BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Flow diverters are increasingly used in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Our aim was to determine neurologic complication rates following Pipeline Embolization Device placement for intracranial aneurysm treatment in a real-world setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device between July 2008 and February 2013 in 17 centers worldwide. We defined 4 subgroups: internal carotid artery aneurysms of >= 10 mm mm, ICA aneurysms of <10 mm, other anterior circulation aneurysms, and posterior circulation aneurysms. Neurologic complications included spontaneous rupture, intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, permanent cranial neuropathy, and mortality. Comparisons were made with t tests or ANOVAs for continuous variables and the Pearson chi(2) or Fisher exact test for categoric variables. RESULTS: In total, 793 patients with 906 aneurysms were included. The neurologic morbidity and mortality rate was 8.4% (67/793), highest in the posterior circulation group (16.4%, 9/55) and lowest in the ICA <10-mm group (4.8%,14/294) (P = .01). The spontaneous rupture rate was 0.6% (5/793). The intracranial hemorrhage rate was 2.4% (19/793). Ischemic stroke rates were 4.7% (37/793), highest in patients with posterior circulation aneurysms (7.3%, 4/55) and lowest in the ICA <10-mm group (2.7%, 8/294) (P = .16). Neurologic mortality was 3.8% (30/793), highest in the posterior circulation group (10.9%, 6/55) and lowest in the anterior circulation ICA <10-mm group (1.4%, 4/294) (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Aneurysm treatment with the Pipeline Embolization Device is associated with the lowest complication rates when used to treat small ICA aneurysms. Procedure-related morbidity and mortality are higher in the treatment of posterior circulation and giant aneurysms.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endoluminal reconstruction with flow diverting devices represents a novel constructive technique for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. We present the results of the first prospective multicenter trial of a flow-diverting construct for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with unruptured aneurysms that were wide-necked (>4 mm), had unfavorable dome/neck ratios (= 50%) was identified at follow-up angiography. CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial aneurysm treatment with the PED is technically feasible and can be achieved with a safety profile analogous to that reported for stent-supported coil embolization. RED treatment elicited a very high rate (93%) of complete angiographic occlusion at 6 months in a population of the most challenging anatomic subtypes of cerebral aneurysms.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Flow-diverting devices now offer a new treatment alternative for cerebral aneurysms. We present the results of a large single-center series of patients treated with the PED, including long-term follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between November 2008 and September 2011, sidewall aneurysms with a wide neck (>= 4 mm) or unfavorable dome-neck ratio (= 10 mm). In 34/251 (13.5%), PEDs were used for retreatment. Adjunctive coiling was performed in 11 aneurysms (2.1%). The mean number of devices per aneurysm was 1.3. One aneurysm ruptured in the fourth month posttreatment (0.5%), and symptomatic in-construct stenosis was detected in 1 patient (0.5%) treated with percutaneous transarterial angioplasty. Any event rate was 27/191 (14.1%), with a permanent morbidity of 1% and mortality of 0.5%. Control angiography was available in 182 (95.3%) patients with 239 (95.2%) aneurysms. In 121 aneurysms (48.2%), 1- to 2-year control angiography was available. The aneurysm occlusion rate was 91.2% in 6 months, increasing to 94.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the FED is safe, efficacious, and durable in cerebral aneurysm treatment, with low morbidity-mortality and high occlusion rates as confirmed with mid- to long-term control angiography.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aneurysm treatment by intrasaccular packing has been associated with a relatively high rate of recurrence. The use of mesh tubes has recently gained traction as an alternative therapy. This article summarizes the midterm results of using an endoluminal sleeve, the PED, in the treatment of aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 19 wide-neck aneurysms were treated in 18 patients: 10 by implantation of PEDs alone and 9 by a combination of PED and coils. Angiographic and clinical results were recorded immediately and at 6 months following treatment. RESULTS: Immediate angiographic occlusion was achieved in 4 and flow reduction, in another 15 aneurysms. Angiography at 6 months demonstrated complete occlusion in 17 and partial filling in 1 of 18 patients. There was no difference between coil-packed and unpacked aneurysms. Of 28 side branches covered by device, the ophthalmic artery was absent immediately in 1 and at 6 months in another 2 cases. One patient experienced abrupt in-stent thrombosis resulting in a transient neurologic deficit, and 1 patient died due to rupture of a coexisting aneurysm. All giant aneurysms treated with PED alone were demonstrated by follow-up cross-sectional imaging to have involuted by 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of large, wide-neck, or otherwise untreatable aneurysms with functional reconstruction of the parent artery may be achieved with relative safety using dedicated flow-modifying devices with or without adjunctive use of intrasaccular coil packing
This is a comprehensive group of guidelines for imaging patients with demyelinating disease, from an international group of neurologists and radiologists. Suggestions for MR imaging protocols are given for the brain, for surveillance imaging for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, for spinal cord imaging, and for the orbit. Recommendations are also given for what type of material should be included in the report. SUMMARY: An international group of neurologists and radiologists developed revised guidelines for standardized brain and spinal cord MR imaging for the diagnosis and follow-up of MS. A brain MR imaging with gadolinium is recommended for the diagnosis of MS. A spinal cord MR imaging is recommended if the brain MR imaging is nondiagnostic or if the presenting symptoms are at the level of the spinal cord. A follow-up brain MR imaging with gadolinium is recommended to demonstrate dissemination in time and ongoing clinically silent disease activity while on treatment, to evaluate unexpected clinical worsening, to re-assess the original diagnosis, and as a new baseline before starting or modifying therapy. A routine brain MR imaging should be considered every 6 months to 2 years for all patients with relapsing MS. The brain MR imaging protocol includes 3D T1-weighted, 3D T2-FLAIR, 3D T2-weighted, post-single-dose gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, and a DWI sequence. The progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy surveillance protocol includes FLAIR and DWI sequences only. The spinal cord MR imaging protocol includes sagittal T1-weighted and proton attenuation, STIR or phase-sensitive inversion recovery, axial T2- or T2*-weighted imaging through suspicious lesions, and, in some cases, postcontrast gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. The clinical question being addressed should be provided in the requisition for the MR imaging. The radiology report should be descriptive, with results referenced to previous studies. MR imaging studies should be permanently retained and available. The current revision incorporates new clinical information and imaging techniques that have become more available.
FD technology enables reconstructive repair of otherwise difficult-to-treat intracranial aneurysms. These stentlike devices may induce progressive aneurysm thrombosis without additional implants and may initiate complete reverse vessel remodeling. The associated vascular biologic processes are as yet only partially understood. From 12 different centers, 13 cases of delayed postprocedural aneurysm rupture were recorded and analyzed. Symptom, aneurysm location and morphology, and the time elapsed from treatment until rupture were analyzed. There were 10 internal carotid and 3 basilar artery aneurysms. Mean aneurysm diameter was 22 ± 6 mm. Eleven patients were symptomatic before treatment. A single FD was used for all saccular aneurysms, while fusiform lesions were treated by using multiple devices. A supplementary loose coiling of the aneurysm was performed in 1 patient only. Ten patients developed early aneurysm rupture after FD treatment (mean, 16 days; range, 2-48 days); in 3 patients, rupture occurred 3-5 months after treatment. In all cases, most of the aneurysm cavity was thrombosed before rupture. The biologic mechanisms predisposing to rupture under these conditions are reviewed and discussed FDs alone may modify hemodynamics in ways that induce extensive aneurysm thrombosis. Under specific conditions, however, instead of reverse remodeling and cicatrization, aggressive thrombus-associated autolysis of the aneurysm wall may result in delayed rupture
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: WM injury is the dominant form of injury in preterm infants. However, other cerebral structures, including the deep gray matter and the cerebellum, can also be affected by injury and/or impaired growth. Current MR imaging injury assessment scales are subjective and are challenging to apply. Thus, we developed a new assessment tool and applied it to MR imaging studies obtained from very preterm infants at term age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging scans from 97 very preterm infants (< 30 weeks' gestation) and 22 healthy term-born infants were evaluated retrospectively. The severity of brain injury (defined by signal abnormalities) and impaired brain growth (defined with biometrics) was scored in the WM, cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, and cerebellum. Perinatal variables for clinical risks were collected. RESULTS: In very preterm infants, brain injury was observed in the WM (n=23), deep GM (n=5), and cerebellum (n=23). Combining measures of injury and impaired growth showed moderate to severe abnormalities most commonly in the WM (n=38) and cerebellum (n=32) but still notable in the cortical gray matter (n=16) and deep gray matter (n=11). WM signal abnormalities were associated with a reduced deep gray matter area but not with cerebellar abnormality. Intraventricular and/or parenchymal hemorrhage was associated with cerebellar signal abnormality and volume reduction. Multiple clinical risk factors, including prolonged intubation, prolonged parenteral nutrition, postnatal corticosteroid use, and postnatal sepsis, were associated with increased global abnormality on MR imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Very preterm infants demonstrate a high prevalence of injury and growth impairment in both the WM and gray matter. This MR imaging scoring system provides a more comprehensive and objective classification of the nature and extent of abnormalities than existing measures.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemodynamics are thought to play an important role in the mechanisms of aneurysm pathogenesis, progression, and rupture. The purpose of this study was to define quantitative measures related to qualitative flow characteristics previously analyzed and to investigate their relationship to aneurysm rupture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hemodynamic environments in 210 cerebral aneurysms were analyzed by using image-based CFD under different flow conditions. Quantitative hemodynamic variables were defined and extracted from the simulation results. A statistical analysis of the relationship to the previous history of aneurysm rupture was performed, and the variability with flow conditions was assessed. RESULTS: Ruptured aneurysms were more likely to have larger inflow concentrations, larger MWSS, larger shear concentrations, and lower viscous dissipation ratios than unruptured aneurysms. Areas under low WSS and measures of abnormally low shear force distributions of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms were not statistically different. Although the values of hemodynamic quantities changed with different flow conditions, the statistical differences or ratios between their mean values over the ruptured and unruptured groups were maintained, for both pulsatile and steady flows. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrated inflow streams and WSS distributions with elevated levels of MWSS and low aneurysmal viscous dissipation are statistically associated with a clinical history of prior aneurysm rupture. In contrast, the area and total viscous shear force applied in the aneurysm region subjected to abnormally low WSS levels are not. This study highlights the potential for image-based CFD for investigating aneurysm-evolution mechanisms and for clinical assessment of aneurysm risks.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-resolution MR imaging is an emerging tool for evaluating intracranial artery disease. It has an advantage of defining vessel wall characteristics of intracranial vascular diseases. We investigated high-resolution MR imaging arterial wall characteristics of CNS vasculitis and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome to determine wall pattern changes during a follow-up period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 3T-high-resolution MR imaging vessel wall studies performed on 26 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CNS vasculitis and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome during a follow-up period. Vessel wall imaging protocol included black-blood contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences with fat suppression and a saturation band, and time-of-flight MRA of the circle of Willis. Vessel wall characteristics including enhancement, wall thickening, and lumen narrowing were collected. RESULTS: Thirteen patients with CNS vasculitis and 13 patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome were included. In the CNS vasculitis group, 9 patients showed smooth, concentric wall enhancement and thickening; 3 patients had smooth, eccentric wall enhancement and thickening; and 1 patient was without wall enhancement and thickening. Six of 13 patients had follow-up imaging; 4 patients showed stable smooth, concentric enhancement and thickening; and 2 patients had resoluton of initial imaging findings. In the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome group, 10 patients showed diffuse, uniform wall thickening with negligible-to-mild enhancement. Nine patients had follow-up imaging, with 8 patients showing complete resolution of the initial findings. CONCLUSIONS: Postgadolinium 3T-high-resolution MR imaging appears to be a feasible tool in differentiating vessel wall patterns of CNS vasculitis and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome changes during a follow-up period.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While there have been recent reports of brain retention of gadolinium following gadolinium-based contrast agent administration in adults, a retrospective series of pediatric patients has not previously been reported, to our knowledge. We investigated the relationship between the number of prior gadolinium-based contrast agent doses and increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. We hypothesized that despite differences in pediatric physiology and the smaller gadolinium-based contrast agent doses that pediatric patients are typically administered based on weighted-adjusted dosing, the pediatric brain would also demonstrate dose-dependent increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included children with multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations at our institution. A blinded reader placed ROIs within the dentate nucleus and adjacent cerebellar white matter. To eliminate reader bias, we also performed automated ROI delineation of the dentate nucleus, cerebellar white matter, and pons. Dentate-to-cerebellar white matter and dentate-to pons ratios were compared with the number of gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations. RESULTS: During 20 years at our institution, 280 patients received at least 5 gadolinium-based contrast agent doses, with 1 patient receiving 38 doses. Sixteen patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria for ROI analysis. Blinded reader dentate-to-cerebellar white matter ratios were significantly associated with gadolinium-based contrast agent doses (r(s) = 0.77, P=.001). The dentate-to-pons ratio and dentate-to-cerebellar white matter ratios based on automated ROI placement were also significantly correlated with gadolinium-based contrast agent doses (t = 4.98, P<.0001 and t = 2.73, P<.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric patients, the number of prior gadolinium-based contrast agent doses is significantly correlated with progressive T1-weighted dentate hyperintensity. Definitive confirmation of gadolinium deposition requires tissue analysis. Any potential clinical sequelae of gadolinium retention in the developing brain are unknown. Given this uncertainty, we suggest taking a cautious stance, including the use, in pediatric patients, of higher stability, macrocyclic agents, which in both human and animal studies have been shown to be associated with lower levels of gadolinium deposition, and detailed documentation of dosing. Most important, a patient should not be deprived of a well-indicated contrasted MR examination.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Flow-diverting approaches to intracranial aneurysm treatment had many promising early results, but recent apparently successful treatments have been complicated by later aneurysm hemorrhage. We analyzed 7 cases of aneurysms treated with flow diversion to explore the possible rupture mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CFD analysis of pre- and posttreatment conditions was performed on 3 giant aneurysms that ruptured after treatment and 4 successfully treated aneurysms. Pre- and posttreatment hemodynamics were compared including WSS, relative blood flows, vascular resistances, and pressures, to identify the effects of flow-diverter placements. RESULTS: Expected reductions in aneurysm velocity and WSS were obtained, indicating effective flow diversion from the sac into the parent artery, consistent with periprocedural observations. In each case with postaneurysm rupture, the result of flow diversion led to an increase in pressure within the aneurysm. This pressure increase is related to larger effective resistance in the parent artery from placement of the devices and, in 2 cases, the reduction of a preaneurysm stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-diversion devices can cause intra-aneurysmal pressure increases, which can potentially lead to rupture, especially for giant aneurysms. relates both to changes in the parent artery configuration, such as reduction of a proximal stenosis, and to the flow diversion into higher resistance parent artery pathways combined with cerebral autoregulation, leading to higher pressure gradients. These may be important effects that should be considered when planning interventions. Potentially dangerous cases could be identified with angiography and/or patient-specific CFD models.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transverse sinus stenosis is common in patients with IIH. While the role of transverse sinus stenosis in IIH pathogenesis remains controversial, modeling studies suggest that stent placement within a transverse sinus stenosis with a significant pressure gradient should decrease cerebral venous pressure, improve CSF resorption in the venous system, and thereby reduce intracranial (CSF) pressure, improving the symptoms of IIH and reducing papilledema. We aimed to determine if IIH could be reliably treated by stent placement in transverse sinus stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the clinical, venographic, and intracranial pressure data before and after stent placement in transverse sinus stenosis in 52 of our own patients with IIH unresponsive to maximum acceptable medical treatment, treated since 2001 and followed between 2 months and 9 years. RESULTS: Before stent placement, the mean superior sagittal sinus pressure was 34 mm Hg (462 mm H(2)0) with a mean transverse sinus stenosis gradient of 20 mm Hg. The mean lumbar CSF pressure before stent placement was 322 mm H2O. In all 52 patients, stent placement immediately eliminated the TSS pressure gradient, rapidly improved IIH symptoms, and abolished papilledema. In 6 patients, symptom relapse (headache) was associated with increased venous pressure and recurrent stenosis adjacent to the previous stent. In these cases, placement of another stent again removed the transverse sinus stenosis pressure gradient and improved symptoms. Of the 52 patients, 49 have been cured of all IIH symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a role for transverse sinus stent placement in the management of selected patients with IIH.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a useful index of microstructural changes implicated in diffuse axonal injury (DAI) linked to persistent postconcussive symptoms, especially in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), for which conventional MR imaging techniques may lack sensitivity. We hypothesized that for mild TBI, DTI measures of DAI would correlate with impairments in reaction time, whereas the number of focal lesions on conventional 3T MR imaging would not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four adult patients with mild TBI with persistent symptoms were assessed for DAI by quantifying traumatic microhemorrhages detected on a conventional set of T2*-weighted gradient-echo images and by DTI measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) within a set of a priori regions of interest. FA values 2.5 SDs below the region average, based on a group of 26 healthy control adults, were coded as exhibiting DAI. RESULTS: DTI measures revealed several predominant regions of damage including the anterior corona radiata (41 % of the patients), uncinate fasciculus (29%), genu of the corpus callosum (21 %), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (21 %), and cingulum bundle (18%). The number of damaged white matter structures as quantified by DTI was significantly correlated with mean reaction time on a simple cognitive task (r = 0.49, P =.012). In contradistinction, the number of traumatic microhemorrhages was uncorrelated with reaction time (r = -0.08, P =.71). CONCLUSION: Microstructural white matter lesions detected by DTI correlate with persistent cognitive deficits in mild TBI, even in populations in which conventional measures do not. DTI measures may thus contribute additional diagnostic information related to DAI.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A hyperintense appearance of the dentate nucleus on T1-weighted MR images has been related to various clinical conditions, but the etiology remains indeterminate. We aimed to investigate the possible associations between a hyperintense appearance of the dentate nucleus on T1-weighted MR images in patients exposed to radiation and factors including, but not limited to, the cumulative number of contrast-enhanced MR images, amount of gadolinium administration, dosage of ionizing radiation, and patient demographics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of 706 consecutive patients who were treated with brain irradiation at The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions between 1995 and 2010 were blindly reviewed by 2 readers. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-four subjects were included for dentate nuclei analysis. Among the 184 subjects who cumulatively underwent 2677 MR imaging studies following intravenous gadolinium administration, 103 patients had hyperintense dentate nuclei on precontrast T1-weighted MR images. The average number of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging studies performed in the group with normal dentate nuclei was significantly lower than that of the group with hyperintense dentate nuclei. The average follow-up time was 62.5 months. No significant difference was observed between hyperintense and normal dentate nuclei groups in terms of exposed radiation dose, serum creatinine and calcium/phosphate levels, patient demographics, history of chemotherapy, and strength of the scanner. No dentate nuclei abnormalities were found on the corresponding CT scans of patients with hyperintense dentate nuclei (n = 44). No dentate nuclei abnormalities were found in 53 healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat performance of gadolinium-enhanced studies likely contributes to a long-standing hyperintense appearance of dentate nuclei on precontrast T1-weighted-MR images.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemodynamic factors are thought to play an important role in the initiation, growth, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. This report describes a study of the associations between qualitative intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics and the rupture of cerebral aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred ten consecutive aneurysms were analyzed by using patients-pecific CFD simulations under pulsatile flow conditions. The aneurysms were classified into categories by 2 blinded observers, depending on the complexity and stability of the flow pattern, size of the impingement region, and inflow concentration. A statistical analysis was then performed with respect to the history of previous rupture. Interobserver variability analysis was performed. RESULTS: Ruptured aneurysms were more likely to have complex flow patterns (83%, P <.001), stable flow patterns (75%, P = .0018), concentrated inflow (66%, P = <.0001), and small impingement regions (76%, P = .0006) compared with unruptured aneurysms. Interobserver variability analyses indicated that all the classifications performed were in very good agreement-that is, well within the 95% Cl. CONCLUSIONS: A qualitative hemodynamic analysis of cerebral aneurysms by using image-based patient-specific geometries has shown that concentrated inflow jets, small impingement regions, complex flow patterns, and unstable flow patterns are correlated with a clinical history of prior aneurysm rupture. These qualitative measures provide a starting point for more sophisticated quantitative analysis aimed at assigning aneurysm risk of future rupture. These analyses highlight the potential for CFD to play an important role in the clinical determination of aneurysm risks.
Mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers is now the standard therapy for selected patients with ischemic stroke. The technique of A Direct Aspiration, First Pass Technique for the Endovascular Treatment of Stroke (ADAPT) appears promising with a high rate of recanalization. We compared ADAPT versus stent retrievers (the Solitaire device) for efficacy and safety as a front-line endovascular procedure. We analyzed 243 consecutive patients with large intracranial artery occlusions of the anterior circulation, treated within 6 hours with mechanical thrombectomy by either ADAPT or the Solitaire stent. Th primary outcome was complete recanalization (modified TICI ≥ 2b); secondary outcomes included complication rates and procedural and clinical outcomes. From November 2012 to June 2014, 119 patients were treated with stent retriever (Solitaire FR) and 124 by using the ADAPT with Penumbra reperfusion catheters. The median baseline NIHSS score was the same for both groups (Solitaire, 17 [interquartile range, 11-21] versus ADAPT, 17 [interquartile range, 12-21]). Time from groin puncture to recanalization (Solitaire, 50 minutes [range, 25-80 minutes] versus ADAPT, 45 minutes [range, 27-70 minutes], = .42) did not differ significantly. However, compared with the Solitaire group, patients treated with ADAPT achieved higher final recanalization rates (82.3% versus 68.9%; adjusted relative risk, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.37; = .022), though differences in clinical outcomes between the cohorts were not significant. Use of an adjunctive device was more frequent in the ADAPT group (45.2% versus 13.5%, < .0001). The rate of embolization in new territories or symptomatic hemorrhage did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Front-line ADAPT achieved higher recanalization rates than the Solitaire device. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted to define the best strategy for mechanical thrombectomy.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Flow-diverting stents, such as the PED, have emerged as a novel means of treating complex intracranial aneurysms. This retrospective analysis of the initial Canadian experience provides insight into technical challenges, clinical and radiographic outcomes, and complication rates after the use of flow-diverting stents for unruptured aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases were compiled from 7 Canadian centers between July 2008 and December 2010. Each center prospectively tracked their initial experience; these data were retrospectively updated and pooled for analysis. RESULTS: During the defined study period, 97 cases of unruptured aneurysm were treated with the PED, with successful stent deployment in 94 cases. The overall complete or near-complete occlusion rate was 83%, with a median follow-up at 1.25 years (range 0.25-2.5 years). Progressive occlusion was witnessed over time, with complete or near-complete occlusion in 65% of aneurysms followed through 6 months, and 90% of aneurysms followed through 1 year. Multivariate analysis found previous aneurysm treatment and female sex predictive of persistent aneurysm filling. Most patients were stable or improved (88%), with the most favorable outcomes observed in patients with cavernous carotid aneurysms. The overall mortality rate was 6%. Postprocedural aneurysm hemorrhage occurred in 3 patients (3%), while ipsilateral distal territory hemorrhage was observed in 4 patients (3.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Flow-diverting stents represent an important tool in the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms. The relative efficacy and morbidity of this treatment must be considered in the context of available alternate interventions.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The published results of treating internal carotid artery aneurysms with the PED do not necessarily apply to its use in the posterior circulation because disabling brain stem infarcts can be caused by occlusion of a single perforator. In this multicenter study, we assessed the safety of PED placement in the posterior circulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective case registry was maintained of all posterior circulation aneurysms treated with PEDs at 3 Australian neurointerventional centers during a 27-month period. The objective was to assess the complications and aneurysm occlusion rates associated with posterior circulation PEDs. RESULTS: Thirty-two posterior circulation aneurysms were treated in 32 patients. No deaths or poor neurologic outcomes occurred. Perforator territory infarctions occurred in 3 (14%) of the 21 patients with basilar artery aneurysms, and in all 3, a single PED was used. Two asymptomatic intracranial hematomas were recorded. No aneurysm rupture or PED thrombosis was encountered. The overall rate of permanent neurologic complications was 9.4% (3/32); all 3 patients had very mild residual symptoms and a good clinical outcome. Aneurysm occlusion was demonstrated in 85% of patients with >6 months of follow-up and 96% of patients with >1 year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The PED is effective in the treatment of posterior circulation aneurysms that are otherwise difficult or impossible to treat with standard endovascular or surgical techniques, and its safety is similar to that of stent-assisted coiling techniques. A higher clinical perforator infarction rate may be associated with basilar artery PEDs relative to the internal carotid artery.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Large admission DWI lesion volumes are associated with poor outcomes despite acute stroke treatment. The primary aims of our study were to determine whether CTA collaterals correlate with admission DWI lesion volumes in patients with AIS with proximal occlusions, and whether a CTA collateral profile could identify large DWI volumes with high specificity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 197 patients with AIS with M1 and/or intracranial ICA occlusions. We segmented admission and follow-up DWI lesion volumes, and categorized CTA collaterals by using a 5-point CS system. ROC analysis was used to determine CS accuracy in predicting DWI lesion volumes >100 mL. Patients were dichotomized into 2 categories: CS = 0 (malignant profile) or CS>0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare imaging and clinical variables between these 2 groups. RESULTS: There was a negative correlation between CS and admission DWI lesion volume (rho = -0.54, P 100 mL (AUC = 0.84, P 100 mL. CS = 0 patients had larger mean admission DWI volumes (165.8 mL versus 32.7 mL, P < .001), higher median NIHSS scores (21 versus 15, P < .001), and were more likely to become functionally dependent at 3 months (95.5% versus 64.0%, P = .003). Admission NIHSS score was the only independent predictor of a malignant CS (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AIS with PAOs, CTA collaterals correlate with admission DWI infarct size. A malignant collateral profile is highly specific for large admission DWI lesion size and poor functional outcome.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: FD stent placement is a promising therapy for challenging intracranial aneurysms. Long-term evaluations about angiographic and morphologic results are still missing. This is the aim of this multicenter series. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report our experience and 1-year FU in a retrospective chart review of 65 consecutive subjects with 77 unruptured or recanalized aneurysms that were treated with Silk FD stents at 6 centers in France. Both angiographic and clinical results were recorded before treatment and at 6 and 12 months after treatment. At the 12-month FU, relationships between angiographic aneurysm occlusion and shrinkage of the thrombosed aneurysm sac were evaluated. RESULTS: Stent deployment was achieved in 64 cases (98.5%) and failed in 1 case (1.5%). Seven misdeployments of the Silk stent caused the occlusion of 6 parent arteries. Overall acute/subacute procedural morbidity was 7.7%, and mortality was zero. Delayed complications were observed in 10.9% of subjects. At the 6-month FU, permanent morbidity was 7.8% and mortality was 3%. Complete occlusion occurred within 6 months in 68% of aneurysms and within 12 months after treatment in 84.5% of aneurysms. At the 12-month FU, in angiographically complete occluded aneurysms, MR imaging/CT analysis showed the complete disappearance of the thrombosed aneurysm in 30% of cases and partial shrinkage in 52%; furthermore, thrombosed aneurysms were stable in 11% of cases and enlarged in 7%. CONCLUSIONS: The Silk stent is an effective tool for the treatment of challenging aneurysms because it allows complete occlusion in most cases 1 year after treatment. Permanent morbidity was 7.8%, and mortality was 3%.