ENSO induces coherent climate anomalies over the Indo-western Pacific, but these anomalies outlast SST anomalies of the equatorial Pacific by a season, with major effects on the Asian summer monsoon. This review provides historical accounts of major milestones and synthesizes recent advances in the endeavor to understand summer variability over the Indo-Northwest Pacific region. Specifically, a large-scale anomalous anticyclone （AAC） is a recurrent pattern in post-E1 Nifio summers, spanning the tropical Northwest Pacific and North Indian oceans. Regarding the ocean memory that anchors the summer AAC, competing hypotheses emphasize either SST cooling in the easterly trade wind regime of the Northwest Pacific or SST warming in the westerly monsoon regime of the North Indian Ocean. Our synthesis reveals a coupled ocean- atmosphere mode that builds on both mechanisms in a two-stage evolution. In spring, when the northeast trades prevail, the AAC and Northwest Pacific cooling are coupled via wind-evaporation-SST feedback. The Northwest Pacific cooling persists to trigger a summer feedback that arises from the interaction of the AAC and North Indian Ocean warming, enabled by the westerly monsoon wind regime. This Indo-western Pacific ocean capacitor （IPOC） effect explains why E1 Nifio stages its last act over the monsoonal Indo-Northwest Pacific and casts the Indian Ocean warming and AAC in leading roles. The IPOC displays interdecadal modulations by the ENSO variance cycle, significantly correlated with ENSO at the turn of the 20th century and after the 1970s, but not in between. Outstanding issues, including future climate projections, are also discussed.
This study mainly introduces the development of the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model： Grid-point Version 2 （FGOALS-g2） and the preliminary evaluations of its performances based on re- sults from the pre-industrial control run and four members of historical runs according to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project （CMIP5） experiment design. The results suggest that many obvi- ous improvements have been achieved by the FGOALS-g2 compared with the previous version, FGOALS-gl, including its climatological mean states, climate variability, and 20th century surface temperature evolution. For example, FGOALS-g2 better simulates the frequency of tropical land precipitation, East Asian Monsoon precipitation and its seasonal cycle, MJO and ENSO, which are closely related to the updated cumulus parameterization scheme, as well as the alleviation of uncertainties in some key parameters in shallow and deep convection schemes, cloud fraction, cloud macro/microphysical processes and the boundary layer scheme in its atmospheric model. The annual cycle of sea surface temperature along the equator in the Pacific is significantly improved in the new version. The sea ice salinity simulation is one of the unique characteristics of FGOALS-g2, although it is somehow inconsistent with empirical observations in the Antarctic.
The Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model, Spectral Version 2 （FGOALS-s2） was used to simulate realistic climates and to study anthropogenic influences on climate change. Specifically, the FGOALS-s2 was integrated with Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 （CMIP5） to conduct co- ordinated experiments that will provide valuable scientific information to climate research communities. The performances of FGOALS-s2 were assessed in simulating major climate phenomena, and documented both the strengths and weaknesses of the model. The results indicate that FGOALS-s2 successfully overcomes climate drift, and realistically models global and regional climate characteristics, including SST, precipita- tion, and atmospheric circulation. In particular, the model accurately captures annual and semi-annual SST cycles in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and the main characteristic features of the Asian summer monsoon, which include a low-level southwestern jet and five monsoon rainfall centers. The simulated climate variabil- ity was further examined in terms of teleconnections, leading modes of global SST （namely, ENSO）, Pacific Decadal Oscillations （PDO）, and changes in 19th-20th century climate. The analysis demonstrates that FGOALS-s2 realistically simulates extra-tropical teleconnection patterns of large-scale climate, and irregu- lar ENSO periods. The model gives fairly reasonable reconstructions of spatial patterns of PDO and global monsoon changes in the 20th century. However, because the indirect effects of aerosols are not included in the model, the simulated global temperature change during the period 1850 2005 is greater than the observed warming, by 0.6℃. Some other shortcomings of the model are also noted.
Recent advances in the study of the characteristics, processes, and causes of spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon （EAM） system are reviewed in this paper. The understanding of the EAM system has improved in many aspects： the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures, the annual cycle of the East Asian summer monsoon （EASM） system and the East Asian winter monsoon （EAWM） system, the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the EASM system and the EAWM system, and especially the multiple modes of the EAM system and their spatio-temporal variabilities. Some new results have also been achieved in understanding the atmosphere-ocean interaction and atmosphere-land interaction processes that affect the variability of the EAM system. Based on recent studies, the EAM system can be seen as more than a circulation system, it can be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, namely, the EAM climate system. In addition, further progress has been made in diagnosing the internal physical mechanisms of EAM climate system variability, especially regarding the characteristics and properties of the East Asia-Pacific （EAP） teleconnection over East Asia and the North Pacific, the ＂Silk Road＂ teleconnection along the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere over the Asian continent, and the dynamical effects of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity on EAM system variability. At the end of the paper, some scientific problems regarding understanding the EAM system variability are proposed for further study.
Light absorbing particles（LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust） influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance（a.k.a., surface darkening）, which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice（LAPSI） has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g.in the fourth and fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high. In this review paper, we document various technical methods of measuring LAPSI and review the progress made in measuring the LAPSI in Arctic, Tibetan Plateau and other mid-latitude regions. We also report the progress in modeling the mass concentrations, albedo reduction, radiative forcing, and climatic and hydrological impact of LAPSI at global and regional scales. Finally we identify some research needs for reducing the uncertainties in the impact of LAPSI on global and regional climate and the hydrological cycle.
Presented is a review of the radiative properties of ice clouds from three perspectives： light scattering simulations, remote sensing applications, and broadband radiation parameterizations appropriate for numerical models. On the subject of light scattering simulations, several classical computational approaches are reviewed, including the conventional geometric-optics method and its improved forms, the finite-difference time domain technique, the pseudo-spectral time domain technique, the discrete dipole approximation method, and the T-matrix method, with specific applications to the computation of the singlescattering properties of individual ice crystals. The strengths and weaknesses associated with each approach are discussed.With reference to remote sensing, operational retrieval algorithms are reviewed for retrieving cloud optical depth and effective particle size based on solar or thermal infrared（IR） bands. To illustrate the performance of the current solar- and IR-based retrievals, two case studies are presented based on spaceborne observations. The need for a more realistic ice cloud optical model to obtain spectrally consistent retrievals is demonstrated. Furthermore, to complement ice cloud property studies based on passive radiometric measurements, the advantage of incorporating lidar and/or polarimetric measurements is discussed.The performance of ice cloud models based on the use of different ice habits to represent ice particles is illustrated by comparing model results with satellite observations. A summary is provided of a number of parameterization schemes for ice cloud radiative properties that were developed for application to broadband radiative transfer submodels within general circulation models（GCMs）. The availability of the single-scattering properties of complex ice habits has led to more accurate radiation parameterizations. In conclusion, the importance of using nonspherical ice particle models in GCM simulations for climate studies is proven.
In this study, regional persistent haze events（RPHEs） in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei（BTH） region were identified based on the Objective Identification Technique for Regional Extreme Events for the period 1980–2013. The formation mechanisms of the severe RPHEs were investigated with focus on the atmospheric circulation and dynamic mechanisms. Results indicated that：（1） 49 RPHEs occurred during the past 34 years.（2） The severe RPHEs could be categorized into two types according to the large-scale circulation, i.e. the zonal westerly airflow（ZWA） type and the high-pressure ridge（HPR） type. When the ZWA-type RPHEs occurred, the BTH region was controlled by near zonal westerly airflow in the mid–upper troposphere.Southwesterly winds prevailed in the lower troposphere, and near-surface wind speeds were only 1–2 ms^-1. Warm and humid air originating from the northwestern Pacific was transported into the region, where the relative humidity was 70% to 80%, creating favorable moisture conditions. When the HPR-type RPHEs appeared, northwesterly airflow in the mid–upper troposphere controlled the region. Westerly winds prevailed in the lower troposphere and the moisture conditions were relatively weak.（3） Descending motion in the mid-lower troposphere caused by the above two circulation types provided a crucial dynamic mechanism for the formation of the two types of RPHEs. The descending motion contributed to a reduction in the height of the planetary boundary layer（PBL）, which generated an inversion in the lower troposphere. This inversion trapped the abundant pollution and moisture in the lower PBL, leading to high concentrations of pollutants.
This paper describes the construction of a 0.5°× 0.5° daily temperature dataset for the period of 1961- 2005 over mainland China for the purpose of climate model validation. The dataset is based on the interpolation from 751 observing stations in China and comprises 3 variables： daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature. The ＂anomaly approach＂ is applied in the interpolation. The gridded climatology of 1971-2000 is first calculated and then a gridded daily anomaly for 1961-2005 is added to the climatology to obtain the final dataset. Comparison of the dataset with CRU （Climatic Research Unit） observations at the monthly scale shows general agreement between the two datasets. The differences found can be largely attributed to the introduction of observations at new stations. The dataset shows similar interannual variability as does CRU data over North China and eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, but with a slightly larger linear trend. The dataset is employed to validate the simulation of three extreme indices based on daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature by a high-resolution regional climate model. Results show that the model reproduces these indices well. The data are available at the National Climate Center of China Meteorological Administration, and a coarser resolution （1°× 1°） version can be accessed via the World Wide Web.
The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and has shown significant climate change in recent decades,including the Arctic warming and decline of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness. In contrast to the Arctic warming and reduction of Arctic sea ice, Europe, East Asia and North America have experienced anomalously cold conditions, with record snowfall during recent years. In this paper, we review current understanding of the sea-ice impacts on the Eurasian climate.Paleo, observational and modelling studies are covered to summarize several major themes, including： the variability of Arctic sea ice and its controls; the likely causes and apparent impacts of the Arctic sea-ice decline during the satellite era,as well as past and projected future impacts and trends; the links and feedback mechanisms between the Arctic sea ice and the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation, the recent Eurasian cooling, winter atmospheric circulation, summer precipitation in East Asia, spring snowfall over Eurasia, East Asian winter monsoon, and midlatitude extreme weather; and the remote climate response（e.g., atmospheric circulation, air temperature） to changes in Arctic sea ice. We conclude with a brief summary and suggestions for future research.
Arid and semi-arid areas comprise about 30% of the earth＇s surface. Changes in climate and climate variability will likely have a significant impact on these regions. The Loess Plateau over Northwest China is a special semi-arid land surface and part of a dust aerosol source. To improve understanding and capture the direct evidence of the impact of human activity on the semi-arid climate over the Loess Plateau, the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University （SACOL） was established in 2005. SACOL consists of a large set of instruments and focuses on： （1） monitoring of long term tendencies in semiarid climate changes; （2） monitoring of the aerosol effect on the water cycle; （3） studies of interaction between land surface and the atmosphere; （4） improving the land surface and climate models; and （5） validation of space-borne observations. This paper presents a description of SACOL objectives, measurements, and sampling strategies. Preliminary observation results are also reviewed in this paper.
In this paper we present a review of atmospheric chemistry research in China over the period 2006-2010, focusing on tropospheric ozone, aerosol chemistry, and the interactions between trace gases and aerosols in the polluted areas of China. Over the past decade, China has suffered severe photochemical smog and haze pollution, especially in North China, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta. Much scientific work on atmospheric chemistry and physics has been done to address this large-scale, complex environmental problem. Intensive field experiments, satellite data analyses, and model simulations have shown that air pollution is significantly changing the chemical and physical characters of the natural atmosphere over these parts of China. In addition to strong emissions of primary pollutants, photochemical and heterogeneous reactions play key roles in the formation of complex pollution. More in-depth research is recommended to reveal the formation mechanism of photochemical smog and haze pollution and their climatic effects at the urban, regional, and global scales.
Significant increases of heavy precipitation and decreases of light precipitation have been reported over widespread regions of the globe. Global warming and effects of anthropogenic aerosols have both been proposed as possible causes of these changes. We examine data from urban and rural meteorological stations in eastern China （1955-2011） and compare them with Global Precipitation Climatology Project （GPCP） data （1979-2007） and reanalysis data in various latitude zones to study changes in precipitation extremes. Significant decreases in light precipitation and increases in heavy precipitation are found at both rural and urban stations, as well as low latitudes over the ocean, while total precipitation shows little change. Characteristics of these changes and changes in the equatorial zone and other latitudes suggest that global warming rather than aerosol effects is the primary cause of the changes. In eastern China, increases of annual total dry days （28 days） and ） 10 consecutive dry days （36%） are due to the decrease in light precipitation days, thereby establishing a causal link among global warming, changes in precipitation extremes, and higher meteorological risk of floods and droughts. Further, results derived from the GPCP data and reanalysis data suggest that the causal link exists over widespread regions of the globe.
In this study, the application of artificial intelligence to monthly and seasonal rainfall forecasting in Queensland, Australia, was assessed by inputting recognized climate indices, monthly historical rainfall data, and atmospheric temperatures into a prototype stand-alone, dynamic, recurrent, time-delay, artificial neural network. Outputs, as monthly rainfall forecasts 3 months in advance for the period 1993 to 2009, were compared with observed rainfall data using time-series plots, root mean squared error （RMSE）, and Pearson correlation coefficients. A comparison of RMSE values with forecasts generated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology＇s Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia （POAMA）-I.5 general circulation model （GCM） indicated that the prototype achieved a lower RMSE for 16 of the 17 sites compared. The application of artificial neural networks to rainfall forecasting was reviewed. The prototype design is considered preliminary, with potential for significant improvement such as inclusion of output from GCMs and experimentation with other input attributes.
This article summarizes the main results and findings of studies conducted by Chinese scientists in the past five years. It is shown that observed climate change in China bears a strong similarity with the global average. The country-averaged annual mean surface air temperature has increased by 1.1℃ over the past 50 years and 0.5-0.8℃ over the past 100 years, slightly higher than the global temperature increase for the same periods. Northern China and winter have experienced the greatest increases in surface air temperature. Although no significant trend has been found in country-averaged annual precipitation, interdecadal variability and obvious trends on regional scales are detectable, with northwestern China and the mid and lower Yangtze River basin having undergone an obvious increase, and North China a severe drought. Some analyses show that frequency and magnitude of extreme weather and climate events have also undergone significant changes in the past 50 years or so. Studies of the causes of regional climate change through the use of climate models and consideration of various forcings, show that the warming of the last 50 years could possibly be attributed to an increased atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases, while the temperature change of the first half of the 20th century may be due to solar activity, volcanic eruptions and sea surface temperature change. A significant decline in sunshine duration and solar radiation at the surface in eastern China has been attributed to the increased emission of pollutants. Projections of future climate by models of the NCC （National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration） and the IAP （Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences）, as well as 40 models developed overseas, indicate a potential significant warming in China in the 21st century, with the largest warming set to occur in winter months and in northern China. Under varied emission scenarios, the country-averaged annual mean temperature is projected to increase by 1.5 2.1℃ by 2020, 2.3 3.3℃ by 2050, and by 3.9-6.0℃ by 2100, in comparison to the 30-year average of 1961-1990. Most models project a 10% 12% increase in annual precipitation in China by 2100, with the trend being particularly evident in Northeast and Northwest China, but with parts of central China probably undergoing a drying trend. Large uncertainty exists in the projection of precipitation, and further studies are needed. Furthermore, anthropogenic climate change will probably lead to a weaker winter monsoon and a stronger summer monsoon in eastern Asia.
Defining the intensity of the East Asian winter monsoon （EAWM） with a simple index has been a difficult task. This paper elaborates on the meanings of 18 existing EAWM strength indices and classifies them into four categories： low level wind indices, upper zonal wind shear indices, east-west pressure contrast indices, and East Asian trough indices. The temporal/spatial performance and prediction potential of these indices are then analyzed for the 1957-2001 period. It reveals that on the decadal timescale, most indices except the east-west pressure contrast indices can well capture the continuous weakening of the EAWM around 1986. On the interannual timescale, the low level wind indices and East Asian trough indices have the best predictability based on knowledge of the El Nio-Southern Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation, respectively. All the 18 existing indices can well describe the EAWM-related circulation, precipitation, and lower tropospheric air temperature anomalies. However, the variations of surface air temperature over large areas of central China cannot be well captured by most indices, which is possibly related to topographic effects. The results of this study may provide a possible reference for future studies of the EAWM.
A global ocean general circulation model （L30T63） is employed to study the uptake and distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. A subgrid-scale mixing scheme called GM90 is used in the model. There are two main GM90 parameters including isopycnal diffusivity and skew （thickness） diffusivity. Sensitivities of the ocean circulation and the redistribution of dissolved anthropogenic CO2 to these two parameters are examined. Two runs estimate the global oceanic anthropogenic CO2 uptake to be 1.64 and 1.73 Pg C yr^-1 for the 1990s, and that the global ocean contained 86.8 and 92.7 Pg C of anthropogenic CO2 at the end of 1994, respectively. Both the total inventory and uptake from our model are smaller than the data-based estimates. In this presentation, the vertical distributions of anthropogenic CO2 at three meridional sections are discussed and compared with the available data-based estimates. The inventory in the individual basins is also calculated. Use of large isopycnal diffusivity can generally improve the simulated results, including the exchange flux, the vertical distribution patterns, inventory, storage, etc. In terms of comparison of the vertical distributions and column inventory, we find that the total inventory in the Pacific Ocean obtained from our model is in good agreement with the data-based estimate, but a large difference exists in the Atlantic Ocean, particularly in the South Atlantic. The main reasons are weak vertical mixing and that our model generates small exchange fluxes of anthropogenic CO2 in the Southern Ocean. Improvement in the simulation of the vertical transport and sea ice in the Southern Ocean is important in future work.
PM2.5 aerosols were sampled in urban Chengdu from April 2009 to January 2010, and their chemical compositions were characterized in detail for elements, water soluble inorganic ions, and carbonaceous mat- ter. The annual average of PM2.5 was 165 btg m a, which is generally higher than measurements in other Chinese cities, suggesting serious particulate pollution issues in the city. Water soluble ions contributed 43.5% to the annual total PM2.5 mass, carbonaceous aerosols including elemental carbon and organic car- bon contributed 32.0%, and trace elements contributed 13.8~0. Distinct daily and seasonal variations were observed in the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and its components, reflecting the seasonal variations of dif- ferent anthropogenic and natural sources. Weakly acidic to neutral particles were found for PMz5. Major sources of PM2.u identified from source apportionment analysis included coal combustion, traffic exhaust, biomass burning, soil dust, and construction dust emissions. The low nitrate： sulfate ratio suggested that stationary emissions were more important than vehicle emissions. The reconstructed masses of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, particulate carbonaceous matter, and fine soil accounted for 79% of the total measured PM2.5 mass; they also accounted for 92% of the total measured particle scattering.
Observational analyses have demonstrated that the Hadley circulation has expanded poleward in recent decades. Important issues are what caused the widening of the Hadley circulation and whether the observed widening is related to anthropogenic forcing. In the present study, we use currently available simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 （CMIP5） to analyze changes in the width of the Hadley circulation. It is found that CMIP5 historical simulations with greenhouse gas （GHG） forcing generate a total widening of ,-0.15°±0.06°in latitude （10 yr）-1 for the period 1979-2005, and the widening in CMIP5 historical simulations with all forcings is -0.17°± 0.06° per decade. Similar to that in CMIP3, the simulated poleward expansion in CMIP5 is much weaker than the observational reanalyses. In CMIP5 projection simulations for the 21st century, magnitudes of widening of the Hadley circulation increase with radiative forcing. For the extreme projected radiative forcing of RCP8.5, the total annual-mean widening of the Hadley circulation is -0.27°±0.04° （10 yr）-1 in the 21st century. Although CMIP5 underestimates observed poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation, the results of this study suggest that the observed trends in the width of the Hadley circulation are caused by anthropogenic forcing and that increasing GHGs play an important role in the observed poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation, in addition to other foreings emphasized in previous studies.
This paper reports a comprehensive study on the observed and projected spatiotemporal changes in mean and extreme climate over the arid region of northwestern China, based on gridded observation data and CMIP5 simulations under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The observational results reveal an increase in annual mean temperature since 1961, largely attributable to the increase in minimum temperature. The annual mean precipitation also exhibits a significant increasing tendency. The precipitation amount in the most recent decade was greater than in any preceding decade since 1961. Seasonally, the greatest increase in temperature and precipitation appears in winter and in summer, respectively. Widespread significant changes in temperature-related extremes are consistent with warming, with decreases in cold extremes and increases in warm extremes. The warming of the coldest night is greater than that of the warmest day, and changes in cold and warm nights are more evident than for cold and warm days. Extreme precipitation and wet days exhibit an increasing trend, and the maximum number of consecutive dry days shows a tendency toward shorter duration. Multi-model ensemble mean projections indicate an overall continual increase in temperature and precipitation during the 21 st century. Decreases in cold extremes, increases in warm extremes, intensification of extreme precipitation, increases in wet days, and decreases in consecutive dry days, are expected under both emissions scenarios, with larger changes corresponding to stronger radiative forcing.
An overview of basic research on climate change in recent years in China is presented. In the past 100 years in China, average annual mean surface air temperature （SAT） has increased at a rate ranging from 0.03℃ （10 yr）-1 to 0.12℃ （10 yr）-1. This warming is more evident in northern China and is more significant in winter and spring. In the past 50 years in China, at least 27% of the average annual warming has been caused by urbanization. Overall, no significant trends have been detected in annual and/or summer precipitation in China on a whole for the past 100 years or 50 years. Both increases and decreases in frequencies of major extreme climate events have been observed for the past 50 years. The frequencies of extreme temperature events have generally displayed a consistent pattern of change across the country, while the frequencies of extreme precipitation events have shown only regionally and seasonally significant trends. The frequency of tropical cyclone landfall decreased slightly, but the frequency of sand/dust storms decreased significantly. Proxy records indicate that the annual mean SAT in the past a few decades is the highest in the past 400-500 years in China, but it may not have exceeded the highest level of the Medieval Warm Period （1000 1300 AD）. Proxy records also indicate that droughts and floods in eastern China have been characterized by continuously abnormal rainfall periods, with the frequencies of extreme droughts and floods in the 20th century most likely being near the average levels of the past 2000 years. The attribution studies suggest that increasing greenhouse gas （GHG） concentrations in the atmosphere are likely to be a main factor for the observed surface warming nationwide. The Yangtze River and Huaihe River basins underwent a cooling trend in summer over the past 50 years, which might have been caused by increased aerosol concentrations and cloud cover. However, natural climate variability might have been a main driver for the mean and extreme precipitation variations observed over the past century. Climate models generally perform well in simulating the variations of annual mean SAT in China. They have also been used to project future changes in SAT under varied GHG emission scenarios. Large uncertainties have remained in these model-based projections, however, especially for the projected trends of regional precipitation and extreme climate events.