Purpose - Because of global environmental concerns, sustainable design has become a mainstream building design goal in recent years. Sustainable development is even more urgent in the light of global climate change. This paper aims to examine the contributions which building information modelling (BIM) can make to the production of sustainable building designs.Design methodology approach - Various research methodologies have been adopted, including literature review, design tool analysis, a case study and structured face-to-face interviews. Data collected were synthesized as part of the research process.Findings - BIM is found to be ideally suited to the delivery of information needed for improved design and building performance. Two most significant benefits of BIM for sustainable building design are: integrated project delivery (IPD) and design optimization. However, there are also barriers to adopting BIM for sustainable design.Research limitations implications - This paper does not attempt to address all aspects of BIM functionality because the scope of BIM is very great and the resources of this research were limited.Practical implications - Successful implementation of BIM is able to eliminate the extra cost of design changes during the subsequent phases of construction process. BIM, therefore, is also capable of enhancing the project delivery culture in future.Social implications - BIM solutions can contribute to the selection of best solutions to reduce energy and resources consumption. This new technology and the approach also can generate the need of more innovative professionals and job opportunities.Originality value - This paper investigates the contribution of BIM to sustainable buildings from the perspective of design performance and improved communication and coordination.
Purpose – This paper aims to identify and evaluate the most significant risk factors that strongly affect the implementation of public–private partnership (PPP) water supply projects. PPP for water supply infrastructure services has seen continued growth over the past two decades, following public sector’s budgetary constraints and inability to provide infrastructure-based water services efficiently and cost effectively. However, these projects are often subjected to major risks leading to failures. Design/methodology/approach – Following extensive literature review and case study analyses, an international questionnaire survey was conducted with practicing and experienced PPP experts to establish the significant risks in PPP water projects. Both the probability of occurrence and severity of 40 risks were evaluated by the expert panel to determine their significance and impact on water projects procured under the PPP arrangement. Findings – The paper presents a derived risk factor list, ranks the factors and describes the “top-ranked” risk factors as: poor contract design, water pricing and tariff review uncertainty, political interference, public resistance to PPP, construction time and cost overrun, non-payment of bills, lack of PPP experience, financing risk, faulty demand forecasting, high operational costs and conflict between partners. Originality/value – This factor list broadens PPP stakeholders’ view of important project risks, rather than relying on culture-dependent studies – an area that has received less attention in PPP risk management research. The identified risk factors would provide governments and investors a useful tool in implementing constructive water PPPs by facilitating the development of risk mitigation strategies, particularly for developing countries with poor risk management practices.
Purpose Sustainable building design suffers from a lack of reliable life cycle data. The purpose of this paper is to compare life cycle costs of sustainable building projects, examine the magnitude of various cost drivers and discuss the implications of an emerging shift in cost drivers. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on data from 21 office buildings certified in Denmark according to the sustainable certification scheme DGNB. Findings The paper supports previous findings that construction costs and running costs each roughly make up half of the life cycle costs over a 50-year period. More surprising is the finding that the life cycle costs for cleaning are approximately twice as high as the supply costs for energy and water. Research limitations/implications The data set is based on actual construction costs of office buildings constructed in 2013-2017. Although all running costs are calculated rather than measured, they are based on a more detailed, specific and industry-supported set of calculation assumptions than is usual for life cycle costing studies because of extensive collaborative work in a number of concomitant national research and development projects. Practical implications Authorities, clients and building professionals heavily emphasise energy-saving measures in new Danish buildings. The paper suggests redirecting this effort towards other more prominent cost drivers like cleaning and technical installations. Originality/value This paper provides a notable contribution to the academic understanding of the significance of different cost drivers as well as the practical implementation of life cycle costing.
Purpose A green lease incorporates sustainability practices to reduce a building’s negative impact on the environment. Facilities managers play an important role in ensuring these best practices are implemented during the operational stage of a building; however, green leasing is an under-researched area in the emerging field of sustainable facilities management (SFM). This paper aims to investigate the common barriers encountered in ensuring environmental performance when a green lease agreement is in operation between a landlord and tenant. Design/methodology/approach This research was conducted in three stages using the principal-agent problem as the theoretical foundation for data collection. Stages 1 and 2 used semi-structured interviews to collect data with policy/corporate-level professionals, landlord and facilities management representatives who have considerable experience in green leases. Stage 3 used document reviews based on summative content analysis to further evaluate the extent of the contextual use of green leasing concepts as used within the facilities management community. Findings The study confirmed a strong incentive gap and information asymmetry between the landlord and facilities manager, forming a typical double principal-agent problem when the split incentives between the landlord and tenants are also taken into consideration, which results in agents acting on their own self-interest rather than the interests of the principal. Goal alignment is found to be key for the successful operation and management of a building throughout its life; when present, these goal conflicts can lead to disharmony between the parties to the contract. Research limitations/implications The study proposes a few practical measures to close the gaps in incentive and information asymmetry that create the principal-agent problem, while providing recommendations to the facilities management professional community. These recommendations could be included in future revisions of the SFM guidelines or code of practices used by the industry. Although this study exposed a rather neglected area of the facilities manager’s role in green leases, the findings are limited by the relatively small sample size used for the interviews. Originality/value This study contributes to the SFM body of knowledge from a green lease perspective, and the theoretical framework in the double principal-agent problem introduced in the study could be used in future research endeavours.
Purpose A paradigm in circular economy (CE) is that suppliers retain ownership of their products and materials, and that the users “only” pay for services. In many legal systems, however, elements incorporated in a building are considered to be fixtures, and therefore legally part of the building. This means that ensuring multi-cyclic behaviour of individual building elements (e.g. the facade or a window) is not so evident. This paper explores, from the perspective of Dutch law, how to secure the ownership of the supplier or to find alternatives within the existing system of property law. Design/methodology/approach The authors performed a literature review of both CE and (Dutch) property law. The results of these reviews are discussed and illustrated by legal case studies. Findings The options principally advocated within CE to retain ownership of building parts leave legal uncertainties and do not offer a solid basis for the development of circular business models, especially considering immovables and fixtures. For these categories, buy-back and take-back contracts, and models for reuse and recycling seem more promising. Research limitations/implications The research is limited to a literature review. Although the legal principles discussed in this paper are valid for both civil and common law systems, and similar findings might, therefore, be expected internationally, this study focused on the specific Dutch legal context. Comparative legal research and research of best practices in the building industry is needed to test the applicability of the findings in an international context. Practical implications Following the findings, CE initiatives within real estate and the construction industry should focus on alternative implementations of the operational lease concept, taking into account CE’s ambitions to reduce the extraction of raw materials. Originality/value At the moment the challenges that property law poses CE, real estate and operational lease are hardly discussed within the literature. This paper explores this gap.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate how decisions are taken in the early stages of a renovation project, up to the design brief, leading up to the decisions on how to proceed with the renovation in the design phase. Although many technical solutions are visualised in the design phase, it is in the early evaluations of needs and demands, leading up to the design brief, that set the requirements for viable solutions in the design and production phases. Design/methodology/approach The study was carried out as a longitudinal case study of the planning phases of a school renovation. The studied buildings were researched by document analysis and by attending meetings over a four-year period between the building owners and the municipality. Findings Aspects such as technical status, energy use and indoor environment in the buildings were not discussed to any great extent. A few inventories were carried out in the buildings to establish their technical and accessibility status. The aspects mainly discussed in the studied renovation project have been: accessibility, functionality with respect to teaching and learning requirements in addition to architectural and cultural values. Originality/value This study illustrates the comprehensive analysis needed when renovating a building and on difficulties of addressing and evaluating all the viable aspects of concern. It also shows that this planning for a renovation is not a straight line but rather a process where conditions are continuously changing.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that influence the facilities management (FM) in construction sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Design/methodology/approach The study used structured questionnaires, with the participation of 136 facilities professionals in construction sites in the Brazilian Amazon. These sites were selected with help of 17 facilities managers. The survey achieved a total response rate of 76.5 per cent. The factorial analysis was performed after checking the adequacy of the sample to the technique. The results allowed the continuation of data processing and the use of exploratory factorial analysis to summarize the variables and identify the influencing factors. Findings The results indicated five factors that influence the FM on construction sites in the Brazilian Amazon, namely: negotiation with local entities; weather; local suppliers; manpower; and logistical infrastructure. With the proper understanding of these factors, facilities professionals could plan actions to minimize negative impacts over the FM on construction sites. Research limitations/implications The influence of factors on FM was studied from the professionals’ viewpoint. It is possible that there are other perspectives or other influencing factors. However, this work is limited to the analysis of the variables that make up the five dimensions presented. Practical implications Organizations and FM professionals might be interested in the results of this research to enhance the FM performance on the construction sites existed and to plan the implementation of the FM on upcoming construction sites. Originality/value This paper is the first large research about FM in construction sites conducted in the Brazilian Amazon and serve as a basis to other research works that promote the development of FM in Brazil.
Purpose The environmental performance of buildings can be measured by using an existing green building indicator system. In Thailand, the Thai’s Rating of Energy and Environmental Sustainability (TREES) has been applied to 70 buildings including condominiums. It is important to collect feedback from stakeholders to identify the criteria of green features that respond to the expectation of condominium’s potential buyers as well as the satisfaction of current occupants. This paper aims to examine prioritised aspects from potential buyers and occupant satisfaction of the TREES criteria in the case study, a green condominium in Bangkok, Thailand. Design/methodology/approach The case study was conducted at IDEO Mobi Sathorn in Bangkok, the only condominium certified with the TREES system so far. Research methods include interviews, observations, document analysis and the surveys from the condominium’s potential buyers and current occupants. Findings The findings indicate that the condominium’s potential buyers are more concerned about site and landscape, indoor environmental quality and energy and atmosphere, whereas the current occupants are more satisfied about water conservation, site and landscape and energy and atmosphere in comparison with the other TREES criteria. Despite the provision of green features in the condominium, occupants are less satisfied about green innovation as showed in the least satisfied percentage of TREES criteria. In Facilities Management perspective, the paper shows connections between TREES criteria and FM functions in multi-unit residential project. The findings show that the application of TREES criteria focuses on the provision of value in FM, whereas stakeholder perceptions regarding the TREES criteria contribute to the perception of value in FM. Practical implications The findings and reflections upon the finding can help to understand the impact of green building aspects of the TREES system on perceptions of different stakeholders, that is, potential buyers and current occupants of the condominium. Recommendations for real estate developers and facilities managers regarding the development of green building concept on the TREES system are provided. Originality/value There has been no prior research in this area. The paper provides better understanding with regard to prioritised aspects from the potential buyers and occupant satisfaction of TREES criteria in Bangkok green condominium. This paper provides empirical data regarding stakeholder perception on TREES criteria that can be used to compare with similar data of the TREES-certified condominiums when they are available in the future.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the role of fit in the relationship between the design of working spaces and organizational culture. Design/methodology/approach The research is based on a set of two case studies compared on two levels of analysis (company and work group level). Empirical results are based on triangulated data involving observations, as well as interviews with the users, managers and designers of spaces in two organizations. Findings The results suggest that the overall “fit” of space and culture are not sufficient to engender positive outcomes (such as job performance and employee satisfaction). In particular, the results point to the moderating factors on the work group level of analysis (such as the type of job and employees’ personalities), as well as on the company level (implementation of the change management process), as crucial drivers of job satisfaction and productivity. Originality/value The authors demonstrate that a singular focus only on the fit between space and organizational culture leads to equivocal results in terms of cultural change outcomes. A more fine-grained analysis on the work group level considering the match between space, type of job, personality and seniority of the users of that space reconciles these differences.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to generate knowledge about the use of smart campus tools to improve the effective and efficient use of campuses. Many universities are facing a challenge in attuning their accommodation to organisational demand. How can universities invest their resources as effectively as possible and not in space that will be poorly utilized? The hypothesis of this paper is that by using smart campus tools, this problem can be solved. Design/methodology/approach To answer the research question, previous survey at 13 Dutch universities was updated and compared with a survey of various universities and other organizations. The survey consisted of interviews with structured and semi-structured questions, which resulted in a unified output for 27 cases. Findings Based on the output of the cases, the development of smart campus tools at Dutch universities was compared to that of international universities and other organizations. Furthermore, the data collection led to insights regarding the reasons for initiating smart campus tools, user and management information, costs and benefits and foreseen developments. Originality/value Although the use of smart tools in practice has gained significant momentum in the past few years, research on the subject is still very technology-oriented and not well-connected to facility management and real estate management. This paper provides an overview of the ways in which universities and organizations are currently supporting their users, improving the use of their buildings and reducing their energy footprint through the use of smart tools.
Purpose Effective building maintenance management is vital for reducing the impact of building defects and costly building maintenance work. Such practice significantly contributes to the public sector in terms of cost reduction, improved effectiveness and efficiency in maintenance works, increasing safety and well-being of the occupants, expanding the life of building stocks and expanding the value of investment for the government building assets. The maintenance practice in Malaysia is still emerging in comparison to many developed nations. The purpose of this study is to determine the current scenario of the building maintenance approach at the design stage in public buildings in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach An extensive questionnaire survey was held, involving 312 key players (38 per cent out of 820 predetermined participants) in Malaysia. Findings The analysis showed that building maintenance in public building in Malaysia still uses the reactive approach. Despite the Malaysian Government’s adoption of a proactive maintenance approach, unfortunately, there are some misunderstandings among the key players regarding the approach. The research results demonstrate that the key players had a lack of understanding on the concept of the proactive maintenance management approach and that they were either ignorant or had insufficient awareness of proactive maintenance approach. Originality/value The contribution of this study is useful for the government to adopt a more proactive building maintenance policy at the design stage, to give awareness on proactive building maintenance to the key players in their construction project and as a guide to the key players to adopt a maintenance plan at the design stage of work.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the preferred communication channels to foster energy conservation behaviour among office building users. Energy demand from the commercial sector in Malaysia is, at 33.2 per cent, the highest after the industry sector, at 45.1 per cent. The country’s progress in actively practising energy conservation is lacking, despite various energy conservation programmes having been launched in recent years. A large amount of energy is wasted by users’ poor energy conservation behaviour. To market voluntary energy conservation behaviour, the delivery of energy conservation messages using the appropriate communication channels remains an important strategy. Design/methodology/approach This paper involves two-stage data collection. The communication categories associated with a set of channels identified from expert interview serve as the basis for the second stage of empirical data gathering using conjoint analysis. A choice-based conjoint analysis assisted by Sawtooth Software is used to analyse the 525 usable empirical data gathered from a final questionnaire survey among the office building users in Malaysia. Findings This paper has identified five communication categories associated with a total of 19 channels. The mass media is acknowledged as the most preferred communication channel among office building users in the marketing of energy conservation behaviour, while the least preferred channel to communicate energy conservation information is audio-visual media. Originality/value This study contributes to existing literature with a novel case in Malaysia office building by identifying the preferred combination of communication channels in fostering energy conservation behaviour. The findings could benefit the building managers in marketing energy conservation behaviour among office building users to effectively achieve the desired change for sustainable development.
Purpose This paper aims to identify crisis leadership competencies in the facility management (FM) sector in Thailand. Design/methodology/approach The Delphi technique was used in three rounds of opinion evaluation from 24 Thai FM experts, based on which a large-scale questionnaire survey instrument was developed and administered. Of the 350 questionnaires distributed, 290 usable questionnaires were obtained (82.85 per cent response rate). Factor analysis was used to reveal important leadership competencies for managing facilities in crisis situations. Findings The Delphi technique identified 32 potential FM crisis leadership competencies. Of these, principal component analysis revealed 29 significant competencies. These competencies were grouped, using factor loadings, into five different competencies: emergency preparedness; crisis communication; emotional intelligence; leadership skills; and problem-solving. Emergency preparedness was found to be the most important leadership competency in FM crisis management. Research limitations/implications This study is limited to the experiences of FM experts in Thailand. Its empirical results can help human resource managers to develop appropriate training programs and policies for FM practitioners, as well as to help junior FM practitioners develop competencies essential for leaders in the FM sector. Originality/value This is a novel empirical study of leadership competencies in a growing business sector in Thailand (FM) and possibly other countries in the Asian region. Leaders in FM can benefit from recognizing the leadership competencies that are critical during crisis management.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify, analyze and discuss floor finishes used in health-care facilities and their selection criteria in the form of advantages and disadvantages. The authors also identify the top three health-care floor finishes and selection criteria based on the literature review results. Although flooring materials have a considerable impact on the life-cycle cost and indoor environment of health-care facilities, what criteria may be used for such flooring choices is not thoroughly studied. Design/methodology/approach The authors performed a systematic review of the literature on certain flooring systems currently used in health-care facilities and the criteria applied for their selection. Peer-reviewed studies and articles published after Year 2000 consistent with the research design were included. Findings Sixteen different selection criteria that influence the choice of floor finishes in health-care facilities were determined and discussed. The results show that the top three-floor finish materials preferred in health-care facilities are sheet vinyl, rubber and carpet, and the top three selection criteria for floor finishes are indoor air quality, patient safety and infection control. Originality/value The results of this study will assist building owners, architects and interior designers with implementing an informed design decision-making process, particularly in relation to floor finish selection. The findings will also provide guidance to floor finish manufacturers to improve their products based on facility managers’ preferences.
Purpose This paper aims to develop an approach to design a warehouse that uses class-based storage policy in a way that minimizes both space cost and material handling cost. Design/methodology/approach The authors argue for and develop an optimization model for joint determination of lane depth, lateral width and product partitions for minimizing the sum of handling and space costs. In doing so, the assumption of perfect sharing is also relaxed. Using computational experiments, the authors characterize the operating conditions based on pick density and cost ratio. The authors further outline an approach to decide the conditions under which it is advantageous to implement multiple classes. Findings More classes are preferred when both the pick density and cost ratio are higher and vice versa. Factors such as demand skewness, lane depth and stacking height affect the space-sharing dynamics. Practical implications The paper gives the practical insights on when the conditions under which it is advisable to partition a warehouse into a certain number of classes instead of maintaining and when to maintain as a single-class block. It also gives a method to estimate the space-sharing factor, given a combination of operating parameters. Originality/value Very few studies have seen class-based storage policy in the context of block stacked warehouse layout. Further, block stacking designs have mostly been approached with the objective of minimizing just the space cost. This study contributes to the literature by developing an integrated model, which has the practical utility.
Purpose A comprehensive literature review of mega event management of dynamic sporting events is presented. The purpose of this paper is to learn from these mega events to prescribe mitigation strategies for improving cost performance while simultaneously minimising public disruption on formula one grand prix events. Knowledge accrued of challenges posed is theoretically applied to circuit construction and reestablishment processes involved in orchestrating a “street circuit” grand prix event. Design/methodology/approach An inductive research methodological approach was adopted using an interpretivist epistemological design. A mixed methods analysis of pertinent extant literature of mega events afforded greater synthesis of the research problem domain and generated more valid and reliable findings. The software VOSviewer was used to conduct a qualitative bibliographic analysis of pertinent extant literature. Findings Three thematic groups of past research endeavour emerged from the analysis and were assigned appropriate nomenclature, namely: customer experience; geographical location; and research methods and approaches adopted. Analysis of these clusters revealed common factors that impact upon construction works during mega sporting events including: inclement weather conditions; miscommunication between project stakeholders; and economic impact upon the local community. Factors for mitigating these risks were also proposed, namely: traffic management plans; shift working; and wider public consultation. Originality/value This unique study provides invaluable insight into construction works commissioned and implemented at a mega “motor sports” public event. Although the research context was narrowly defined, findings presented are equally applicable to contractors, organisers and public authorities orchestrating other types of public event. The research concludes with direction for future work that seeks to apply the lessons learnt and measure the impact of findings presented herein.
Purpose The built environment is a major source of carbon emissions. However, 80 per cent of the damage arises through the operational phase of a building’s life. Office buildings are the most significant building type in terms of emission-reduction potential. Yet, little research has been undertaken to examine the barriers faced by building operators in transitioning to a green operation of the office buildings in their care. This study aims to identify those barriers. Design/methodology/approach Building facilities managers with between 7 and 25 years’ experience in operating primarily Melbourne high-rise office buildings were interviewed. The sample was taken from LinkedIn connections, with ten agreeing to participate in semi-structured interviews – out of the 17 invitations sent out. Interview comments were recorded, coded and categorised to identify the barriers sought by this study. Findings Seven categories of barriers to effecting green operation of office buildings were extracted. These were financial, owner-related, tenant-related, technological, regulatory, architectural and stakeholder interest conflicts. Difficulties identifying green operation strategies that improved cost performance or return on investment of buildings was the major barrier. Practical implications Government, policymakers and facilities managers themselves have been struggling with how to catalyse a green transition in the operation of office buildings. By identifying the barriers standing in the way, this study provides a concrete point of departure from which remedial strategies and policies may be formulated and put into effect. Originality/value The uptake of green operation of office buildings has been extremely slow. Though barriers have been hypothesised in earlier works, this is the first study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, that categorically identifies and tabulates the barriers that stand in the way of improving the green operational performance of office buildings, drawing on the direct knowledge of facilities experts.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the benefits of construction of sustainable buildings and highlight the challenges of achieving sustainable buildings in Kosovo. The present paper not only focuses on social, economic and environmental benefits of the sustainable buildings viewed from the perspective of construction industry experts but also on the challenges that the construction industry in Kosovo faces in achieving sustainable buildings. Design/methodology/approach The present study uses a qualitative research method and semi-structured interviews as a research instrument. The present study interviews around 20 experts of real estate management, architecture, civil engineering and sustainability. Findings The present research finds that the citizens of Kosovo are not very well informed about the benefits of sustainable buildings due to lack of adequate promotion of such buildings. The present study finds that sustainable buildings from the view of construction professionals in Prishtina, Kosovo, have economic, social, and environmental benefits mainly in the form of energy savings, lower operational costs, reduction of pollution and CO2 emissions and better health and satisfaction of occupants. The challenges are mainly of economic, structural and organizational and regulatory character. Research limitations/implications The present study has great implications for the society and construction industry because it shows to the investors all the benefits of building and using sustainable buildings. The findings of the present study, to a certain extent, fill the gap of lack of information that the construction industry in Kosovo faces regarding the benefits and challenges of sustainable buildings. The construction industry, buyers and authorities can benefit from the present study since they can understand the benefits and challenges of sustainable buildings, which can encourage them to invest more in sustainable buildings. Originality/value The study is the first qualitative study about the perception of construction professionals in Prishtina, Kosovo, regarding the benefits and challenges of sustainable buildings.
Purpose The paper aims to explore the relationship between office occupier work activity and workplace provision. It tests the proposition that location-fixed office workers are not well-supported in the working environment as location-flexible office workers. The research also explores the perceptions of the workplace provision based upon the types of tasks completed at the desk-location, whether this was collaborative or focussed. Design/methodology/approach The research adopts a cross-sectional approach using an online questionnaire to collect data from several offices in the Middles East. The dataset consists of 405 responses. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to understand the relationship between location flexibility and perception of productivity. In addition, a series of t test were used to evaluate the relationship between work activities and office environment. Findings The results show that those workers who were location-fixed perceived the workplace provision to have a more negative impact on their productivity than those who had a greater level of location-flexibility, particularly with regards to noise levels and interruptions. In terms of types of activities, those that undertook more collaborative tasks valued the facilitation of creativity and interaction from the workplace provision. Research limitations/implications The research has limitations as data collection was at one-point in time and therefore lacks the opportunity to undertake longitudinal analysis. However, the research gives greater insights into the alignment of office environments based on flexibility and work activity. Practical implications The paper identifies implications for the design and development of office environments by identifying the need for office occupier activity profiles. These profiles can underpin data-led design which should promote a tailored choice appropriate work setting that can maximise productivity. Originality/value This paper contributes to the research area of workplace alignment. It establishes that optimal workplace alignment requires a better understanding of office occupier needs based on location-flexibility and work activity.