Multimedia documents (MMDs) are connected to education in two different ways: future professionals have to be educated to perform the complex task of multimedia creation, and multimedia is also successfully used in various phases of the educational process. This paper focuses on education for multimedia from the point of view of four of its different aspects: technology, design, purpose and content. The present status of education for multimedia is illustrated by an analysis of the academic scene in Serbia and neighboring countries, as well as through some other illustrative examples. The results of this analysis show that the content aspect of multimedia is covered mainly in the Library and Information Science (LIS) curricula. We present the place of the obligatory course Multimedia Document in the LIS curriculum at the Faculty of Philology, University of Belgrade. It is organized as a team project of a whole generation of students in the last year of their studies, where each generation has to tackle a different topic important from the perspective of preservation of cultural heritage and present it in a multimedia form. In this paper, we show how successful this approach has been, both from teachers' and students' point of view.
This study of undergraduates' academic reading format preferences and behaviors asks the questions: What are undergraduates' format preferences when engaging with their academic readings, electronic or print? What factors impact their preferences and behaviors? How do these factors influence their actions? Almost 400 students at the University of California, Los Angeles completed the online Academic Reading Questionnaire in spring 2014 by agreeing or disagreeing with statements about their format preferences when engaging with their academic texts, and the contextual factors that impact them. Results show overwhelmingly that they prefer print over electronic formats for learning purposes, but multiple factors such as accessibility, cost, complexity and importance of the reading to the course affect their actual behaviors. The findings are then considered within the larger picture of previous studies of presentation format preferences, and research comparing reading comprehension in electronic and print formats. Zipf's Principle of Least Effort and the concept of information economics are used to suggest a theoretical basis for why factors outside of comprehension and learning efficiency impact the students' actual behaviors.
This paper describes the application of the social media platform WeChat. It explores the use of this emerging mobile app using the official WeChat accounts of the top 39 academic libraries in China. The findings indicate that approximately one third of the libraries use WeChat as a marketing tool to promote collections and services for users. Most of the 39 libraries, however, are still using the most basic functions. Advanced functions urgently need to be adopted. The main uses of WeChat are general social networking services (SNSs) and automatic answering and interaction features, which include seeking and sharing information, user self-service, and keyword-identified reference auto-responders. The study uses six aspects of quality to evaluate the interaction and content delivered by WeChat. These include the volume of information, information content quality, concordance rate, frequency, self-service, and basic features. The experience of Chinese university libraries is used to provide recommendations for other libraries.
Rapid developments in technology, as well as changes in areas such as scholarly communication, data management, and higher education pedagogy are affecting user expectations and forcing academic libraries to develop new resources and service areas. No library can respond to every new trend in the field, but where are academic libraries generally placing their priorities right now, and to what extent are they responding to emerging trends? Through a content analysis of academic library strategic plans, this study examines the stated directions and goals of libraries to discover the extent to which they are monitoring and addressing emerging and traditional program and service areas, providing a perspective on how academic libraries are addressing current issues, and how they plan to allocate resources in response to trends. Academic libraries are facing enormous pressures that require them to respond and adapt in order to remain relevant. Rapid developments in technology, as well as changes in areas such as scholarly communication, data management, and higher education pedagogy are affecting user expectations and forcing academic libraries to develop new resources and service areas. At the same time, these libraries must balance new initiatives with core service areas such as instruction and collection development. In addition to responding to current trends, academic libraries are also being challenged to anticipate future needs and to develop innovative initiatives to meet those needs. No library can respond to every new trend in the field, nor should they. Decisions about how to prioritize and allocate resources should be aligned with the mission and goals of the library's parent institution. Colleges and universities are facing their own pressures, driven by increasing demands from stakeholders to hold themselves accountable, especially in terms of student outcomes such as persistence, graduation, and employment, as well as student learning outcomes, or changes in knowledge and behavior as a result of educational programs. In turn, these institutions are looking to their departments to demonstrate how their programs and services support and further the mission and goals of the college. In this environment, academic libraries must monitor both the trends in the library and information science field as well as those in higher education more generally in order to determine where to focus resources and efforts. But where are academic libraries generally placing their priorities right now, and to what extent are they responding to emerging trends? Library and information science (LIS) literature is rife with articles and reports that track trends in the field, make predictions, and advise libraries on how to implement plans and programs related to those trends. Few studies, however, have examined academic libraries' planning documents to see how they are prioritizing among the competing issues and challenges facing them. This study aims to address the gap in the literature. Through a content analysis of academic library strategic plans, this study examines the stated directions and goals of the library to discover the extent to which they are monitoring and addressing emerging and traditional program and service areas. Academic librarians and library directors will be interested to see which issues and challenges are receiving the most attention, and how their peers are prioritizing those areas. The study will also offer campus administrators a perspective on how academic libraries are addressing current issues, and how they plan to allocate resources in response to trends. Library faculty might also be interested in the results, as understanding which trends are having the most impact in their field could inform curricular decisions and program emphases.
This study investigates the adoption of Library 2.0 functionalities by academic libraries and users through a knowledge management perspective. Based on randomly selected 230 academic library Web sites and 184 users, the authors found RSS and blogs are widely adopted by academic libraries while users widely utilized the bookmark function.
Academic libraries are increasingly collecting e-books, but little research has investigated how students use e-books compared to print texts. This study used a prompted think-aloud method to gain an understanding of the information retrieval behavior of students in both formats. Qualitative analysis identified themes that will inform instruction and collection practices.
Physical space in an academic library is increasingly important to fully support students' diverse needs for learning spaces. However, inefficient space design and planning give rise to crowded and underutilized spaces in a library, thereby probably lowering students' learning outcomes and wasting costly space. Understanding students' use of space can facilitate effective design and planning, which in turn will result in more efficient use of space. As students' spatial choices (i.e., the act of decision-making of an individual or group among two or more space alternatives for a certain activity) account for much of the space use in a library, this study explored the factors that influence their choice of space in an academic library using a paper-based survey (n = 252) at the central academic library, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands. The five most important space attributes were “Amount of space,” “Noise level,” “Crowdedness,” “Comfort of furnishing” and “Cleanliness.” The spatial choice patterns also differed according to different user and activity profiles.
Like other units within colleges and universities, academic libraries are subject to increasing internal and external pressures to demonstrate their contributions to institutional goals related to students' success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between first-year undergraduate students' use of the academic library, academic achievement, and retention. Results of ordinary least squares regressions predicting first-year students' cumulative grade point averages (GPA) and logistic regressions predicting students' first-year to second-year retention suggest that students who used academic library services and resources at least once during the academic year had higher GPA and retention on average than their peers who did not use library services. The results of two separate regressions predicting students' GPA by 10 different types of library use suggest that four library use areas were consistently and positively associated with students' GPA: database logins, book loans, electronic journal logins, and library workstation logins. The results of two separate logistic regression analyses suggest that logging into databases and using library workstations were actions consistently and positively associated with students' retention. Additional results predicted by students' use of services at least one time and by one-unit increases in the frequency of library area uses are discussed.
This study investigated which social media platforms are used as information sources, and for what purposes. It also examined how user characteristics are related to the use of different platforms. A Web-based survey was used to collect data from undergraduate students. Responses from more than 800 students showed that most of the social media platforms are used as information sources, where wikis, user reviews, and media-sharing sites emerged as the top platforms. The purpose of use varied across platforms. T-test and ANOVA results also revealed individual differences. Significant differences in gender, class level, academic discipline, and Big Five personality traits were found in the frequency of information seeking using different platforms and also in the purpose of use. Study findings have implications for information literacy (IL) education and information services. Because many students are actively using social media platforms for a variety of information-seeking purposes, it is suggested that IL programs embrace social media as potential information sources and offer effective strategies for using and evaluating these increasingly popular social media sources.
Drawing on adaptive structuration theory (AST), this study develops a research model to explore innovative information seeking in the context of digital libraries from the perspectives of cognitive switching and affinity. Innovative information seeking behavior is the combination of innovative IT (information technologies) use behavior and information seeking behavior and subsequently refers to innovative IT use oriented to information seeking. A research model was developed and survey data were collected. The partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to verify the research model. The findings suggest that affinity with digital libraries is the most powerful determinant of innovative information seeking. Meanwhile, task nonroutineness and disconfirmation have positive effects on innovative information seeking; the effect of social influence on innovative information seeking is overpowered by affinity with digital libraries. The findings and their implications for theory and practice are discussed.
This study examined the Twitter streams and websites of 36 university innovation centers and identified 14 service categories the centers offered. Exploring the present Twitter use practices of innovation centers and the services the centers provide can inform the design and planning of service offerings at new innovation centers and support training for center staff in the use of this social media platform. In addition, existing innovation centers can benchmark their service offerings against those services. Furthermore, mapping the services the innovation centers offer to the activities in an innovation workflow model can help center managers optimize the information architecture of their websites and resource guides. In this way, students can easily be informed about the help and resources available for each activity or phase of the innovation process. A comparison of the tweet categories identified in the present study with those of academic libraries assembled in a previous study revealed significant overlap, but some differences as well. In contrast to the Twitter accounts of academic libraries, the Twitter accounts of innovation centers did not tweet about their information services even if they offered them. Innovation centers also did not use Twitter to provide Q&A services to their users. Furthermore, innovation centers tweeted not only about the technological resources they provided, but also about the human resources they recruited to serve as student mentors and advisors. Finally, technology use was more mediated in innovation centers than in libraries, and some centers offered their users fee-based assistance from professionals with their 3D design and printing tasks.
This study examined postgraduates' personal digital archiving (PDA) practices in China. Based on a case study of the PDA practices of postgraduates in Wuhan University, many problems in PDA were found; postgraduates have a higher awareness of PDA, but the differences between different grades level and disciplines are obvious. Many postgraduates are technological optimists. Those who realize the importance of PDA lack real action and can only use a single strategy. The protection of personal privacy and information security is still challenging. To solve these problems, efforts from individuals and institutions are proposed, including the suggestion that institutions should implement an advanced intervention in PDA progress to improve postgraduates' PDA awareness, and the suggestion that postgraduates should view archiving technology dialectically and make rational use of archiving tools, using various strategies, regularizing their PDA behavior, and taking multiple measures to protect their personal privacy and information security.
Librarians often use assessment methodologies to evaluate the efficacy and impact of their information literacy instruction sessions and programs. In this article, researchers use an action research methodology to explore the effect of information literacy instruction on first-year honors student assignments. The researchers explain how they implemented multiple cycles of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting in order to better understand student needs, increase the impact of library instruction, and communicate that impact to library and external stakeholders. Robust and cyclical assessment gave librarians and their strategic partners the opportunity to make iterative improvements to instruction, address issues of overconfidence in students, and make the case for additional information literacy instructional opportunities for honors students.
This mixed-methods study aims to characterize the appropriate structure of the academic library in the information age according to the perceptions of the faculty members who use the library and the academic librarians operating it. Two main issues were addressed: centralization versus decentralization, and the provision of physical versus virtual services. The study population included members of the faculties of Humanities and Social Sciences in three academic institutions in Israel and academic librarians working in these institutions. Qualitative data was collected through interviews with 20 faculty members and 15 librarians, while quantitative data was collected through questionnaires filled by 191 faculty members and 50 librarians in the above-mentioned institutions. Analysis of these data reveal that faculty members generally prefer a concentration of materials—rather than decentralization—and they show a similar preference toward a faculty library model, a combined faculty/departmental library model, and a central library model. Similarly, the academic librarians prefer either faculty or combined faculty/department libraries, but their preference toward a central library model is lower than that of the faculty members. The decentralized, departmental library model was the least favored by both groups. In addition, our findings indicate that both the faculty members and the librarians appreciate the virtual services that the library provides as well as its physical presence, although fewer faculty members than librarians perceived the latter as an important role of the library. Taken together it appears that the preferred model for the academic library in the information age is of large, multidisciplinary libraries that contain materials from a variety of fields and provide comprehensive virtual services.
Workplace incivility and its consequences have been studied by many scholars; however, little attention has been given to the phenomenon in the library environment. More specifically, empirical research in the Library and Information Science (LIS) literature has focused on deviant behaviors, such as bullying, mobbing, and aggression, mainly from colleagues and supervisors rather than from users. However, incivility in the workplace is more common than other forms of negative behaviors, such as aggression. Moreover, in service organizations uncivil behavior from patrons is more frequently encountered than from co-workers and supervisors. In this vein, the current exploratory study aimed to investigate the manifestations and frequency of user incivility, as well as employee reactions to these behaviors in Greek academic libraries. Employee perceptions regarding the causes of user incivility were also explored. Results indicated that users are mainly impatient, angry and make unreasonable demands. These behaviors are attributed to user personality. Finally, respondents reported milder reactions to user incivility compared to those of their colleagues. Implications of the findings for library leaders are also discussed.
Over the course of 2018 the University of Sheffield Library conducted a series of interviews and workshops with stakeholders as part of a strategic project to reflect on the value of the university library in the 21st century. Using a mixed methodology, participants were asked to reflect upon the future Higher Education (HE) environment for the university and, for academic participants, their discipline. In this context participants were also asked to reflect upon the future value of the University Library in a series of questions designed to elicit value statements using a tool which the project group have called the ‘Wheel of Value’. The resulting reflections upon the future environment have been grouped into four categories reflecting the drivers for change; Digitalisation, Student Experience, Diversification and Collaboration recognizing that there is considerable overlap and interconnection between these. The reflections on the future value of the library are presented by Wheel of Value higher order categorization. This approach proved useful in eliciting responses from participants in the face of recognized difficulty in getting beyond current views of the library and the approach is recommended to other universities looking to carry out a similar project. The results of this research will be used to inform the development of a view of the library for the purpose of engaging with our university community and key partners.
This study reviewed library websites at Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) to learn more about the services they provide to unaffiliated patrons and how they share this information. This review demonstrated that websites at land-grant libraries affirmed unaffiliated patrons' building access privileges at slightly higher rates and circulation privileges at lower rates than non-land-grant APLUs. Data also revealed that requirements and fees for library privileges varied across APLU libraries as a whole. This research is a first step in identifying how libraries at land-grants and non-land-grant APLUs compare to one another and to different types of institutions in the services they provide to unaffiliated patrons. It also continues the discussion of whether libraries, especially those at land-grant colleges and universities, have an obligation to open their spaces and collections to unaffiliated patrons.
Narratives are the heuristics the brain uses to make sense of the world. When they are embraced in teaching, they make the process more efficient, engaging and enjoyable for both students and instructors. While the insights of psychologists, neuroscientists and education researchers into the cognitive and affective mechanisms of meaning-making are not new, capitalizing on these insights in order to engage and instruct is part of a recent trend of evidence-based educational practices. This study is unique in that it uses a phenomenological methodology and semi-structured interviews with 19 academic librarians who teach in Canadian higher education institutions to determine what narrative tools or approaches they use, and to what extent these practices may enrich both their outcomes and their teaching praxis. The authors document the variety of ways in which librarians use narrative techniques instinctively, categorizing these teaching narratives into concepts with more granular themes. A purposeful use and reuse of these narrative techniques, the authors hope, will help inform librarian teaching and reflective practice.
The following case study describes two library-led text encoding projects involving correspondence collections. The first, a documentary edition of personal papers held by Peter Still, a former slave, was conceived as an independent research project involving the participation of two undergraduate research assistants; the second, based upon letters to and from the Rutgers College War Service Bureau (1917–1919), has been designed as a two-week text encoding unit in a proposed undergraduate course on data and culture. These two projects, both featuring the letter as their object of study, are compared and contrasted as models of data and process, affording reflections on the overlapping concerns of the library instruction and digital humanities communities of practice. I propose viewing text encoding projects, particularly those that focus on lesser known creators or on life documents such as letters, as a means of accessing both critical library pedagogy and digital humanities methodology. By developing such projects, librarians address a number of collection and instruction related objectives of the library, while offering a valuable introduction to a set of methods that are of increasing importance to undergraduate education. Furthermore, these projects may be conducted at smaller scales, by reusing and adapting methods and software shared by the digital humanities community, thereby limiting reliance on institutional partners for technology and infrastructure support, which may not be forthcoming in under-resourced institutional contexts.