Purpose – Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling is a variance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) technique that is widely applied in business and social sciences. Its ability to model composites and factors makes it a formidable statistical tool for new technology research. Recent reviews, discussions, and developments have led to substantial changes in the understanding and use of PLS. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – This paper aggregates new insights and offers a fresh look at PLS path modeling. It presents new developments, such as consistent PLS, confirmatory composite analysis, and the heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations. Findings – PLS path modeling is the method of choice if a SEM contains both factors and composites. Novel tests of exact fit make a confirmatory use of PLS path modeling possible. Originality/value – This paper provides updated guidelines of how to use PLS and how to report and interpret its results.
Purpose - Indirect or mediated effects constitute a type of relationship between constructs that often occurs in partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Over the past few years, the methods for testing mediation have become more sophisticated. However, many researchers continue to use outdated methods to test mediating effects in PLS, which can lead to erroneous results. One reason for the use of outdated methods or even the lack of their use altogether is that no systematic tutorials on PLS exist that draw on the newest statistical findings. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - This study illustrates the state-of-the-art use of mediation analysis in the context of PLS-structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings - This study facilitates the adoption of modern procedures in PLS-SEM by challenging the conventional approach to mediation analysis and providing more accurate alternatives. In addition, the authors propose a decision tree and classification of mediation effects. Originality/value - The recommended approach offers a wide range of testing options (e.g. multiple mediators) that go beyond simple mediation analysis alternatives, helping researchers discuss their studies in a more accurate way.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that affect the adoption of cloud computing by firms belonging to the high-tech industry. The eight factors examined in this study are relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, top management support, firm size, technology readiness, competitive pressure, and trading partner pressure.Design methodology approach - A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data from 111 firms belonging to the high-tech industry in Taiwan. Relevant hypotheses were derived and tested by logistic regression analysis.Findings - The findings revealed that relative advantage, top management support, firm size, competitive pressure, and trading partner pressure characteristics have a significant effect on the adoption of cloud computing.Research limitations implications - The research was conducted in the high-tech industry, which may limit the generalisability of the findings.Practical implications - The findings offer cloud computing service providers with a better understanding of what affects cloud computing adoption characteristics, with relevant insight on current promotions.Originality value - The research contributes to the application of new technology cloud computing adoption in the high-tech industry through the use of a wide range of variables. The findings also help firms consider their information technologies investments when implementing cloud computing.
Purpose Following the call for awareness of accepted reporting practices by Ringle, Sarstedt, and Straub in 2012, the purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in Industrial Management & Data Systems (IMDS) and extend MIS Quarterly (MISQ) applications to include the period 2012-2014. Design/methodology/approach Review of PLS-SEM applications in information systems (IS) studies published in IMDS and MISQ for the period 2010-2014 identifying a total of 57 articles reporting the use of or commenting on PLS-SEM. Findings The results indicate an increased maturity of the IS field in using PLS-SEM for model complexity and formative measures and not just small sample sizes and non-normal data. Research limitations/implications Findings demonstrate the continued use and acceptance of PLS-SEM as an accepted research method within IS. PLS-SEM is discussed as the preferred SEM method when the research objective is prediction. Practical implications This update on PLS-SEM use and recent developments will help authors to better understand and apply the method. Researchers are encouraged to engage in complete reporting procedures. Originality/value Applications of PLS-SEM for exploratory research and theory development are increasing. IS scholars should continue to exercise sound practice by reporting reasons for using PLS-SEM and recognizing its wider applicability for research. Recommended reporting guidelines following Ringle et al. (2012) and Gefen et al. (2011) are included. Several important methodological updates are included as well.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce the importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) and explain how to use it in the context of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLSSEM). A case study, drawing on the IPMA module implemented in the SmartPLS 3 software, illustrates the results generation and interpretation. Design/methodology/approach - The explications first address the principles of the IPMA and introduce a systematic procedure for its use, followed by a detailed discussion of each step. Finally, a case study on the use of technology shows how to apply the IPMA in empirical PLS-SEM studies. Findings - The IPMA gives researchers the opportunity to enrich their PLS-SEM analysis and, thereby, gain additional results and findings. More specifically, instead of only analyzing the path coefficients (i.e. the importance dimension), the IPMA also considers the average value of the latent variables and their indicators (i.e. performance dimension). Research limitations/implications - An IPMA is tied to certain requirements, which relate to the measurement scales, variable coding, and indicator weights estimates. Moreover, the IPMA presumes linear relationships. This research does not address the computation and interpretation of non-linear dependencies. Practical implications - The IPMA is particularly useful for generating additional findings and conclusions by combining the analysis of the importance and performance dimensions in practical PLS-SEM applications. Thereby, the IPMA allows for prioritizing constructs to improve a certain target construct. Expanding the analysis to the indicator level facilitates identifying the most important areas of specific actions. These results are, for example, particularly important in practical studies identifying the differing impacts that certain construct dimensions have on phenomena such as technology acceptance, corporate reputation, or customer satisfaction. Originality/value - This paper is the first to offer researchers a tutorial and annotated example of an IPMA. Based on a state-of-the-art review of the technique and a detailed explanation of the method, this paper introduces a systematic procedure for running an IPMA. A case study illustrates the analysis, using the SmartPLS 3 software.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors associated with consumer’s intention to adopt wearable technology in healthcare, and to examine the moderating effects of product type on consumer’s adoption intention. Design/methodology/approach – An integrated acceptance model was developed based on unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2), protection motivation theory (PMT), and privacy calculus theory. The model was tested with 462 respondents using a survey. Findings – Consumer’s decision to adopt healthcare wearable technology is affected by factors from technology, health, and privacy perspectives. Specially, fitness device users care more about hedonic motivation, functional congruence, social influence, perceived privacy risk, and perceived vulnerability, but medical device users pay more attention to perceived expectancy, self-efficacy, effort expectancy, and perceived severity. Originality/value – This study is among the first to investigate healthcare wearable device from behavioral perspective. It also helps to comprehensively understand emerging health information technology (HIT) acceptance from technology, health, and privacy perspectives.
Purpose – Considering the lack of understanding of the mobile applications (mobile apps) market and low usage rates among Malaysians, Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2) was adapted to investigate the determinants of consumer behavioural intention (BI) to use mobile apps. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 288 sample data was collected and analysed using partial least square equation modelling (PLS-SEM) method. Findings – All of UTAUT2 constructs (i.e. performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, and habit), except for price value and social influence, significantly relate with BI to use mobile applications. Habit was reported to have the strongest influence. Gender and educational level were found to be insignificant moderators. Practical implications – Mobile application developers could have better understanding on users’ needs and intention, based on the findings. Originality/value – In order to shed light on current problems, and there is a dearth in relevant studies which could resolve the issue, this paper contributes the necessary knowledge on mobile apps acceptance to developers. Educational level was added into UTAUT2 as a moderator in addition to gender.
Purpose - Assessing a measure of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) performance is currently a key challenge. The literature on SSCM is very limited and performance measures need to have a systematic framework. The recently developed balanced scorecard (BSC) is a measurement system that requires a balanced set of financial and non-financial measures. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the SSCM performance based on four aspects i.e. sustainability, internal operations, learning and growth, and stakeholder. Design/methodology/approach - This paper developed a BSC hierarchical network for SSCM in a close-loop hierarchical structure. A generalized quantitative evaluation model based on the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) were then used to consider both the interdependence among measures and the fuzziness of subjective measures in SSCM. Findings - The results of this study indicate that the top-ranking aspect to consider is that of stakeholders, and the top five criteria are green design, corporate sustainability, strategic planning for environmental management, supplier cost-saving initiatives and market share. Originality/value - The main contributions of this study are twofold. First, this paper provides valuable support for supply chain stakeholders regarding the nature of network hierarchical relations with qualitative and quantitative scales. Second, this paper improves practical performance and enhances management effectiveness for SSCM.
Purpose - In recent years, social media have attracted considerable attention. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical literature review of social media research with the aim of developing a conceptual framework to explain how social media applications are supported by various social media tools and technologies and underpinned by a set of personal and social behavior theories or models. Design/methodology/approach - This study adopted a two-stage approach. The first stage involves a critical literature review of academic journals in social media research, followed by the proposal of a conceptual framework that highlights the tools and technologies as well as theories and models that serve as the foundation of social media applications. The second stage involves the use of an actual case to demonstrate how the proposed framework facilitates the development of a social media application for a regional division of an international non-government organization. Findings - The literature review indicated that social media have been applied in diverse business areas with the support of various social media tools and technologies and underpinned by a range of personal and social behavior theories and models. Based upon such findings, a conceptual social media application framework was devised and its usability illustrated via a real-life case study. Managerial implications are also discussed. Research limitations/implications - Social media covers a wide range of research topics and thus, the literature review presented in this study may not be exhaustive. Nevertheless, the proposed framework and case study can both serve as reference for future research and provide recommendations for practitioners in the design and development of their own social media applications. Practical implications - This study not only explains the importance of applying social media in various business sectors, but also enhances the understanding of the infrastructure of social media applications. The study also provides insights for improving the efficiency of application solutions. Organizations are advised to adopt social media in their business based on the proposed conceptual framework. Originality/value - With a literature review of social media research and a real-life case study, this study presents a conceptual framework using extant theories and models to form a foundation for social media applications. The framework extends existing knowledge on the design and development of information systems.
Purpose - The paper seeks to investigate the factors that affect the adoption of e-business by firms belonging to European Union (EU) countries, by comparing the effect across two different industries: telecommunications (telco) and tourism.Design methodology approach - Data were collected from 2,459 firms belonging to EU27 countries across two industries. The data were analyzed by employing factorial analysis and relevant hypotheses were derived and tested by logistic regression analysis.Findings - The results suggest that the perceived benefits and obstacles of e-business, technology readiness, competitive pressure, and trading partner collaboration are the drivers that are important for both industries. Through the comparison of the industries, statistically significant differences between the telco and the tourism industries, i.e. the relative importance of all drivers for e-business adoption differs between the industries, were found. The only exception is competitive pressure.Research limitations implications - The cross-sectional nature of this paper does not allow knowing how this relationship will change overtime.Practical implications - The findings offer valuable insight to managerial and policy makers; they should promote information and communication technology infrastructure, information technology training programmes to employees, and trading partner collaboration with business partners in each industry mainly in the tourism industry.Originality value - To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper is one of the first that examines adoption of e-business with a multi-industries comparison of EU27 countries using a research model that combines the Tornatzky and Fleischer model and the Iacovou et al. model.
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore green supply chain management (GSCM) practices and their relationship with organizational performance. More specifically, this research explores the effect of GSCM efforts and other organizational factors on firm performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that serve as suppliers to large customer firms in the electronics industry.Design methodology approach - This study developed a research model relating GSCM practice and business performance through three organizational variables (employee satisfaction, operational efficiency, and relational efficiency) as moderators. Statistical analyses were based on the data collected, through survey questionnaires, from 223 SMEs in the electronics industry in Korea. Reliability, validity, and goodness-of-fit of the research model were tested by the widely accepted statistical tools. To test the hypotheses relating GSCM practice implementation and business performance, structural equation modeling was used.Findings - The most anticipated finding of the study was a direct link between GSCM practice implementation and business performance. However, no statistical significance was found. Instead, significant indirect relationships were found between GSCM practice implementation and business performance through mediating variables of operational efficiency and relational efficiency. This result indicates that business performance will be improved when GSCM enhances operational efficiency and operational efficiency.Research limitations implications - Research on GSCM is still at the early stage. Further refinement of the questionnaire is needed. Generalizability of the findings is also limited because of data collected from electronics firms in Korean. This study shed several important insights. The findings of this study are generally consistent with prior studies in other parts of the world. SMEs in the Korean electronics industry believe that GSCM practices help generate new opportunities to attract clients in addition to complying with the buyer firms' demand. It was also found that implementation of GSCM practices help improve operational and relational efficiencies of supplier firms.Originality value - Few empirical studies have been done in GSCM based on the conceptual footing of resource dependence theory. Also, this study was conducted from the supplier's perspective in examining the weaknesses of SME suppliers. Thus, the authors emphasize the importance of support from large buying firms for improving SME suppliers' green management capabilities.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to uncover the effects of perceived transaction convenience (PTC) and perceived transaction speed (PTS) on unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) in the context of m-payment. Design/methodology/approach – A predictive analysis approach was used to examine the PTC and PTS using a two-stage partial least square (PLS) and neural network (NN) analyses. Findings – The findings reveal that only effort expectancy (EE) and facilitating conditions (FC) were discovered to significantly influence BI. More importantly, PTC was found to have positive significant relationship with EE and performance expectancy (PE). Moreover, PTS also supported the positive relationship with BI and EE. Practical implications – The findings of the study provided further insights to mobile payment service providers, online banking industry players, and all decision makers and stakeholders involved. Originality/value – Despite of many attempts devoted to understand m-payment adoption, the effects of PTC and PTS on m-payment are not well understood.
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine the deployment of pro-active and re-active practices in the implementation of green supply chain management (GSCM) and analyze their impact on environmental, economic, and intangible performance by considering business strategy as organizational focus.Design methodology approach - Data were collected from a sample of 190 ISO 14001 certified manufacturing companies in Thailand and used to test the research hypotheses. Factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity while multivariate linear regression was used to test criteria validity.Findings - The threat of legislation and regulation (re-active practices) was a consideration that resulted in companies enhancing their environmental, economic, and intangible performance. Reverse logistics practices (pro-active practices) had low levels of adoption and do not have a significant impact on GSCM performance.Research limitations implications - This study did not consider some aspects of organizational culture interaction between key customers and suppliers in the supply chain.Originality value - The results of this study suggest that organizations need to be aware that pursuing a low-cost strategy may impact negatively on their ability to invest in GSCM.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors within the technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework that affect the decision to adopt electronic commerce (EC) and extent of EC adoption, as well as adoption and non-adoption of different EC applications within small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).Design methodology approach - A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from 235 managers or owners of manufacturing SMEs in Iran. The data were analyzed by employing factorial analysis and relevant hypotheses were derived and tested by multiple and logistic regression analysis.Findings - EC adoption within SMEs is affected by perceived relative advantage, perceived compatibility, CEO's innovativeness, information intensity, buyer supplier pressure, support from technology vendors, and competition. Similarly, description on determinants of adoption and non-adoption of different EC applications has been provided.Research limitations implications - Cross-sectional data of this research tend to have certain limitations when it comes to explaining the direction of causality of the relationships among the variables, which will change overtime.Practical implications - The findings offer valuable insights to managers, IS experts, and policy makers responsible for assisting SMEs with entering into the e-marketplace. Vendors should collaborate with SMEs to enhance the compatibility of EC applications with these businesses. To enhance the receptiveness of EC applications, CEOs, innovativeness and perception toward EC advantages should also be aggrandized.Originality value - This study is perhaps one of the first to use a wide range of variables in the light of TOE framework to comprehensively assess EC adoption behavior, both in terms of initial and post-adoption within SMEs in developing countries, as well adoption and non-adoption of simple and advanced EC applications such as electronic supply chain management systems.
Purpose – Third-party logistics (3PL) plays a main role in supply chain management and, as a result, has experienced remarkable growth. The demand for 3PL providers has become a main approach for companies to offer better customer service, reduce costs, and gain competitive advantage. This paper identifies important criteria for 3PL provider selection and evaluation, and the purpose of this paper is to select 3PL providers from the viewpoint of firms which were already outsourcing their logistics services. Design/methodology/approach – This study utilized the grey decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method to develop 3PL provider selection criteria. Because human judgments are vague and complicated to depict by accurate numerical values, the grey system theory is used to handle this problem. Findings – The findings revealed the structure and interrelationships between criteria and identified the main criteria for 3PL provider selection. The most important criteria for 3PL provider selection are on time delivery performance, technological capability, financial stability, human resource policies, service quality, and customer service, respectively. Practical implications – The paper’s results help managers of automotive industries, particularly in developing countries, to outsource logistics activities to 3PL providers effectively and to create a significant competitive advantage. Originality/value – The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, this paper proposes an integrated grey DEMATEL method to consider interdependent relationships among the 3PL provider selection criteria. Second, this study is one of the first studies to consider 3PL provider selection in a developing country like Iran.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine and quantify how various uncertainties result in different perceived risk dimensions that hinder mobile payment (m-payment) acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – An uncertainty-risk-value framework was proposed based on perceived risk theory, prospect theory, and perceived value theory. Structural equation modeling method was used to test the research model. Findings – Perceived information asymmetry, perceived technology uncertainty, perceived regulatory uncertainty, and perceived service intangibility are confirmed as the main determinants of perceived risk, while perceived performance risk, perceived financial risk, and perceived privacy risk were found to have strong negative effects on perceived value and acceptance intention. Practical implications – The findings may help businesses and policy makers better understand the sources of perceived risk and help support the development of appropriate strategies to mitigate the risk concerns consumers have regarding m-payment. Originality/value – Although the hindering effects of perceived risk regarding m-payment acceptance have been confirmed in previous studies, the sources of perceived risk were rarely investigated. By examining the determinants of perceived risk in m-payment acceptance, this paper offers insights into how consumers perceive risks when adopting new innovations. Additionally, it bridges the gap between the antecedents and consequences of perceived risk.
Purpose - Online trust is one of the key obstacles to vendors succeeding on the internet medium; a lack of trust is likely to discourage online consumers from participating in e-commerce. This research aims to investigate how online consumers develop their initial trust and purchase intentions. The research in conducted in the context of Taiwanese online bookstores.Design methodology approach - The research examines consumers' online initial trust by using four major categories of determinants: perceived technology, perceived risk, company competency, and trust propensity. It also investigates the impacts of both online initial trust and familiarity with online purchasing on purchase intention. The research model is statistically tested using the web sites of four online bookstores in Taiwan. The web site selected by each respondent is unfamiliar.Findings - It is found that perceived usefulness, perceived security, perceived privacy, perceived good reputation, and willingness to customise are the important antecedents to online initial trust. It is also discovered that different levels of trust propensity moderate perceptions toward the web site and online with respect to online initial trust, including perceived usefulness, perceived security, perceived privacy, perceived good reputation, and willingness to customise. Both online initial trust and familiarity with online purchasing have a positive impact on purchase intention.Originality value - The research provides insight into the development of online initial trust by consumers, and the relationships between online initial trust and purchase intention. The research model was created and then tested in the context of online bookshops in Taiwan.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a cross-enterprises framework to achieve a higher level of sharing of knowledge and services in manufacturing ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach - The authors describe the development of the emerging open manufacturing and discuss the model of knowledge creation processes of manufacturers. The authors present a decentralized framework based on blockchain and edge computing technologies, which consists of a customer layer, an enterprise layer, an application layer, an intelligence layer, a data layer, and an infrastructure layer. And a case study is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the framework. Findings - The authors discuss that the manufacturing ecosystem is changing from integrated and centralized systems to shared and distributed systems. The proposed framework incorporates the recent development in blockchain and edge computing that can meet the secure and distributed requirements for the sharing of knowledge and services in manufacturing ecosystems. Practical implications - The proposed framework provides a more secure and controlled way to share knowledge and services, thereby supports the company to develop scalable and flexible business at a lower cost, and ultimately improves the overall quality, efficiency, and effectiveness of manufacturing services. Originality/value - The proposed framework incorporates the recent development in edge computing technologies to achieve a flexible and distributed network. With the blockchain technology, it provides standards and protocols for implementing the framework and ensures the security issues. Not only information can be shared, but the framework also supports in the exchange of knowledge and services so that the parties can contribute their parts.
Purpose - The emergent field of Internet of Things (IoT) has been evolving rapidly with a geometric growth in the number of academic publications in this field. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature of IoT in past 16 years using rigorous bibliometric and network analysis tools, offering at the same time future directions for the IoT research community and implications for managers and decision makers. Design/methodology/approach - The authors adopted the techniques of bibliometric and network analysis. The paper reviewed the articles published on IoT from 2000 to 2015. Findings - This study identifies top contributing authors; key research topics related to the field; the most influential works based on citations and PageRank; and established and emerging research clusters. Scholars are encouraged to further explore this topic. Research limitations/implications - This study focusses only on vision and applications of IoT. Scholars may explore various other aspects of this area of research. Originality/value - To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study to review the literature on IoT by using bibliometric and network analysis techniques. The study is unique as it spans a long time period of 16 years (2000-2015). The study proposes a five-cluster classification of research themes that may inform current and future research in IoT.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence Facebook usage among small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In addition, it examines the impact of Facebook usage on financial and non-financial performance of the SMEs. Design/methodology/approach – Using integrated model, this study examined the influence of compatibility, cost effectiveness, interactivity and trust on Facebook usage and its subsequent impact on organizations performance. Statistical analyses were based on the data collected, through survey questionnaire from 259 SMEs in Malaysia. Partial Least Square (PLS) method was used to test the hypotheses. Findings – The study revealed that Facebook usage has a strong positive impact on financial performance of SMEs; similarly it was also found that Facebook usage positively impacts the non-financial performance of SMEs in terms of cost reduction on marketing and customer service, improved customer relations and improved information accessibility. Additionally, factors such as compatibility, cost effectiveness and interactivity was identified as factors that influence Facebook usage among SMEs. Research limitations/implications – This study is limited in selection of samples. The sample only covered one community of SME in Malaysia which limits generalizability of the findings. This study provided a clearer idea on the real importance of Facebook and its benefits. The results would motivate and guide organizations in the adoption of Facebook for business activities. The study also has various theoretical and practical contributions. Originality/value – Very few empirical studies investigated the actual impact of Facebook usage among organizations. This study investigated the effect of Facebook usage on the financial performance of the organizations which is really important to study as it reveals the exact value of using Facebook for business activities.