Although MTT is widely used to assess cytotoxicity and cell viability, the precise localization of its reduced formazan product is still unclear. In the present study the localization of MTT formazan was studied by direct microscopic observation of living HeLa cells and by colocalization analysis with organelle-selective fluorescent probes. MTT formazan granules did not colocalize with mitochondria as revealed by rhodamine 123 labeling or autofluorescence. Likewise, no colocalization was observed between MTT formazan granules and lysosomes labeled by neutral red. Taking into account the lipophilic character and lipid solubility of MTT formazan, an evaluation of the MTT reaction was performed after treatment of cells with sunflower oil emulsions to induce a massive occurrence of lipid droplets. Under this condition, lipid droplets revealed a large amount of MTT formazan deposits. Kinetic studies on the viability of MTT-treated cells showed no harmful effects at short times. Quantitative structure–activity relations (QSAR) models were used to predict and explain the localization of both the MTT tetrazolium salt and its formazan product. These predictions were in agreement with experimental observations on the accumulation of MTT formazan product in lipid droplets.
The proliferative activity of tumour cells represents an important prognostic marker in the diagnosis of cancer. One of the methods for assessing the proliferative activity of cells is the immunohistochemical detection of cell cycle-specific antigens. For example, Ki67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins are standard markers of proliferation that are commonly used to assess the growth fraction of a cell population. The function of Ki67, the widely used marker of proliferation, still remains unclear. In contrast, PCNA and MCM proteins have been identified as important participants of DNA replication. All three proteins only manifest their expression during the cell division of normal and neoplastic cells. Since the expression of these proliferative markers was confirmed in several malignant tumours, their prognostic and predictive values have been evaluated to determine their significance in the diagnosis of cancer. This review offers insight into the discovery of the abovementioned proteins, as well as their current molecular and biological importance. In addition, the functions and properties of all three proteins and their use as markers of proliferation in the diagnosis of breast cancer are described. This work also reveals new findings about the role of Ki67 during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Finally, information is provided about the advantages and disadvantages of using all three antigens in the diagnosis of cancer.
This review is intended for general readers who would like a basic foundation in carbohydrate structure and function, lectin biology, and the implications of glycobiology in human health and disease, particularly in cancer therapeutics. These topics are among the hundreds included in the field of glycobiology and are treated here because they form the cornerstone of glycobiology or the focus of many advances in this rapidly expanding field.
Metastasis, the process by which cancer cells leave the primary tumour, disseminate and form secondary tumours at anatomically distant sites, is a serious clinical problem as it is disseminated disease, which is often impossible to eradicate successfully, that causes the death of most cancer patients. Metastasis results from a complex molecular cascade comprising many steps, all of which are interconnected through a series of adhesive interactions and invasive processes as well as responses to chemotactic stimuli. In spite of its clinical significance, it remains incompletely understood. This review provides an overview of some of the molecular interactions that are critical to metastasis. It summarises the principle molecular players in the major steps of the metastatic cascade. These are: (1) tumour angiogenesis, (2) disaggregation of tumour cells from the primary tumour mass, mediated by cadherins and catenins, (3) invasion of, and migration through, the basement membrane (BM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the tumour epithelium, and subsequent invasion of the BM of the endothelium of local blood vessels. This is mediated through integrins and proteases, including urokinase form of plasminogen activator (uPA), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cathepsins, (4) intravasation of the tumour cells into the blood vessels prior to hematogeneous dissemination to distant sites, (5) adhesion of the circulating tumour cells to the endothelial cell lining at the capillary bed of the target organ site. This occurs through adhesive interactions between cancer cells and endothelial cells involving selectins, integrins and members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), (6) invasion of the tumour cells through the endothelial cell layer and surrounding BM (extravasation) and target organ tissue and (7) the development of secondary tumour foci at the target organ site.
Mitochondria exist in a dynamic cycle of fusion and fission whose balance directly influences the morphology of the ‘mitochondrial network’, a term that encompasses the branched, reticular structure of fused mitochondria as well as the separate, punctate individual organelles within a eukaryotic cell. Over the past decade, the significance of the mitochondrial network has been increasingly appreciated, motivating the development of various approaches to analyze it. Here, we describe the Mitochondrial Network Analysis (MiNA) toolset, a relatively simple pair of macros making use of existing ImageJ plug-ins, allowing for semi-automated analysis of mitochondrial networks in cultured mammalian cells. MiNA is freely available at . The tool incorporates optional preprocessing steps to enhance the quality of images before converting the images to binary and producing a morphological skeleton for calculating nine parameters to quantitatively capture the morphology of the mitochondrial network. The efficacy of the macro toolset is demonstrated using a sample set of images from SH-SY5Y, C2C12, and mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cell cultures treated under different conditions and exhibiting hyperfused, fused, and fragmented mitochondrial network morphologies.
For many years various tetrazolium salts and their formazan products have been employed in histochemistry and for assessing cell viability. For the latter application, the most widely used are 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and 5-cyano-2,3-di-( -tolyl)-tetrazolium chloride (CTC) for viability assays of eukaryotic cells and bacteria, respectively. In these cases, the nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NAD(P)H) coenzyme and dehydrogenases from metabolically active cells reduce tetrazolium salts to strongly colored and lipophilic formazan products, which are then quantified by absorbance (MTT) or fluorescence (CTC). More recently, certain sulfonated tetrazolium, which give rise to water-soluble formazans, have also proved useful for cytotoxicity assays. We describe several aspects of the application of tetrazolium salts and formazans in biomedical cell biology research, mainly regarding formazan-based colorimetric assays, cellular reduction of MTT, and localization and fluorescence of the MTT formazan in lipidic cell structures. In addition, some pharmacological and labeling perspectives of these compounds are also described.
The present study examined programmed death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) detected by immunohistochemical labeling in 102 cases of human gastric carcinoma, 10 adenoma and 10 normal tissues. The relationship between PD-L1 immunolocalization and clinical pathological features, as well as the prognosis of gastric carcinoma, was explored. There was no PD-L1 detectable in normal gastric tissues and very weak immunolabeling in gastric adenomas, but it could be detected in 42.2% of gastric carcinoma tissues. There was no correlation between PD-L1 immunolocalization and patient age, sex, tumor location or the degree of tumor differentiation in the gastric carcinomas. However, PD-L1 immunodetection was significantly correlated to tumor size, invasion, lymph node metastasis and survival time of patients. PD-L1 immunolabeling was significantly enhanced ( ) when the tumor infiltrated into the deep muscular layers, with lymph node metastasis or survival time of less than 2 years, Moreover, multivariate analysis demonstrated that PD-L1 immunodetection could be used as an independent factor to evaluate the prognosis of gastric carcinoma.
There is growing evidence indicating that the human pathological conditions characterized by an up-regulated ribosome biogenesis are at an increased risk of cancer onset. At the basis of this relationship is the close interconnection between the ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. Cell proliferation-stimulating factors also stimulate ribosome production, while the ribosome biogenesis rate controls the cell cycle progression. The major tumour suppressor, the p53 protein, plays an important balancing role between the ribosome biogenesis rate and the cell progression through the cell cycle phases. The perturbation of ribosome biogenesis stabilizes and activates p53, with a consequent cell cycle arrest and/or apoptotic cell death, whereas an up-regulated ribosome production down-regulates p53 expression and activity, thus facilitating neoplastic transformation. In the present review we describe the interconnection between ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation, while highlighting the mechanisms by which quantitative changes in ribosome biogenesis may induce cancer.
Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of . is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) consists of a group of tumors with poor prognosis, owing to aggressive tumor biology and lack of targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the immunostaining for androgen receptors (ARs) in the group of TNBC, in addition to basal-like (BL) immunophenotype, BL morphology and conventional clinicopathological factors and to demonstrate its prognostic relevance in this group of tumors. The study included 83 patients. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2, CK5/6, CK14, EGFR, Ki-67 and AR. Of the 83 TNBC samples, 32.5% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 66.3% had BL immunophenotype, and 48.2% had BL morphology. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with higher clinical stage, higher mitotic score, higher histological grade and higher proliferation index measured by Ki-67. Significantly more AR negative tumors were observed among the tumors with BL immunophenotype and BL morphology. There was no significant association between positive AR immunostaining and disease free survival or overall survival. More than one third of TNBC were AR-positive, and this represents a potential opportunity for novel targeted treatment in the group of breast tumors for which therapeutic options are currently limited.
The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium assay is a popular tool in estimating the metabolic activity of living cells. The test is based on enzymatic reduction of the lightly colored tetrazolium salt to its formazan of intense purple-blue color, which can be quantified spectrophotometrically. Under properly optimized conditions the obtained absorbance value is directly proportional to the number of living cells. Originally, the MTT assay was devised for use in eukaryotic cells lines and later applied for bacteria and fungi. As the mechanism of MTT reduction was studied in detail mostly considering eukaryotic cells, the lack of information resulted in generating a vast variety of MTT based protocols for bacterial enzymatic activity evaluation. In the presented article the main aspects of the MTT assay applicability in bacterial research were summarized, with special emphasis on sources of inaccuracies and misinterpretation of the test results.
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), can be isolated from bone marrow or other tissues, including fat, muscle and umbilical cord. It has been shown that MSC behave as stem cells: they self-renew and are able to differentiate into mature cells typical of several mesenchymal tissues. Moreover, the differentiation toward non-mesenchymal cell lineages ( neurons) has been reported as well. The clinical relevance of these cells is mainly related to their ability to spontaneously migrate to the site of inflammation/damage, to their safety profile thanks to their low immunogenicity and to their immunomodulation capacities. To date, MSCs isolated from the post-natal bone marrow have represented the most extensively studied population of adult MSCs, in view of their possible use in various therapeutical applications. However, the bone marrow-derived MSCs exhibit a series of limitations, mainly related to their problematic isolation, culturing and use. In recent years, umbilical cord (UC) matrix ( Wharton's jelly, WJ) stromal cells have therefore emerged as a more suitable alternative source of MSCs, thanks to their primitive nature and the easy isolation without relevant ethical concerns. This review seeks to provide an overview of the main biological properties of WJ-derived MSCs. Moreover, the potential application of these cells for the treatment of some known dysfunctions in the central and peripheral nervous system will also be discussed.
This study is aimed to evaluate the possible neurotoxic effect of tartrazine (T), an extensively used synthetic azo dye, as well as to determine the potential modulatory role of cod liver oil (CLO) or royal jelly (RJ) against such effects. For this purpose, thirty-six male rat pups were allocated into six groups. The 1st group received distilled water (control group), the 2nd group was given 300 mg RJ/kg bw (RJ group), the 3rd group was given 0.4 ml CLO/kg bw (CLO group), the 4th was given 500 mg T/kg bw (T group). The 5th group was given T concurrently with RJ (TRJ group) and the 6th group was given T concurrently with CLO (TCLO group), at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 30 consecutive days. The concentrations of different brain neurotransmitters, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) as well as the antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex was applied with the anti-ssDNA antibody (an apoptotic cell marker) to reveal the changes in brain structure. The T group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of the brain neurotransmitters, a sharp shortage in the level of antioxidant biomarkers (super oxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione), a marked increase in malondialdehyde levels, and numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups. Interestingly, all the previously mentioned parameters were almost retrieved in both the TRJ and TCLO groups compared to the T group. These results conclusively demonstrate that RJ and CLO administration provides sufficient protection against the ruinous effects of T on rat pups brain tissue function and structure.
The first aim of the study was to identify the most appropriate time for differentiation of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to chondrocytes, through the self-assembly process. For this purpose, the expression of some chondrocyte markers, such as collagen type I, collagen type II, RUNX2 and lubricin was investigated at different times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days) of chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The second aim of the study was to demonstrate that the expression of lubricin, such as the expression of collagen type II, could be a possible biomarker for the detection of chondrocytes well-being and viability in the natural self-assembling constructs, called ‘cell pellets’. Histology (hematoxylin and eosin) and histochemistry (alcian blue staining) methods were used to assess the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. The results showed that after 21 days the differentiated chondrocytes, when compared with MSCs cultured without chondrogenic medium (CD44, CD90 and CD105 positive; CD45, CD14 and CD34 negative), were able to produce significant quantities of collagen type I, collagen type II, and lubricin, suggesting hyaline cartilage formation. During the differentiation phase, the cells showed a reduced expression of RUNX2, a protein expressed by osteoblasts. Our studies demonstrated that 21 days is the optimum time for the implantation of chondrocytes differentiated from adipose tissue-derived MSCs. This information could be useful for the future development of cell-based repair therapies for degenerative diseases of articular cartilage.
B7-H1 and B7-H4 are newly discovered members of the B7-CD28 family. They can inhibit T cell activation and proliferation and regulate T cell immune response negatively. Both B7-H1 and B7-H4 are expressed in many tumors and are classified as co-inhibitors of cell-mediated immunity. FOXP3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the maintenance of tumor immunity tolerance. However, the implication of B7-H1 and B7-H4 expression and their interaction with Tregs infiltration in colorectal cancer are unknown. The present study aimed to determine the expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 as well as Tregs infiltration in colorectal cancer and to explore the clinical and pathological implication of suppressor immune cells and molecules. Frozen sections and immunohistochemical assay were undertaken to assess B7-H1, B7-H4 expression and Tregs infiltration in fresh specimens collected from 56 patients with colorectal carcinoma. The results showed that expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 in colorectal carcinoma tissues was significantly higher than in adjacent normal mucosa ( < 0.001). B7-H1 expression was positively correlated to the infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis and advanced Duke's stage ( < 0.05, < 0.05 and < 0.05, respectively), whereas B7-H4 expression was positively related to the infiltration depth and lymph node metastasis ( < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, Tregs infiltration was more frequent in tumor tissue than in adjacent normal mucosa and was associated with poor differentiation and positive lymph node metastasis ( < 0.01, and < 0.01, respectively). The statistical analysis indicated a significant correlation between Tregs infiltration and B7-H1 or B7-H4 expression respectively. These results suggest that over-expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 has stronger prognostic significance and promote tumor tolerance, and they might contribute to Tregs development in the colorectal carcinoma tolerogenic milieu.
Myogenesis is controlled by an elaborate system of extrinsic and intrinsic regulatory mechanisms in all development stages. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different stages of myogenesis and muscle differentiation in mammals, starting from somitogenesis and analysis of the different portions that constitute the mature somite. Particular attention was paid to regulatory genes, in addition to mesodermal stem cells, which represent the earliest elements of myogenesis. Finally, the crucial role of growth factors, molecules of vital importance in contractile regulation, hormones and their function in skeletal muscle differentiation, growth and metabolism, and the role played by central nervous system, are discussed.
FOXM1, a member of the Forkhead Box (Fox) family of transcription factors, plays a critical role in tumor development and metastasis. The aim of this study was to elucidate its role in colorectal cancer (CRC), particularly prognosis and metastasis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to measure the expression levels of FOXM1 mRNA and protein in 15 CRC and adjacent normal mucosa tissues. Immunohistochemical assay was performed to detect FOXM1 protein expression in 112 CRC tissues and further determine its clinicopathological and prognostic significance. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to knockdown endogenous FOXM1 expression in CRC cell lines and to analyze the effects of FOXM1 knockdown on migration and invasion of CRC cells. The relative expression levels of FOXM1 mRNA and protein were significantly higher in CRC tissues than in adjacent normal mucosa tissues ( < 0.01). In addition, the immunostaining of FOXM1 protein was stronger in CRC tissues than in adjacent normal mucosa tissues. By statistical analysis, we showed that high FOXM1 expression was closely correlated with the presence of lymph node metastasis, incidence of liver metastasis, and advanced TNM stage. Moreover, the cumulative 5-year survival rate of CRC patients with high FOXM1 expression was lower than that of those with low FOXM1 expression ( = 0.0047). Multivariate analysis showed that the status of FOXM1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for CRC patients ( = 0.025). Furthermore, RNAi-mediated FOXM1 knockdown could significantly inhibit growth, migration and invasion of CRC cells. Our results showed that FOXM1 over-expression is a molecular marker predicting increased invasive/metastatic potential of CRC and a poorer prognosis.
Lead (Pb) is a metal element released into the atmosphere and a major source of environmental contamination. The accumulation and concentration of this metal in a food web may lead to the intoxication of the body, more precisely, the nervous system (NS). In addition, Pb-exposure can cause structural and functional disruption of the NS. Studies have shown that Pb-exposure could be a risk factor in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). The latter is related to dopaminergic deficiency that may be triggered by genetic and environmental factors such as Pb intoxication. In this study, we have evaluated, in one hand, the neurotoxic effect of Pb (25 mg / kg B.W i.p) for three consecutive days on dopaminergic system and locomotor performance in Merione shawi. In the other hand, the possible restorative potential of C. sativus (CS) (50 mg / kg BW) by oral gavage. The immunohistochemical approach has revealed that Pb-intoxicated Meriones show a significant increase of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) levels within the Substantia Nigra compacta (SNc), Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA), Locus Coeruleus (LC), Dorsal Striatum (DS) and Medial Forebrain Bundle (MFB), unlike the control meriones, a group intoxicated and treated with Crocus sativus hydroethanolic extract (CSHEE) and treated group by CSHEE. Treatment with CSHEE, has shown a real potential to prevent all Pb-induced damages. In fact, restores the TH levels by 92%, 90%, 88%, 90% and 93% in SNc, VTA, LC, DS and MFB respectively, similarly, locomotor activity dysfunction in Pb-intoxicaed meriones was reinstated by 90%. In this study, we have revealed a new pharmacological potential of Crocus sativus that can be used as a neuroprotective product for neurodegenerative disorders, especially, which implying dopaminergic and noradrenergic injuries, like PD, trigged by heavy metals.
Telocytes (TC) are the delicate interstitial (stromal) cells defined by their long, thin and moniliform processes termed telopodes. Numerous studies determined that different subsets of telocytes populate almost all tissues and attempted to relate these subsets to various functions, from cell signaling to tissue repair and regeneration. Extremely few studies addressed the urinary tract though few data on the molecular pattern of the urinary TCs actually exist. We therefore hypothesized that subsets of urinary TCs co-localize within the human ureter and we aimed at performing an immunohistochemical study to evaluate the tissue-specific molecular pattern of TCs. On sample tissues of proximal ureter drawn from ten human adult patients during surgery were applied primary antibodies against CD34, CD105, von Willebrand Factor, the heavy chain of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) and c-erbB-2. The molecular pattern indicated three different subsets of ureteral TCs which are neither endothelial nor epithelial in nature: (a) type I: the CD34-/CD105+ TCs of the superficial layer of lamina propria; (b) type II: the CD34+/CD105± myoid TCs of the deep layer of lamina propria and (c) type III: the CD34+/CD105+ perivascular TCs. Although apparently different, all these subsets of TCs could belong to the stem/progenitor niche of the ureter.