Document Reviewers: Victor Aboyans (CPG Review Coordinator) (France), Antonio Vaz Carneiro (CPG Review Coordinator) (Portugal), Stephan Achenbach (Germany), Stefan Agewall (Norway), Yannick Allanore (France), Riccardo Asteggiano (Italy), Luigi Paolo Badano (Italy), Joan Albert Barbera (Spain), Helene Bouvaist (France), Hector Bueno (Spain), Robert A. Byrne (Germany), Scipione Carerj (Italy), Graca Castro (Portugal), Cetin Erol (Turkey), Volkmar Falk (Germany), Christian Funck-Brentano (France), Matthias Gorenflo (Germany), John Granton (Canada), Bernard Iung (France), David G. Kiely (UK), Paulus Kirchhof (Germany/UK), Barbro Kjellstrom (Sweden), Ulf Landmesser (Switzerland), John Lekakis (Greece), Christos Lionis (Greece), Gregory Y. H. Lip (UK), Stylianos E. Orfanos (Greece), Myung H. Park (USA), Massimo F. Piepoli (Italy), Piotr Ponikowski (Poland), Marie-Pierre Revel (France), David Rigau (ERS methodologist) (Switzerland), Stephan Rosenkranz (Germany), Heinz Voller (Germany), and Jose Luis Zamorano (Spain)
Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are key players in the development of atherosclerosis and its complications. A large body of evidence suggest that metabolic abnormalities cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In turn, ROS, via endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, play a major role in precipitating diabetic vascular disease. A better understanding of ROS-generating pathways may provide the basis to develop novel therapeutic strategies against vascular complications in this setting. Part I of this review will focus on the most current advances in the pathophysiological mechanisms of vascular disease: (i) emerging role of endothelium in obesity-induced insulin resistance; (ii) hyperglycemia-dependent microRNAs deregulation and impairment of vascular repair capacities; (iii) alterations of coagulation, platelet reactivity, and microparticle release; (iv) epigenetic-driven transcription of ROS-generating and proinflammatory genes. Taken together these novel insights point to the development of mechanism-based therapeutic strategies as a promising option to prevent cardiovascular complications in diabetes.