The cellular organizations of intestine in (Hamilton, 1822) have been described by light as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The intestine is short and straight like, marked into anterior, middle and posterior region based on mucosal folds, number and size of columnar epithelial cells and mucous cells, thickness of submucosa and muscularis layer. The mucosa of anterior intestine forms high folds, which are lined with compactly arranged columnar epithelial cells and mucous cells. In the middle intestine, folds are pointless whereas the posterior intestine is without folds. The submucosa is formed of thin layer of connective tissue, contained collagen bundles and blood capillaries, comparatively well developed in the posterior intestine. By scanning electron microscopy, outlines of the luminal surface of anterior and middle intestine is embossed with oval or rounded columnar epithelial cells contained densely packed stubby microridges. The posterior intestine has closely set longitudinal folds characterized with minute blood capillaries and columnar epithelial cells having inconspicuous microridges. Ultrastructurally, the mucosal surface of the intestine consists of mucous cells with electron dense granules and columnar epithelial cells having numerous microvilli, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and Golgi body. Cellular components of the anterior and middle intestine participate in the absorption whereas the presence of enormous blood vessels and capillary net work of posterior intestine probably responsible for air breathing.
69 road sections with amphibian mortality known from 2006 in Lviv Region (Western Ukraine) were repeatedly surveyed in 2017. 2078 dead individuals of nine amphibian species were detected and identified on the road surface ( , , , , , , , and ). The most numerous victims appeared to be (72.8 %) and (22.6 %) which is almost the same as in 2006 (90.5 % together). However, the qualitative and quantitative composition has decreased in a decade (compare 3555 individuals of 13 amphibian species in 2006). As we suppose, the main reasons for amphibian population decline in the region are contamination, degradation and disappearance of the breeding ponds as well as the increased traffic intensity. According to the estimation of our research four populations are under the excessive influence of roads and transportation, and need to be protected. One of these road sections was fenced up by temporary amphibian fences during the breeding migration (April 2018). Amphibian mortality on the fenced road section dropped down instantly: over thousand individuals of and were caught alive into the bucket-traps and safely moved across the road.
I studied the effect of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the phenology of spring migration of birds in Central Ukraine. Data for arrival and departure of 92 species collected in 1987 to 2018 were used. The statistically significant correlation was found for 33 (35.9 %) bird species. 50 coefficients were negative (82.0 %) and 11 ones — positive (18.0 %). The majority of relationships have been shown in February (12) and March (22). In April, they became more rarely (5). There was only one significant value for January and May. For 20 species correlations were found with averaged indices including three months (January to March). The relationships with NAO indices were much commoner for the short-distance migrants (63.3 % of studied species) than for birds wintering in tropical and Southern Africa (20.5 %) and the intermediate group (18.8 %). Wintering birds showed 8 significant coefficients in 3 species (42.9 %). Statistically significant coefficients of correlation ranged in absolute values from 0.35 to 0.80. The average absolute values were very close for different groups of species. The overall mean made 0.50 ± 0.01 (n = 61).
The assemblages of ground beetles of forest areas of the northern part of Ukraine were studied: Polisky Nature Reserve (PNR) and urban parks of Kyiv City. In general, 88 species of carabids of 29 genera were observed in the studied areas. Thirty-one forest species were found in the studied territories, of which 22 species were registered in urban parks, and 17 species within the PNR. In all investigated areas, the number of forest species was lower, than open-habitat species and generalists species. Today, based on data on the occurrence and abundance of carabid species, forests in urban areas can be considered as refugia for many forest species, in particular, protected and endangered species — and . The results of cluster analysis, non-metric multidimensional scaling and detrended correspondence analysis showed the difference between the forests of the PNR and the urban parks. In addition, the species richness of the PNR were lower than in urban parks. The results of the study showed that urban parks can be considered as important elements for the future management and conservation of landscapes.
The blackflies on the south-western macroslope of the Ukrainian Carpathians are represented by 45 species. Forty of them are registered in the rivers (Simpson’s diversity index ( ) equals to 0.019), and 29 species in the streams ( — 0.090). Twenty-four simuliid species are common for both types of water ways (Czekanowski/Sørensen similarity index ( ) is 0.4). Only 16 species develop in the rivers, and 5 types of blackflies live only in the streams. Mass development of the following species in hydrobiocoenoses on the south-western macroslope of the Ukrainian Carpathians: and . Species such as and are widespread here. Simuliid faunas of main regional altitudinal plant groups differed in composition and quantitative correlation of species. , , , and were eurytopic. The reachest species composition (29) was recorded in Rakhiv subdistrict in the district of spruce-fir-beech, spruce-beech-fir and spruce-beech Transcarpathian forests, and the poorest composition (15) is in the beech forests of southern megaslope of the Polonynian Beskyd, subdivision of beech Carpathian forests.
The mapping method was employed to study avian community structure in relation to rainfall in a town suburb in Highveld grassland in southern Africa. Studies were conducted in two breeding seasons: 1998, with dry spring; and 2001, with close to average spring rainfall. The total rainfall in 1998 was 1254 mm, while in 2001 it was 1445 mm, in both years much above the long-term annual average (866 mm). The avian community remained remarkably similar in both years, both in respect to the number of species (44 in 1998 and 53 in 2001), and dominance relationships. The Simpson’s Diversity Index was high and also very similar in 1998 and 2001 (D = 0.91; 0.93 respectively). In all years, dominant species included the Laughing Dove, Grey-headed Sparrow, Speckled Dove, Cape Turtle-Dove and Common Fiscal. The Southern Red Bishop in 2001 was also in the group of dominants. Significant differences were noted in the overall density of all birds, but contrary to expectation density was higher in 1998, with lower rainfall, than in 2001, with higher rainfall. The proportions of nesting and feeding guilds were similar in both years compared, except for the granivores, which were proportionally more common in 1998 than in 2001. This difference was mainly due to the Laughing Dove and Grey-headed Sparrow. Generally, it appears that the suburban avian community is more stable and more diverse than neighbouring communities in the natural habitats.
The effect of the pyrogenic factor on the avifauna of shelter belts in the north-western part of the Azov Sea region, Ukraine is considered basing on results of the research carried out in 2001–2018. The breeding bird community of shelter belts is composed of 50 species, of them different types of shelter belts support 14–46 species. Changes in the species composition of breeding birds are analysed in subsequent years aft er the fires. The recovery of bird communities is progressing at a slow pace following the regeneration of tree-shrub vegetation and development of consortial relations of birds with dominating tree-shrub species and rook ( ) colonies. It is established that the vegetation pyrogenic succession is accompanied by deep qualitative and quantitative changes in the structure of breeding avian communities in shelter belts of different type.
sp. n. collected on flowerheads of sp. in Iran is described. The new species significantly differs from other known species of the genus by having a combination of unique wing pattern and aculeus structure. A key to the Palaearctic species similar to Loew is given.
sp. n. and sp. n. are described from Iran. Zerova is recorded from Iran for the first time. These three species belong to the subgenus ( ). The species of this subgenus have trophic associations with plants of family Apiaceae. An identification key to species of from Iran is given. Holotype and paratypes of new species are deposited in the collection of I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kyiv).
A list of all 117 hymenopteran species recorded from Rovno amber is presented for the fi rst time. Th is list includes 50 named species (43 %) known only in Rovno amber fauna. Of the remaining species, 59 (50 %) are recorded also from Baltic amber, 37 (32 %) from Bitterfeld amber, 26 (22 %) from Scandinavian amber as well. Half of the species (50 %) are known on both sides of the Subparathetys (that is, recorded in Baltic amber as well), and another half is recorded only to south of the Subparathetys (from the Rovno, Bitterfeld and Scandinavian amber only). One subfamily, Eucoilinae Th omson, one tribe, Protomicroidini Antropov, and 19 genera (Archaeocercus Simutnik, Archaeogryon Kononova & Simutnik, Astigmaton Kasparyan, Boltonidris Radchenko & Dlussky, Dipriocampe Bouček, Disogmus Főrster, Fallomyrma Dlussky & Radchenko, Foveorisus Martynova, Lissonota Khalaim, Pristomyrmex Mayr, Protomicroides Antropov, Pseudidris Kononova, Pseudotelea Kononova, Rovenosa Khalaim, Rovnoecus Antropov, Rovnoeucoila Buffi ngton & Perkovsky, Rovnosoma Simutnik, Sierola Cameron, Trjapitzion Simutnik) are recorded only from south of the Subparathetys. Th ese data provide evidence supporting the previously proposed suggestion on the diff erent origin of four main European sources of succinite. Th e data mentioned above confi rm that the source area of the Rovno amber, contrary to the Baltic amber, had been situated southwards from Subparathetys. Platystasius gracilis Kononova & Simutnik and Oxyserphus obsolescens (Brues) are recorded for the fi rst time respectively from Baltic and Scandinavian amber.
In order to define appropriate conservation measures in northern Tunisia we surveyed the bat fauna of Mastouta-Bishshouk region in both roosting sites and foraging areas. A total of 11 species was recorded. We found only three occupied roosts including a maternity colony of and in a train abandoned tunnel. A tunnel of water channel hosted , and . Echolocation calls were recorded at a bridge over Beja Wadi, at an artificial basin, and in crop fields. Bat activity was the highest at the bridge in late March, and null in the harvested crop fields in late August. was the most active bat species in the three sites, was the second most active species, followed by . and were detected only once at the bridge and the basin respectively. This bat assemblage is representative of the bat fauna of northern Tunisia. Roost and foraging area surveys strongly benefit acoustic recording, even in winter when some bats remain active. The rare local underground roosts should be protected from human disturbance and the water quality of Majerda Wadi should be improved.
The objective of the present study was to examine the growth pattern and condition factors of the naleh fish, Bleeker, 1849 in Nagan River, Nagan Raya District, Aceh Province, Indonesia. The sampling was conducted for 12 months from January 2016 to December 2016 using the explorative survey method. The sampling locations were determined based on the information given by local fishermen. A total of 761 fish samples were collected during the study. The Linear Allometric Model (LAM), Fulton’s and Relative Weight conditions factors were utilized to analyze the length-weight relationship and condition factor of the fish using growth parameters. The results showed that the highest coefficient of b was recorded in December, where the b value of males were 3.82 and 4.23 for the females with the average b value of males and females were 2.92 indicating an isometric growth pattern. The average Fulton’s condition factor (K) was 2.28 and the average Relative weight (Wr) condition factor was 100.59. It is concluded that fish had the isometric growth pattern and based on K and Wr value, the result implies that the waters are still in a good condition. Furthermore, the availability of food sources, low competitors, and low predators indicate that the aquatic environment is in a stable condition.
We analysed the structure of the communities of the ground beetles of the tribe Carabini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in urban environments on the examples of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Dnipro, Donetsk and Lviv. The ground beetles of this tribe in the five researched megapolises are represented by 24 species of the and genera. The cities each have from 9 (Kharkiv, Donetsk) — 11 (Kyiv) to 14–15 (Dnipro, Lviv) registered species. Only three species ( , , ) turned out to be present in all the studied cities, where they were relatively abundant, and six ( , , , , , ) were recorded reasonably frequently in most of the cities. In the parks of Kyiv and Lviv (south forest zone), forest ( , , ) and polytopic species ( ) were dominant, while the inhabitants of open biotopes ( , , ) were uncommon. In Kharkiv (forest-steppe zone), the common species were both polytopic ( . ) and forest ( ). In Donetsk and Dnipro (steppe zone), some steppe elements ( , ) occurred, but the dominant species were habitat generalist ( ) and certain forest species ( ). At the same time, almost half the recorded species of the tribe were registered as rare or accidental elements in the cities studied, though typical for the natural biocenoses of the geographic region surrounding those cities. A short ecological characteristic of all species of tribe in urbocenoses is given.
A study on the seasonal variation in population structure of seven (7) ungulate species, African buffalo ( ), eland ( ), giraffe ( ), oryx ( , sable ( ), roan antelope ( ) and the greater kudu ( ) was carried out using the field census approach during the wet (February– April) and dry (July–September) season, and a water hole census (September) at seven waterholes in the Waterberg National Park, Namibia. Male warthog, oryx and black rhino on average comprised about 40 % of the population, whereas male sable, roan antelope, eland and buffalo comprised 30 % of the population. Male kudu and male white rhino comprised 20 % of the sex structure of the population, whereas male giraffe comprised more than 50 % of population. Age structure was dominated by adults, with 60 % of the total population in warthog, sable, eland and the white rhino, and 70 % in kudu, roan, buffalo, giraffe and black rhino on average. Oryx had the highest number of adults, with only 10 % of the population comprised of juveniles. Larger herds were observed during the wet season and smaller herds during the dry season. Animals were observed more abundantly in three of the vegetation types ( vegetation, ), with lower abundances in the rock-inhabiting during both seasons.
Morphological characteristics were studied in adult and embryonic (Zeder, 1800) obtained from domestic goose Linnaeus, 1758. The studied characters included species-specific morphometric indices of male and female specimens and differential characters of sex-related dimorphism in that species. Stages and periods of embryonic development, and viability of the nematodes were studied at laboratory conditions. Size dimorphism in was considerable, females were significantly larger (by 10.09–27.98 %) than males by 11 parameters. Additional metric characters were proposed to enhance effectiveness of differentiation of female and male specimens. Under laboratory conditions, embryonic development of occurs in four stages: blastomere cleavage; larval formation; formation of non-infective larvae I and II; formation of infective larva III which hatches from the egg. Infective larvae develop at 23 °С in six days, and their viability was up to 78.33 ± 2.08 %.
The research was carried out in 6 territories located in oak forests of Slobozhanshchyna in 2007–2016. Family home ranges were determined using the average nearest neighbour distance between all setts of a sett system for the badgers and between breeding burrows for the foxes. The use of fox and badger family home ranges in different seasons and years was estimated by changes in the use of burrows at the monitoring site of Gomilshanski Lisy National Nature Park. In the oak forests, 173 burrows were studied, among which 75 are used by badgers and 45 by foxes. The area of most of the badger family home ranges in the oak forests is 28–88 hа. The area of the fox family home ranges in the oak forests is 86 to 892 ha. In the oak forests of Slobozhanshchyna, badger and fox family home ranges correspond to the data for similar biotopes in Europe. Seasonal changes of the badger family home range used at the monitoring site in Gomilshanski Lisy NNP in general correspond to literature radio tracking data. Changes in use of the fox family home range de pend on fluctuations of the abundance of rodents.
This is the first review of life cycles of trematodes with parthenitae and larvae in freshwater gastropods from forest biocoenoses of Ukrainian Polissia. Altogether 26 trematode species from 14 families were found circulating in 13 ways in molluscs from reservoirs connected with forest ecosystems of the region. Three-host life cycle is typical of 18 trematode species, two-host life cycle has found in 7 species, and four-host cycles has found in one species. Goeze, 1782, has three-host (Shults, 1972) and four-host cycles. (Froehlich, 1791) can change three-host life cycle to two-host cycle replacing the second intermediate host ( ) with the definitive host. Species with primary two-host life cycle belong to Notocotylidae Lühe, 1909, Paramphistomidae Fischoeder, 1901 and Fasciolidae Railliet, 1758 families. Trematodes with three-host cycle have variable second intermediate hosts, including invertebrates and aquatic or amphibious vertebrates. Definitive hosts of trematodes are always vertebrates from different taxonomic groups. The greatest diversity of life cycles is typical for trematodes of birds. Trematodes in the forest biocoenoses of Ukrainian Polissia infect birds in six ways, mammals in three, amphibians in four, and reptiles in one way. The following species have epizootic significance: (Willmott, 1950); Ejsmont, 1932; Fuhrmann, 1919; (Frölich, 1789) Odhner, 1905; (Rudolphi, 1808); (Fröhlich, 1802) Dietz, 1909; Dietz, 1909; (Linstow, 1873); (Bloch, 1782) Dietz, 1909; Kasturada, 1914; Goeze, 1782.
The observation of elusive mammals, is still problematic, particularly in flowing waters or wetlands. But with the usage of camera traps, it was possible to obtain valuable information about otters. The aim of this study was finding the diel activity of the otters that live in Central-Eastern Romania. The diel activity of the Eurasian otter along its habitat was studied from March 2011 to April 2016 over 1356 days & nights of camera trapping. The camera traps have recorded a total of 222 otter visits at all 10 observation sites. Otters, passing through the observation sites, were strongly nocturnal and displayed a trimodal diel activity pattern, one occurring just before dawn (between 04:00 and 06:30 h), the second one occuring just after dusk (between 18:30 and 22:00 h) and the third one occurring in the middle of the night (between 00:30 and 01:30). Otters have been also active during the Civil Twilight (7.2 %), more active during the dusk (5 %) than during the dawn (2.3 %). Seasonally the Eurasian otters were more active during winter (39.6 %) and progressively less active in spring (31.5 %) summer (9 %) or autumn (19.8 %).
The skull fragment of muskox (Artiodactyla, Bovidae) obtained from Chasha River bed alluvium near the Buryn (Sumy Region, North-Eastern Ukraine) is described here in detail. It belongs to a young male, and presumably dates back to Late Pleistocene. This new find slightly extends the known Ukrainian range of the species to the east. Taxonomic attribution of extinct muskox and dispersal of within the territory of Ukraine during the Late Pleistocene are also discussed in the paper.
More than 30 species of exotic ungulates are currently kept in the Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve (Kherson Region, Ukraine). During the years 1978–2014, 146 ungulates of 24 species (16 species of Bovidae, 4 — Cervidae, 4 — Camelidae) were examined by partial helminthological dissection; more than 402,700 specimens of helminths were collected and identified. The purpose of the present study was to summarize these data and analyze the species diversity in exotic ungulates. Totally, 38 species of helminths: 3 species of Trematoda, 6 — Cestoda, 29 — Nematoda were found. Ungulates from the family Bovidae were the most infected; they harbored 36 species of helminths, 1–18 species per host. In Camelidae, 15 species were found; 3–10 species per host. Cervidae harbored 9 species; 1–6 species per host. The highest species diversity was detected in the ungulates introduced from regions with climatic conditions similar to those in southern Ukraine: saiga antelope (19 species), European mouflon (18), Barbary sheep (18), and markhor (17). Ten species typical for domestic ruminants ( , sp., , , , , and ) dominated in the parasite communities. Our results indicated reduction in the species diversity and alteration of the parasite community structures in these exotic ungulates kept in the Askania-Nova Reserve compared to their natural habitats.