Almost all bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic cells shed extracellular vesicles either constitutively or in a regulated manner. These nanosized membrane vesicles are spherical, bilayered proteolipids that harbor specific subsets of proteins, DNAs, RNAs, and lipids. Recent research has facilitated conceptual advancements in this emerging field that indicate that extracellular vesicles act as intercellular communicasomes by transferring signals to their target cell via surface ligands and delivering receptors and functional molecules. Recent progress in mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles derived from diverse cell types and body fluids has resulted in the identification of several thousand vesicular proteins that provide us with essential clues to the molecular mechanisms involved in vesicle cargo sorting and biogenesis. Furthermore, cell-type- or disease-specific vesicular proteins help us to understand the pathophysiological functions of extracellular vesicles and contribute to the discovery of diagnostic and therapeutic target proteins. This review focuses on the high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles (i.e., exosomes and ectosomes), EVpedia (a free web-based integrated database of high-throughput data for systematic analyses of extracellular vesicles; ), and the intravesicular protein-protein interaction network analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles. The goal of this article is to encourage further studies to construct a comprehensive proteome database for extracellular vesicles that will help us to not only decode the biogenesis and cargo-sorting mechanisms during vesicle formation but also elucidate the pathophysiological roles of these complex extracellular organelles. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 34: 474-490, 2015.
There is an advantage for users of electrospray and nanospray mass spectrometry to have an understanding of the processes involved in the conversion of the ions present in the solution to ions in the gas phase. The following processes are considered: Creation of charge droplets at the capillary tip; Electrical potentials required and possibility of gas discharges; Evolution of charged droplets, due to solvent evaporation and Coulomb explosions, to very small droplets that are the precursors of the gas phase ions; Production of gas phase ions from these droplets via the Ion Evaporation and Charge residue models; Analytical uses of ESIMS of small ions, qualitative and quantitative analysis; Effects of the ESI mechanism on the analysis of proteins and protein complexes; Determination of stability constants of protein complexes; Role of additives such as ammonium acetate on the observed mass spectra. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 28:898-917, 2009
Protein carbonylation, one of the most harmful irreversible oxidative protein modifications, is considered as a major hallmark of oxidative stress-related disorders. Protein carbonyl measurements are often performed to assess the extent of oxidative stress in the context of cellular damage, aging and several age-related disorders. A wide variety of analytical techniques are available to detect and quantify protein-bound carbonyls generated by metal-catalyzed oxidation, lipid peroxidation or glycation/glycoxidation. Here we review current analytical approaches for protein carbonyl detection with a special focus on mass spectrometry-based techniques. The utility of several carbonyl-derivatization reagents, enrichment protocols and especially advanced mass spectrometry techniques are compared and discussed in detail. Furthermore, the mechanisms and biology of protein carbonylation are summarized based on recent high-throughput proteomics data.
One of the most important early developments in the field of proteomics was the advent of automated data acquisition routines that allowed high-throughput unattended data acquisition during HPLC introduction of peptide mixtures to a tandem mass spectrometer. Prior to this, data acquisition was orders of magnitude less efficient being based entirely on lists of predetermined ions generated in a prior HPLC-MS experiment. This process, known generically as data-dependent analysis, empowered the development of shotgun proteomics where hundreds to thousands of peptide sequences are matched per experiment. In their most popular implementation, the most abundant ionized species from every precursor ion scan at each moment in chromatographic time are successively selected for isolation, activation and tandem mass analysis. While extremely powerful, this strategy has one primary limitation in that detectable dynamic range is restricted (in a top-down manner) to the peptides that ionize the best. To circumvent the serial nature of the data-dependent process and increase detectable dynamic range, the concepts of multiplexed and data-independent acquisition (DIA) have emerged. Multiplexed-data acquisition is based on more efficient co-selection and co-dissociation of multiple precursor ions in parallel, the data from which is subsequently de-convoluted to provide polypeptide sequences for each individual precursor ion. DIA has similar goals, but there is no real-time ion selection based on prior precursor ion scans. Instead, predefined m/z ranges are interrogated either by fragmenting all ions entering the mass spectrometer at every single point in chromatographic time; or by dividing the m/z range into smaller m/z ranges for isolation and fragmentation. These approaches aim to fully utilize the capabilities of mass spectrometers to maximize tandem MS acquisition time and to address the need to expand the detectable dynamic range, lower the limit of detection, and improve the overall confidence of peptide identifications and relative protein quantification measurements. This review covers all aspects of multiplexed- and data-independent tandem mass spectrometry in proteomics, from experimental implementations to advances in software for data interpretation. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 33: 452-470, 2014.
Metabolomics is one omics approach that can be used to acquire comprehensive information on the composition of a metabolite pool to provide a functional screen of the cellular state. Studies of the plant metabolome include analysis of a wide range of chemical species with diverse physical properties, from ionic inorganic compounds to biochemically derived hydrophilic carbohydrates, organic and amino acids, and a range of hydrophobic lipid-related compounds. This complexitiy brings huge challenges to the analytical technologies employed in current plant metabolomics programs, and powerful analytical tools are required for the separation and characterization of this extremely high compound diversity present in biological sample matrices. The use of mass spectrometry (MS)-based analytical platforms to profile stress-responsive metabolites that allow some plants to adapt to adverse environmental conditions is fundamental in current plant biotechnology research programs for the understanding and development of stress-tolerant plants. In this review, we describe recent applications of metabolomics and emphasize its increasing application to study plant responses to environmental (stress-) factors, including drought, salt, low oxygen caused by waterlogging or flooding of the soil, temperature, light and oxidative stress (or a combination of them). Advances in understanding the global changes occurring in plant metabolism under specific abiotic stress conditions are fundamental to enhance plant fitness and increase stress tolerance. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 35:620-649, 2016
Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is an emerging separation mode of liquid chromatography (LC). Using highly hydrophilic stationary phases capable of retaining polar/ionic metabolites, and accompany with high organic content mobile phase that offer readily compatibility with mass spectrometry (MS) has made HILIC an attractive complementary tool to the widely used reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic separations in metabolomic studies. The combination of HILIC and RPLC coupled with an MS detector expands the number of detected analytes and provides more comprehensive metabolite coverage than use of only RP chromatography. This review describes the recent applications of HILIC-MS/MS in metabolomic studies, ranging from amino acids, lipids, nucleotides, organic acids, pharmaceuticals, and metabolites of specific nature. The biological systems investigated include microbials, cultured cell line, plants, herbal medicine, urine, and serum as well as tissues from animals and humans. Owing to its unique capability to measure more-polar biomolecules, the HILIC separation technique would no doubt enhance the comprehensiveness of metabolite detection, and add significant value for metabolomic investigations. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 35:574-600, 2016
Tandem mass spectral library search (MS/MS) is the fastest way to correctly annotate MS/MS spectra from screening small molecules in fields such as environmental analysis, drug screening, lipid analysis, and metabolomics. The confidence in MS/MS-based annotation of chemical structures is impacted by instrumental settings and requirements, data acquisition modes including data-dependent and data-independent methods, library scoring algorithms, as well as post-curation steps. We critically discuss parameters that influence search results, such as mass accuracy, precursor ion isolation width, intensity thresholds, centroiding algorithms, and acquisition speed. A range of publicly and commercially available MS/MS databases such as NIST, MassBank, MoNA, LipidBlast, Wiley MSforID, and METLIN are surveyed. In addition, software tools including NIST MS Search, MS-DIAL, Mass Frontier, SmileMS, Mass++, and XCMS2 to perform fast MS/MS search are discussed. MS/MS scoring algorithms and challenges during compound annotation are reviewed. Advanced methods such as the in silico generation of tandem mass spectra using quantum chemistry and machine learning methods are covered. Community efforts for curation and sharing of tandem mass spectra that will allow for faster distribution of scientific discoveries are discussed.
Dried blood spots (DBS) typically consist in the deposition of small volumes of capillary blood onto dedicated paper cards. Comparatively to whole blood or plasma samples, their benefits rely in the fact that sample collection is easier and that logistic aspects related to sample storage and shipment can be relatively limited, respectively, without the need of a refrigerator or dry ice. Originally, this approach has been developed in the sixties to support the analysis of phenylalanine for the detection of phenylketonuria in newborns using bacterial inhibition test. In the nineties tandem mass spectrometry was established as the detection technique for phenylalanine and tyrosine. DBS became rapidly recognized for their clinical value: they were widely implemented in pediatric settings with mass spectrometric detection, and were closely associated to the debut of newborn screening (NBS) programs, as a part of public health policies. Since then, sample collection on paper cards has been explored with various analytical techniques in other areas more or less successfully regarding large-scale applications. Moreover, in the last 5 years a regain of interest for DBS was observed and originated from the bioanalytical community to support drug development (e.g., PK studies) or therapeutic drug monitoring mainly. Those recent applications were essentially driven by improved sensitivity of triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. This review presents an overall view of all instrumental and methodological developments for DBS analysis with mass spectrometric detection, with and without separation techniques. A general introduction to DBS will describe their advantages and historical aspects of their emergence. A second section will focus on blood collection, with a strong emphasis on specific parameters that can impact quantitative analysis, including chromatographic effects, hematocrit effects, blood effects, and analyte stability. A third part of the review is dedicated to sample preparation and will consider off-line and on-line extractions; in particular, instrumental designs that have been developed so far for DBS extraction will be detailed. Flow injection analysis and applications will be discussed in section IV. The application of surface analysis mass spectrometry (DESI, paper spray, DART, APTDCI, MALDI, LDTD-APCI, and ICP) to DBS is described in section V, while applications based on separation techniques (e.g., liquid or gas chromatography) are presented in section VI. To conclude this review, the current status of DBS analysis is summarized, and future perspectives are provided. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 35:361-438, 2016.
Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is strengthening its position as a valuable analytical tool. It has unique ability to identify structures and to unravel molecular changes that occur in the precisely defined part of the sample. These unique features open new possibilities in the field of various aspects of biological research. In this review we briefly discuss the main imaging mass spectrometry techniques, as well as the nature of biological samples and molecules, which might be analyzed by such methodology. Moreover, a novel approach, where different analytical techniques might be combined with the results of IMS study, is emphasized and discussed. With such a fast development of IMS and related methods, we can foresee the promising future of this technique. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (cluster SIMS) has played a critical role in the characterization of polymeric materials over the last decade, allowing for the ability to obtain spatially resolved surface and in-depth molecular information from many polymer systems. With the advent of new molecular sources such as C-60(+), Au-3(+), SF5+, and Bi-3(+) there are considerable increases in secondary ion signal as compared to more conventional atomic beams (Ar+, Cs+, or Ga+). In addition, compositional depth profiling in organic and polymeric systems is now feasible, without the rapid signal decay that is typically observed under atomic bombardment. The premise behind the success of cluster SIMS is that compared to atomic beams, polyatomic beams tend to cause surface-localized damage with rapid sputter removal rates, resulting in a system at equilibrium, where the damage created is rapidly removed before it can accumulate. Though this may be partly true, there are actually much more complex chemistries occurring under polyatomic bombardment of organic and polymeric materials, which need to be considered and discussed to better understand and define the important parameters for successful depth profiling. The following presents a review of the current literature on polymer analysis using cluster beams. This review will focus on the surface and in-depth characterization of polymer samples with cluster sources, but will also discuss the characterization of other relevant organic materials, and basic polymer radiation chemistry. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.,(dagger) Mass Spec Rev 29: 247-293, 2010