The ARCS Model of motivation was developed in response to a desire to find more effective ways of understanding the major influences on the motivation to learn, and for systematic ways of identifying and solving problems with learning motivation. The resulting model contains a four category synthesis of variables that encompasses most of the areas of research on human motivation, and a motivational design process that is compatible with typical instructional design models. Following its development, the ARCS Model was field tested in two inservice teacher education programs. Based on the results of these field tests, the ARCS Model appears to provide useful assistance to designers and teachers, and warrants more controlled studies of its critical attributes and areas of effectiveness.
Computers offer a variety of instructional control options to designers of computer-assisted instruction. However, the amount and type of instructional control is affected by both the nature of the learning task and learner characteristics. The purposes of this paper are to present empirical evidence on locus of instructional control, and to present guidelines for determining learner versus lesson control in computer-assisted instruction.
Models of instructional design help educators to design instructional patterns that presumably have proven successful in past instructional endeavors. The writers examined 40 models of instructional design from a variety of sources. The 40 models were divided into categories based on the models' most pertinent characteristics. The purposes and uses of these models are discussed and an explanation is offered of why so many different models exist. The writers concluded that because of the varying levels of quality of models, educators must be especially careful in choosing which model to follow when designing instruction.
It is widely reported that our educational system has some important shortcomings. This paper proposes that such "problems" as lack of teacher incentives, poor student motivation, lack of leadership, and lack of community support are, in fact, just effects of a more fundamental problem. It is the structure of our educational system that is at the heart of current problems. For example, it is our group-based, lock-stepped, graded, and time-oriented system that has the dubious distinction of effectively destroying the inherent desire to learn in all but a small percentage of our children. Furthermore, micro computers are accelerating the trend toward increased use of nonhuman resources in the education of our children, and the current structure of our educational system cannot adequately accomodate the effective use of these powerful educational tools. This article describes a general approach and a specific strategy for effecting the needed structural changes, and, also describes some initial progress on implementing that strategy. This initial progress is a preliminary "blueprint" outlining the structural characteristics that a "third-wave" educational system should have.
This JID issue focuses on instructional design and the public schools. The present paper considers a curious paradox: Despite expressions of concern about the quality of instruction offered in schools, and despite the existence of considerable research and theory in the instructional design literature which might be of value for teachers, there seems to be a "gap" between the teacher education literature and the instructional design literature. Two major purposes of this paper are: (a) to consider the extent to which instructional design skills are relevant for teachers; and (b) to explore prospects and potential problems in helping teachers to learn and to use instructional design approaches and techniques. The paper summarizes ideas derived from the author's research and teaching experiences with these topics during the past quarter century.
There are two general categories of guidelines for presenting questions, processing responses and processing feedback in CAI: those related to proper and effective use of the computer medium (formatting guidelines), and those related to principles derived from learning theories and research (psychological guidelines). Presently, most CAI authoring guides deal primarily with formatting guidelines which embrace one overriding principle: make the computer as unobtrusive and easy to use as possible so as to avoid student confusion and frustration. Formatting guidelines are certainly important and necessary, but not sufficient to guide the development of effective instructional software. In addition, instructional developers must focus on those guidelines which are based on current research and learning theories. This paper discusses some of the research on learning as it relates to the use of questions, response processing, and feedback in CAI.
Learners often feel that instruction lacks personal relevance. Designing instructional materials that account for learners' interests may be one means of improving motivation in instruction. High school seniors (N=72) participated in an experimental study that investigated the motivational effects of incorporating their reported interests into instruction. Results showed that significantly more learners were willing to return to a task that used their interests (F=5.76, p<.02). Using interests was valuable for both high and low achievers. Interests are discussed.
This article reports selected results of a study in which teachers' perceptions, opinions, and attitudes about instructional computing were examined. Implications about equitable access to computers in public schools are described. The data were gathered via a questionnaire mailed to 510 sixth-grade teachers in K-6 structured public schools. Significant findings concerning the nature of teachers' thoughts and experiences with instructional computing, and the potential effect of those factors on students' access to computers, are reported. As a needs assessment, this study provides useful information to instructional designers about how teachers perceive the computer and its use in their classrooms. Based upon the study, factors to consider when designing computer-based instruction for implementation in schools are suggested.
This paper examines the differences between concrete and abstract concepts and the implications of those differences for instructional design and teaching. The use of analogies is suggested as an instructional tool in abstract concept learning. Using the published literature on concept learning and analogies, the authors examine how specific concepts are stored in and retrieved from memory, the particular problems presented in learning abstract concepts, and how analogies mediate between the vague, intangible attributes of abstract concepts and those of a more concrete nature. Finally, they present a possible instructional strategy for teaching abstract concepts.
The effects of three text layout variables-justification, line length, and leading, are examined. Text presented on computer display terminals is read faster when the text is left justified, characters are small, and lines are long and separated by blank space. Although each of the variables affects the efficiency of reading text and may also have affective consequences, the overall effect of each on learning outcomes may be negligible.
In the last few years, interactive video has made tremendous advances in hardware with corresponding reduction in cost. This article discusses the nature of interactive video, its educational use, evidence for effectiveness, and the design of interactive video courseware. The evidence seems to indicate that the medium is both effective and efficient, though few rigorous studies have been done. while a systematic approach is followed for producing interactive video, little discussion of design models and variables exists. The development or adaptation of consistent design models and further study on effectiveness, efficiency, and cost effectiveness are suggested.
This article describes the roles instructional designers are likely to be playing in public schools and higher education in the year 2001. Also put forth is a prediction regarding teacher use of instructional design principles.
Current developments in automating the processes to author technical information and deliver it using microcomputers are described in this article. The Department of Defense (DoD) has directed that the entire logistics support system (including technical information now contained in printed manuals) be computer-based for new major systems entering production during the 1990s. Addressed are issues relating to authoring efficiency, information access, user acceptance, and screen formats. The article also reviews several ongoing projects and discusses implications for making the transition from paper to computer-based technical manuals.
Research in the field of cognitive psychology has led to evidence that proficient learners or performers have an awareness of their own cognition that manifests itself in strategic control of behavior. These findings are of particular significance to instructional designers because of their promising impact on instructional theories and models. Instruction can be enhanced through the incorporation of metacognitive aspects in the instruction and the resultant effects on the learner should be positive in terms of motivation and overall performance.
A simple yet detailed process for analyzing and comparing instructional development models at the task and subtask levels is described, justified, and illustrated. The analysis process ensures that all major instructional development tasks and their subtasks are identified, assigns weights to the subtasks, and facilitates the comparison of different prescriptive models task by task, according to both comprehensiveness and operational level.
The role and function of corporate education and training is substantively different than that of public education. Therefore, the roles of corporate educators and trainers are different from the roles of public school educators. These differences have created a demand for preparation programs that are designed specifically to meet the needs of corporate trainers and designers. Preparation programs in instructional design and technology have attempted to meet that demand. In order to design such a program, the needs (or competencies) of corporate trainers and designers must be clarified. The needs assessment and curriculum design processes used to design a graduate instructional technology program to educate trainers and instructional developers for work in the corporate environment are described.