► Integrates tourism experience literature with theory in psychology. ► Investigates the memorability of tourism experiences from a psychological standpoint. ► Four dimensions of memorable experiences were extracted via grounded theory. ► Practical implications of the findings are discussed. The concept of the tourism experience has become a focal point for current tourism research and management. While academic studies are increasingly examining tourism as a function of memorable experiences (ME), more research most be done to uncover the essence of what exactly makes certain experiences special, spectacular, and fittingly, memorable. This study sought to explore the essence of MEs based on research from the field of psychology, with a view to understanding the cognitive processes that impede individuals from paying attention to their experiences, as well as the conceptual processes of memory formation and retention. In-depth interviews revealed four key dimensions of MEs: and . Finally, we propose several avenues for future research on MEs.
► Sustainability indicators include: population, peace, prosperity, pollution, protection. ► In mainstream tourism, the main driver of sustainability is regulation rather than market measures. ► The global tourism industry is currently far from sustainable, though there are localised exceptions. ► Research priorities include: sustainability accounting, individual responsibility, and conservation tourism. Social and environmental impacts, responses and indicators are reviewed for the mainstream tourism sector worldwide, in five categories: population, peace, prosperity, pollution and protection. Of the ∼5000 relevant publications, very few attempt to evaluate the entire global tourism sector in terms which reflect global research in sustainable development. The industry is not yet close to sustainability. The main driver for improvement is regulation rather than market measures. Some tourism advocates still use political approaches to avoid environmental restrictions, and to gain access to public natural resources. Future research priorities include: the role of tourism in expansion of protected areas; improvement in environmental accounting techniques; and the effects of individual perceptions of responsibility in addressing climate change.
► This paper reviews the literature on consumer behaviour and demand responses to climate change. ► Findings highlight that there are considerable knowledge gaps. ► These knowledge gaps are discussed, and a framework for a better understanding of perceptions of change is provided. The influence of climate change on tourism demand patterns will be shaped by the response of tourists to the complexity of mitigation policy and its impacts on transportation systems, the wide range of climate change impacts on destinations, as well as broader impacts on society and economic development. Tourists have the largest adaptive capacity of elements within the tourism system because of their flexibility to substitute the place, timing and type of holiday, even at very short notice. Consequently, understanding tourist perceptions and reactions to the impacts of climate change is essential to anticipating the potential geographic and seasonal shifts in tourism demand, as well as the decline or increase of specific tourism markets. Yet, despite a wide range of publications assessing reactions of tourists to various environmental and climate-related changes, little is actually known about the complexity of demand responses. The paper reviews and discusses existing studies, and provides a framework for a better understanding of perceptions of change, as well as identifying major current uncertainties and research needs.
Consumers tend to seek heuristic information cues to simplify the amount of information involved in tourist decisions. Accordingly, star ratings in online reviews are a critical heuristic element of the perceived evaluation of online consumer information. The objective of this article is to assess the effect of review ratings on usefulness and enjoyment. The empirical application is carried out on a sample of 5,090 reviews of 45 restaurants in London and New York. The results show that people perceive extreme ratings (positive or negative) as more useful and enjoyable than moderate ratings, giving rise to a U-shaped line, with asymmetric effects: the size of the effect of online reviews depends on whether they are positive or negative.
* We investigated the impact of a new economic phenomenon called sharing economy. * We explored the effect of sharing economy penetration at a macro-economic level. * We collected 657 Airbnb houses and industry data of 44 counties in Idaho State. * We revealed both positive and negative effect of Airbnb on tourism employment.
► This paper provides the most up-to-date review of tourism economics research over the past three decades. ► Neoclassical economics contributes the most to tourism economics research. ► Alternative economic perspectives are needed for further advancements. ► Interdisciplinary approach is advocated for further knowledge creation. This paper aims to provide the most up-to-date survey of tourism economics research and to summarise the key trends in its recent development. Particular attention is paid to the research progress made over the last decade in respect of approaches, methodological innovations, emerging topics, research gaps, and directions for future research. Remarkable but unbalanced developments have been observed across different sub-research areas in tourism economics. While neoclassical economics has contributed the most to the development of tourism economics, alternative schools of thought in economics have also emerged in advancing our understanding of tourism from different perspectives. As tourism studies are multi- and inter-disciplinary, integrating economics with other social science disciplines will further contribute to knowledge creation in tourism studies.
► Reviews social changes in contemporary tourism and approaches to its study. ► Discusses broad social trends and historical events that recently affected tourism. ► Examines shift in conceptual focus away from authenticity and the tourist gaze. ► Appraises novel approaches of mobilities, performativity and actor-network theory. ► Identifies several current research issues as key areas for problem-oriented work. This article reviews the changing nature of contemporary tourism and sociological approaches to its study. We examine the broad social trends and specific historical events that recently affected tourism and discuss how the focus of sociological inquiry in tourism studies shifted from earlier discourses of authenticity and the tourist gaze to three novel theoretical approaches, the mobilities “paradigm”, the performativity approach and actor-network theory (ANT), which each reflect a broader meta-theoretical re-orientation in contemporary philosophy and sociology. We appraise these conceptual developments and discuss their limitations. We then identify several current research issues as important areas for problem-oriented work at the intersections of tourism and contemporary society: social justice, environmental sustainability, natural disasters, terrorism, heritage, embodiment and affect, and mediatization.
► This study introduces a parsimonious measure of consumer based brand equity. ► This study captures a wider spectrum of symbolic consumption. ► This study contributes to the existing body of consumer satisfaction’s knowledge. This study aims to investigate the mediating effects of consumer satisfaction on the relationship between consumer-based brand equity and brand loyalty in the hotel and restaurant industry. Based on a sample of 378 customers and using structural equation modelling approach, the five dimensions of brand equity—physical quality, staff behaviour, ideal self-congruence, brand identification and lifestyle-congruence—are found to have positive effects on consumer satisfaction. The findings of the study suggest that consumer satisfaction partially mediates the effects of staff behaviour, ideal self-congruence and brand identification on brand loyalty. The effects of physical quality and lifestyle-congruence on brand loyalty are fully mediated by consumer satisfaction.
Mobile systems have become important tools enabling tourists to navigate an uncertain world. A critical examination of the literature suggests that work is needed to develop a holistic understanding on the smartphone use for travel. The results of this study confirms that the use of smartphones for travel is shaped by complex interactions between contextual factors, cognitive beliefs, previous experiences and everyday use, and that smartphone use has the potential to substantially transform the tourist experience. A framework is proposed that integrates the mechanisms shaping the adoption, use and impact of smartphones in travel. This framework provides a broad foundation for understanding how mobile systems shape tourist experience while providing directions for future research in the area of mobile computing.
The purpose of this study is to better understand local residents’ support for tourism development by exploring residents’ perceived value of tourism development, life domain satisfaction (material/non-material), and overall quality of life in their community. The study provides the theoretical and empirical evidence of the relationships among those constructs. Using a sample of residents from five different tourism destinations, the results of a structural equation modeling approach indicated that residents’ perceived value of tourism development positively affects non-material and material life domain satisfaction; thereby, it contributes to overall quality of life. Finally, overall quality of life is an effective predictor of support for further tourism development.
This study investigates why people who actively engage in environmental protection at home engage in vacation behaviour which has negative environmental consequences, albeit unintentionally. The environmental activists participating in the study were highly aware of the negative environmental consequences of tourism in general, but all displayed an attitude–behaviour gap which made them feel uncomfortable. Participants did not report changing their behaviour; instead, they offered a wide range of explanations justifying their tourist activities. Gaining insight into these explanations contributes to our understanding of why it is so difficult to motivate people to minimize the negative environmental impacts of their vacations, and represents a promising starting point for new interventions to reduce environmentally unsustainable tourism behaviours.
This paper seeks to rouse debate about the workings of tourism enquiry as a knowledge-generating system through its critical accounting of the sub-field of tourism gender research. This accounting includes a gender-aware bibliometric analysis of 466 journal papers published during 1985–2012, which categorises the sub-field’s prevailing themes and methodologies and identifies its most prolific authors and popular journals. It contends that, despite three decades of study and a recent increase in papers, tourism gender research remains marginal to tourism enquiry, disarticulated from wider feminist and gender-aware initiatives and lacks the critical mass of research leaders, publications, citations and multi-institutional networks, which characterise other tourism sub-fields. The paper identifies two possible futures for gender-aware tourism research: stagnation or ignition.
This paper makes a philosophical and ontological contribution to tourism knowledge. It discusses emergent perspectives and paradigms, identifies major omissions in tourism knowledge and challenges its dominant assumptions, reviewing the imperatives for a regime change in the field. The paper argues that the new hopeful tourism perspective which combines co-transformative learning and action offers a distinctive approach to tourism study. It defines the characteristics of this values-led humanist perspective and presents a reflexive accounting of its evolution. It concludes with a three part agenda for tourism educators and researchers concerned to embrace co-transformative learning, which responds to the challenges of creating just and sustainable tourism worlds
► Perceived benefits and costs of tourism influence support for the industry. ► Trust, power, and neighborhood conditions influence perceived benefits of tourism. ► Neighborhood conditions and trust influence overall community satisfaction. ► Overall community satisfaction influences perceived benefits and support. ► Social exchange theory is relevant in explaining community support for tourism. This study developed a model of community support based on the social exchange theory. The model contained fourteen hypothesized relationships and was tested using the LISREL package from responses collected from residents of Grand-Baie, Mauritius. Results indicated that support was influenced by perceived benefits, perceived costs, and community satisfaction. Perceived benefits were affected by community satisfaction, institutional trust, power to influence tourism, and neighborhood conditions. Community satisfaction and neighborhood conditions did not exert a significant influence on perceived costs. Power to influence tourism was also not found to affect community satisfaction. Policy implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
The growth in demand for adventure tourism has been significant in recent years. This study applied an existing marketing framework and empirically examined the relationships between value, satisfaction, and behavioural intentions in an adventure tourism context. Four hundred and two respondents provided their perceptions of the value for an adventure tour in Australia. Customer value was conceptualised as a multidimensional construct and indeed three value dimensions had strong, positive influences on customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions in an adventure tourism setting. Value-for-money was prominent, but also emotional value and novelty value were also significant predictors of satisfaction and future intentions. The present study suggests that researchers should take a broader, holistic view of value in a tourism context.
► The study extends the use of social exchange theory. ► Support is influenced by residents’ trust in government and perceived benefits. ► Trust is predicted by perceived benefits and costs and residents’ level of power. ► Residents’ power positively influences their trust in government actors. ► Perceived benefits and costs are predicted by residents’ power in tourism. Trust and power between actors are two central concepts in social exchanges. Yet, studies investigating residents’ support for tourism using the social exchange theory have failed to consider these constructs simultaneously. This study tests a model of community support with the social exchange theory as its theoretical basis. Results indicate that support is determined by residents’ trust in government actors and perceived benefits. Trust is in turn predicted by residents’ perceived benefits and costs and their level of power. The theoretical contributions of the study emanate from the inclusion of the trust and power variables in the model. The practical implications of the findings and the limitations of the study are discussed. Some suggestions for future research are also made.
► Demonstrates link between social tourism and improvements in subjective well-being. ► Develops a measure of subjective well-being useful for future tourism studies. ► Extends the debate around tourism’s effects on quality of life and well-being. ► Contributes to social science understanding of tourism’s effects on individuals. New research is emerging on the relationships between tourism and quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB). This paper develops a measure of SWB and reports findings from a two-step survey that measured changes in well-being amongst low-income individuals who had received financial support to access a holiday break (‘social tourists’). This is the first study to assess well-being amongst social tourists. The findings indicate that tourism contributes to social tourist’s well-being. There are greater effects in some areas including psychological resources, leisure and family life domains contributing to social well-being. Social tourists have lower levels of SWB than the general population. Further studies are needed to compare tourism’s contribution to SWB amongst mainstream tourists.