industrial issues under various operating conditions. The main objective of this paper is to review and summarize the recent achievements in data-based techniques, especially for complicated industrial applications, thus providing a referee for further study on the related topics both from academic and practical points of view. This paper begins with a brief evolutionary overview of data-based techniques in the last two decades. Then, the methodologies only based on process measurements and the model-data integrated techniques will be further introduced. The recent developments for modern industrial applications are, respectively, presented mainly from perspectives of monitoring and control. The new trends of data-based technique as well as potential application fields are finally discussed.
With the continuous increase in complexity and expense of industrial systems, there is less tolerance for performance degradation, productivity decrease, and safety hazards, which greatly necessitates to detect and identify any kinds of potential abnormalities and faults as early as possible and implement real-time fault-tolerant operation for minimizing performance degradation and avoiding dangerous situations. During the last four decades, fruitful results have been reported about fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control methods and their applications in a variety of engineering systems. The three-part survey paper aims to give a comprehensive review of real-time fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control, with particular attention on the results reported in the last decade. In this paper, fault diagnosis approaches and their applications are comprehensively reviewed from model- and signal-based perspectives, respectively.
This paper presents a review of advanced control techniques for microgrids. This paper covers decentralized, distributed, and hierarchical control of grid-connected and islanded microgrids. At first, decentralized control techniques for microgrids are reviewed. Then, the recent developments in the stability analysis of decentralized controlled microgrids are discussed. Finally, hierarchical control for microgrids that mimic the behavior of the mains grid is reviewed.
In this paper, two online schemes for an integrated design of fault-tolerant control (FTC) systems with application to Tennessee Eastman (TE) benchmark are proposed. Based on the data-driven design of the proposed fault-tolerant architecture whose core is an observer/residual generator based realization of the Youla parameterization of all stabilization controllers, FTC is achieved by an adaptive residual generator for the online identification of the fault diagnosis relevant vectors, and an iterative optimization method for system performance enhancement. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed schemes are demonstrated through the TE benchmark model.
This paper presents evaluations among the most usual maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques, doing meaningful comparisons with respect to the amount of energy extracted from the photovoltaic (PV) panel [tracking factor (TF)] in relation to the available power, PV voltage ripple, dynamic response, and use of sensors. Using MatLab/Simulink and dSPACE platforms, a digitally controlled boost dc-dc converter was implemented and connected to an Agilent Solar Array E4350B simulator in order to verify the analytical procedures. The main experimental results are presented for conventional MPPT algorithms and improved MPPT algorithms named IC based on proportional-integral (PI) and perturb and observe based on PI. Moreover, the dynamic response and the TF are also evaluated using a user-friendly interface, which is capable of online program power profiles and computes the TF. Finally, a typical daily insulation is used in order to verify the experimental results for the main PV MPPT methods.
Standard partial least squares (PLS) serves as a powerful tool for key performance indicator (KPI) monitoring in large-scale process industry for last two decades. However, the standard approach and its recent modifications still encounter some problems for fault diagnosis related to KPI of the underlying process. To cope with these difficulties, an improved PLS (IPLS) approach is presented in this paper. IPLS is able to decompose the measurable process variables into the KPI-related and unrelated parts, respectively. Based on it, the corresponding test statistics are designed to offer meaningful fault diagnosis information and thus, the corresponding maintenance actions can be further taken to ensure the desired performance of the systems. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a numerical example and Tennessee Eastman (TE) benchmark process are respectively utilized. It can be seen that the proposed approach shows satisfactory results not only for diagnosing KPI-related faults but also for its high fault detection rate.
This is the second-part paper of the survey on fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant techniques, where fault diagnosis methods and applications are overviewed, respectively, from the knowledge-based and hybrid/active viewpoints. With the aid of the first-part survey paper, the second-part review paper completes a whole overview on fault diagnosis techniques and their applications. Comments on the advantages and constraints of various diagnosis techniques, including model-based, signal-based, knowledge-based, and hybrid/active diagnosis techniques, are also given. An overlook on the future development of fault diagnosis is presented.
Model predictive control (MPC) is a very attractive solution for controlling power electronic converters. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the latest developments in MPC for power converters and drives, describing the current state of this control strategy and analyzing the new trends and challenges it presents when applied to power electronic systems. The paper revisits the operating principle of MPC and identifies three key elements in the MPC strategies, namely the prediction model, the cost function, and the optimization algorithm. This paper summarizes the most recent research concerning these elements, providing details about the different solutions proposed by the academic and industrial communities.
This paper proposes an extended state observer (ESO) based second-order sliding-mode (SOSM) control for three-phase two-level grid-connected power converters. The proposed control technique forces the input currents to track the desired values, which can indirectly regulate the output voltage while achieving a user-defined power factor. The presented approach has two control loops. A current control loop based on an SOSM and a dc-link voltage regulation loop which consists of an ESO plus SOSM. In this work, the load connected to the dc-link capacitor is considered as an external disturbance. An ESO is used to asymptotically reject this external disturbance. Therefore, its design is considered in the control law derivation to achieve a high performance. Theoretical analysis is given to show the closed-loop behavior of the proposed controller and experimental results are presented to validate the control algorithm under a real power converter prototype.
AC and dc microgrids (MGs) are key elements for integrating renewable and distributed energy resources as well as distributed energy-storage systems. In the last several years, efforts toward the standardization of these MGs have been made. In this sense, this paper presents the hierarchical control derived from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to MGs. The hierarchical control proposed consists of three levels: 1) The primary control is based on the droop method, including an output-impedance virtual loop; 2) the secondary control allows the restoration of the deviations produced by the primary control; and 3) the tertiary control manages the power flow between the MG and the external electrical distribution system. Results from a hierarchical-controlled MG are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.
In this paper, an output feedback nonlinear control is proposed for a hydraulic system with mismatched modeling uncertainties in which an extended state observer (ESO) and a nonlinear robust controller are synthesized via the backstepping method. The ESO is designed to estimate not only the unmeasured system states but also the modeling uncertainties. The nonlinear robust controller is designed to stabilize the closed-loop system. The proposed controller accounts for not only the nonlinearities (e.g., nonlinear flow features of servovalve), but also the modeling uncertainties (e.g., parameter derivations and unmodeled dynamics). Furthermore, the controller theoretically guarantees a prescribed tracking transient performance and final tracking accuracy, while achieving asymptotic tracking performance in the absence of time-varying uncertainties, which is very important for high-accuracy tracking control of hydraulic servo systems. Extensive comparative experimental results are obtained to verify the high-performance nature of the proposed control strategy.
In this paper, the design and implementation of a wireless power transfer system for moving electric vehicles along with an example of an online electric vehicle system are presented. Electric vehicles are charged on roadway by wireless power transfer technology. Electrical and practical designs of the inverter, power lines, pickup, rectifier, and regulator as well as an optimized core structure design for a large air gap are described. Also, electromotive force shielding for the electric vehicle is suggested. The overall system was implemented and tested. The experimental results showed that 100-kW power with 80% power transfer efficiency under 26-cm air gap was acquired.
This paper develops a sliding-mode control (SMC) approach for systems with mismatched uncertainties via a nonlinear disturbance observer (DOB). By designing a novel sliding surface based on the disturbance estimation, a DOB-based SMC method is developed in this paper to counteract the mismatched disturbance. The newly proposed method exhibits the following two attractive features. First, the switching gain is only required to be designed greater than the bound of the disturbance estimation error rather than that of the disturbance; thus, the chattering problem is substantially alleviated. Second, the proposed method retains its nominal performance, which means the proposed method acts the same as the baseline sliding-mode controller in the absence of uncertainties. Simulation results of both the numerical and application examples show that the proposed method exhibits much better control performance than the baseline SMC and the integral SMC (I-SMC) methods, such as reduced chattering and nominal performance recovery.
Multilevel converters have been under research and development for more than three decades and have found successful industrial application. However, this is still a technology under development, and many new contributions and new commercial topologies have been reported in the last few years. The aim of this paper is to group and review these recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, to provide readers with a comprehensive and insightful review of where multilevel converter technology stands and is heading. This paper first presents a brief overview of well-established multilevel converters strongly oriented to their current state in industrial applications to then center the discussion on the new converters that have made their way into the industry. In addition, new promising topologies are discussed. Recent advances made in modulation and control of multilevel converters are also addressed. A great part of this paper is devoted to show nontraditional applications powered by multilevel converters and how multilevel converters are becoming an enabling technology in many industrial sectors. Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of this technology are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.
This paper deals with the adaptive sliding-mode control problem for nonlinear active suspension systems via the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy approach. The varying sprung and unsprung masses, the unknown actuator nonlinearity, and the suspension performances are taken into account simultaneously, and the corresponding mathematical model is established. The T-S fuzzy system is used to describe the original nonlinear system for the control-design aim via the sector nonlinearity approach. A sufficient condition is proposed for the asymptotical stability of the designing sliding motion. An adaptive sliding-mode controller is designed to guarantee the reachability of the specified switching surface. The condition can be converted to the convex optimization problems. Simulation results for a half-vehicle active suspension model are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes.
This paper summarizes the main problems and solutions of power quality in microgrids, distributed-energy-storage systems, and ac/dc hybrid microgrids. First, the power quality enhancement of grid-interactive microgrids is presented. Then, the cooperative control for enhance voltage harmonics and unbalances in microgrids is reviewed. Afterward, the use of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) in grid-connected microgrids is introduced in order to improve voltage sags/swells and unbalances. Finally, the coordinated control of distributed storage systems and ac/dc hybrid microgrids is explained.
This paper presents the coordinated control of distributed energy storage systems in dc microgrids. In order to balance the state-of-charge (SoC) of each energy storage unit (ESU), an SoC-based adaptive droop control method is proposed. In this decentralized control method, the droop coefficient is inversely proportional to the nth order of SoC. By using a SoC-based droop method, the ESUs with higher SoC deliver more power, whereas the ones with lower SoC deliver less power. Therefore, the energy stored in the ESU with higher SoC decreases faster than that with lower SoC. The SoC difference between each ESU gradually becomes smaller, and finally, the load power is equally shared between the distributed ESUs. Meanwhile, the load sharing speed can be adjusted by changing the exponent of SoC in the adaptive droop control. The model of the SoC-based adaptive droop control system is established, and the system stability is thereby analyzed by using this model. Simulation and experimental results from a 2 × 2.2 kW parallel converter system are presented in order to validate the proposed approach.
Wireless power technology offers the promise of cutting the last cord, allowing users to seamlessly recharge mobile devices as easily as data are transmitted through the air. Initial work on the use of magnetically coupled resonators for this purpose has shown promising results. We present new analysis that yields critical insight into the design of practical systems, including the introduction of key figures of merit that can be used to compare systems with vastly different geometries and operating conditions. A circuit model is presented along with a derivation of key system concepts, such as frequency splitting, the maximum operating distance (critical coupling), and the behavior of the system as it becomes undercoupled. This theoretical model is validated against measured data and shows an excellent average coefficient of determination of 0.9875. An adaptive frequency tuning technique is demonstrated, which compensates for efficiency variations encountered when the transmitter-to-receiver distance and/or orientation are varied. The method demonstrated in this paper allows a fixed-load receiver to be moved to nearly any position and/or orientation within the range of the transmitter and still achieve a near-constant efficiency of over 70% for a range of 0-70 cm.