In this paper, we investigate the vehicle lateral dynamics stabilisation problem to enhance vehicle handling by considering time-varying longitudinal velocity. The longitudinal velocity is described by a polytope with finite vertices and a novel technique is proposed to reduce the number of vertices. Since the tyre dynamics is nonlinear, the cornering stiffness is represented via the norm-bounded uncertainty. Concerning the time-varying velocity and the nonlinear tyre model, a linear parameter-varying vehicle model is obtained. As the velocity and the states are measurable, a gain-scheduling state-feedback controller is introduced. In the lateral control, the sideslip angle is required to be as small as possible and the yaw rate is constrained to a certain level. Thus, the control objective is to minimise the sideslip angle while the yaw rate is under a prescribed level or constrain both the sideslip angle and the yaw rate to prescribed levels. To consider the transient response of the closed-loop system, the -stability is also employed in the energy-to-peak control. The optimal controller can be obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. A nonlinear vehicle model is utilised to illustrate the design procedure and the effectiveness of the proposed design method. Finally, simulations and comparisons are carried out to show the significant advantage of the designed controller. Compared to the open-loop system, the closed-loop system with the designed controller can achieve much smaller sideslip angle and the yaw rate is closer to the desired yaw rate from a reference model. Therefore, the vehicle safety and the handling are both improved in our simulation cases.
This survey paper aims to provide some insight into the design of suspension control system within the context of existing literature and share observations on current hardware implementation of active and semi-active suspension systems. It reviews the performance envelop of active, semi-active, and passive suspensions with a focus on linear quadratic-based optimisation including a specific example. The paper further discusses various design aspects including other design techniques, the decoupling of load and road disturbances, the decoupling of pitch and heave modes, the use of an inerter as an additional design element, and the application of preview. Various production and near production suspension systems were examined and described according to the features they offer, including self-levelling, variable damping, variable geometry, and anti-roll damping and stiffness. The lessons learned from these analytical insights and related hardware implementations are valuable and can be applied towards future active or semi-active suspension design.
This paper provides an overview of the latest advances in road vehicle suspension design, dynamics, and control, together with the authors' perspectives, in the context of vehicle ride, handling, and stability. The general aspects of road vehicle suspension dynamics and design are discussed, followed by descriptions of road-roughness excitations with a particular emphasis on road potholes. Passive suspension system designs and their effects on road vehicle dynamics and stability are presented in terms of in-plane and full-vehicle arrangements. Controlled suspensions are also reviewed and discussed. The paper concludes with some potential research topics, in particular those associated with the development of hybrid and electric vehicles.
This paper presents a framework to investigate the dynamics of overall vehicle-track systems with emphasis on theoretical modelling, numerical simulation and experimental validation. A three-dimensional vehicle-track coupled dynamics model is developed in which a typical railway passenger vehicle is modelled as a 35-degree-of-freedom multi-body system. A traditional ballasted track is modelled as two parallel continuous beams supported by a discrete-elastic foundation of three layers with sleepers and ballasts included. The non-ballasted slab track is modelled as two parallel continuous beams supported by a series of elastic rectangle plates on a viscoelastic foundation. The vehicle subsystem and the track subsystem are coupled through a wheel-rail spatial coupling model that considers rail vibrations in vertical, lateral and torsional directions. Random track irregularities expressed by track spectra are considered as system excitations by means of a time-frequency transformation technique. A fast explicit integration method is applied to solve the large nonlinear equations of motion of the system in the time domain. A computer program named TTISIM is developed to predict the vertical and lateral dynamic responses of the vehicle-track coupled system. The theoretical model is validated by full-scale field experiments, including the speed-up test on the Beijing-Qinhuangdao line and the high-speed running test on the Qinhuangdao-Shenyang line. Differences in the dynamic responses analysed by the vehicle-track coupled dynamics and by the classical vehicle dynamics are ascertained in the case of vehicles passing through curved tracks.
This paper discusses the evolution of longitudinal train dynamics (LTD) simulations, which covers numerical solvers, vehicle connection systems, air brake systems, wagon dumper systems and locomotives, resistance forces and gravitational components, vehicle in-train instabilities, and computing schemes. A number of potential research topics are suggested, such as modelling of friction, polymer, and transition characteristics for vehicle connection simulations, studies of wagon dumping operations, proper modelling of vehicle in-train instabilities, and computing schemes for LTD simulations. Evidence shows that LTD simulations have evolved with computing capabilities. Currently, advanced component models that directly describe the working principles of the operation of air brake systems, vehicle connection systems, and traction systems are available. Parallel computing is a good solution to combine and simulate all these advanced models. Parallel computing can also be used to conduct three-dimensional long train dynamics simulations.
Suspension components play key roles in the running behaviour of rail vehicles, and therefore, mathematical models of suspension components are essential ingredients of railway vehicle multi-body models. The aims of this paper are to review existing models for railway vehicle suspension components and their use for railway vehicle dynamics multi-body simulations, to describe how model parameters can be defined and to discuss the required level of detail of component models in view of the accuracy expected from the overall simulation model. This paper also addresses track models in use for railway vehicle dynamics simulations, recognising their relevance as an indispensable component of the system simulation model. Finally, this paper reviews methods presently in use for the checking and validation of the simulation model.
Connected vehicle systems (CVS) are considered in this paper where vehicles exchange information using wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. The concept of connected cruise control (CCC) is established that allows control design at the level of individual vehicles while exploiting V2V connectivity. Due to its high level of modularity the proposed design can be applied to large heterogeneous traffic systems. The dynamics of a simple CVS is analysed in detail while taking into account nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics as well as in the controller. Time delays that arise due to intermittencies and packet drops in the communication channels are also incorporated. The results are summarised using stability charts which allow one to select control gains to maintain stability and ensure disturbance attenuation when the delay is below a critical value.
The in-wheel-motor (IWM) will be the most important key technology in the near future to be used by electric vehicles (including fuel cell vehicles). In the past 100 years of the internal combustion engine, several kinds of vehicle packages have been developed, for example, front-engine front-wheel drive, front-engine rear-wheel drive, mid-engine rear-wheel drive, and rear-engine rear-wheel drive. However, a conclusive solution for the best package has not been found. Combining electric drive and IWM enables both good vehicle dynamics and a roomy interior. In addition, the responsiveness of IWM raises the performance of the dynamic control to an even higher level.
This paper describes the results of a voluntary benchmark initiative concerning the simulation of pantograph-catenary interaction, which was proposed and coordinated by Politecnico di Milano and participated by 10 research institutions established in 9 different countries across Europe and Asia. The aims of the benchmark are to assess the dispersion of results on the same simulation study cases, to demonstrate the accuracy of numerical methodologies and simulation models and to identify the best suited modelling approaches to study pantograph-catenary interaction. One static and three dynamic simulation cases were defined for a non-existing but realistic high-speed pantograph-catenary couple. These cases were run using 10 of the major simulation codes presently in use for the study of pantograph-catenary interaction, and the results are presented and critically discussed here. All input data required to run the study cases are also provided, allowing the use of this benchmark as a term of comparison for other simulation codes.
This paper deals with the longitudinal and lateral control of an automotive vehicle within the framework of fully automated guidance. The automotive vehicle is a complex system characterised by highly nonlinear longitudinal and lateral coupled dynamics. Consequently, automated guidance must be simultaneously performed with longitudinal and lateral control. This work presents an automated steering strategy based on nonlinear model predictive control. A nonlinear longitudinal control strategy considering powertrain dynamics is also proposed to cope with the longitudinal speed tracking problem. Finally, a simultaneous longitudinal and lateral control strategy helps to improve the combined control performance. This whole control strategy is tested through simulations showing the effectiveness of the present approach.
Health monitoring systems with low-cost sensor networks and smart algorithms are always needed in both passenger trains and heavy haul trains due to the increasing need for reliability and safety in the railway industry. This paper focuses on an overview of existing approaches applied for railway vehicle on-board health monitoring systems. The approaches applied in the data measurement systems and the data analysis systems in railway on-board health monitoring systems are presented in this paper, including methodologies, theories and applications. The pros and cons of the various approaches are analysed to determine appropriate benchmarks for an effective and efficient railway vehicle on-board health monitoring system. According to this review, inertial sensors are the most popular due to their advantages of low cost, robustness and low power consumption. Linearisation methods are required for the model-based methods which would inevitably introduce error to the estimation results, and it is time-consuming to include all possible conditions in the pre-built database required for signal-based methods. Based on this review, future development trends in the design of new low-cost health monitoring systems for railway vehicles are discussed.
Direct yaw moment control (DYC), which differentially brakes the wheels to produce a yaw moment for the vehicle stability in a steering process, is an important part of electric stability control system. In this field, most control methods utilise the active brake pressure with a feedback controller to adjust the braked wheel. However, the method might lead to a control delay or overshoot because of the lack of a quantitative project relationship between target values from the upper stability controller to the lower pressure controller. Meanwhile, the stability controller usually ignores the implementing ability of the tyre forces, which might be restrained by the combined-slip dynamics of the tyre. Therefore, a novel control algorithm of DYC based on the hierarchical control strategy is brought forward in this paper. As for the upper controller, a correctional linear quadratic regulator, which not only contains feedback control but also contains feed forward control, is introduced to deduce the object of the stability yaw moment in order to guarantee the yaw rate and side-slip angle stability. As for the medium and lower controller, the quantitative relationship between the vehicle stability object and the target tyre forces of controlled wheels is proposed to achieve smooth control performance based on a combined-slip tyre model. The simulations with the hardware-in-the-loop platform validate that the proposed algorithm can improve the stability of the vehicle effectively.
This paper proposes a novel integrated controller with three-layer hierarchical structure to coordinate the interactions among active suspension system (ASS), active front steering (AFS) and direct yaw moment control (DYC). First of all, a 14-degree-of-freedom nonlinear vehicle dynamic model is constructed. Then, an upper layer is designed to calculate the total corrected moment for ASS and intermediate layer based on linear moment distribution. By considering the working regions of the AFS and DYC, the intermediate layer is functionalised to determine the trigger signal for the lower layer with corresponding weights. The lower layer is utilised to separately trace the desired value of each local controller and achieve the local control objectives of each subsystem. Simulation results show that the proposed three-layer hierarchical structure is effective in handling the working region of the AFS and DYC, while the quasi-experimental result shows that the proposed integrated controller is able to improve the lateral and vertical dynamics of the vehicle effectively as compared with a conventional electronic stability controller.
This paper presents a feedback-feedforward steering controller that simultaneously maintains vehicle stability at the limits of handling while minimising lateral path tracking deviation. The design begins by considering the performance of a baseline controller with a lookahead feedback scheme and a feedforward algorithm based on a nonlinear vehicle handling diagram. While this initial design exhibits desirable stability properties at the limits of handling, the steady-state path deviation increases significantly at highway speeds. Results from both linear and nonlinear analyses indicate that lateral path tracking deviations are minimised when vehicle sideslip is held tangent to the desired path at all times. Analytical results show that directly incorporating this sideslip tangency condition into the steering feedback dramatically improves lateral path tracking, but at the expense of poor closed-loop stability margins. However, incorporating the desired sideslip behaviour into the feedforward loop creates a robust steering controller capable of accurate path tracking and oversteer correction at the physical limits of tyre friction. Experimental data collected from an Audi TTS test vehicle driving at the handling limits on a full length race circuit demonstrates the improved performance of the final controller design.
Vehicle dynamics control (VDC) systems require information about system variables, which cannot be directly measured, e.g. the wheel slip or the vehicle side-slip angle. This paper presents a new concept for the vehicle state estimation under the assumption that the vehicle is equipped with the standard VDC sensors. It is proposed to utilise an unscented Kalman filter for estimation purposes, since it is based on a numerically efficient nonlinear stochastic estimation technique. A planar two-track model is combined with the empiric Magic Formula in order to describe the vehicle and tyre behaviour. Moreover, an advanced vertical tyre load calculation method is developed that additionally considers the vertical tyre stiffness and increases the estimation accuracy. Experimental tests show good accuracy and robustness of the designed vehicle state estimation concept.
This paper focuses on the vehicle dynamic control system for a four in-wheel motor drive electric vehicle, aiming at improving vehicle stability under critical driving conditions. The vehicle dynamics controller is composed of three modules, i.e. motion following control, control allocation and vehicle state estimation. Considering the strong nonlinearity of the tyres under critical driving conditions, the yaw motion of the vehicle is regulated by gain scheduling control based on the linear quadratic regulator theory. The feed-forward and feedback gains of the controller are updated in real-time by online estimation of the tyre cornering stiffness, so as to ensure the control robustness against environmental disturbances as well as parameter uncertainty. The control allocation module allocates the calculated generalised force requirements to each in-wheel motor based on quadratic programming theory while taking the tyre longitudinal/lateral force coupling characteristic into consideration. Simulations under a variety of driving conditions are carried out to verify the control algorithm. Simulation results indicate that the proposed vehicle stability controller can effectively stabilise the vehicle motion under critical driving conditions.
Sideslip angle plays an important role in vehicle stability control. However, it is difficult to measure directly unless some complex and expensive devices are employed. Thus, sideslip angle estimated by vehicle states such as lateral acceleration, yaw rate and so on is required in real-time vehicle stability control. A new variable structure extended Kalman filter integrated with the sideslip angle rate feedback algorithm and damping item is proposed in this paper. The main idea of the sideslip angle rate feedback algorithm is to compensate the model error caused by road friction estimation inaccuracy while that of the damping item is to suppress the error accumulation. The estimated results are compared with the real values obtained by the differential global position system on a low friction road and it shows that the proposed methodology can provide accurate sideslip angle to some extent for vehicle stability control.
This paper proposes a robust control framework for lane-keeping and obstacle avoidance of semiautonomous ground vehicles. It presents a systematic way of enforcing robustness during the MPC design stage. A robust nonlinear model predictive controller (RNMPC) is used to help the driver navigating the vehicle in order to avoid obstacles and track the road centre line. A force-input nonlinear bicycle vehicle model is developed and used in the RNMPC control design. A robust invariant set is used in the RNMPC design to guarantee that state and input constraints are satisfied in the presence of disturbances and model error. Simulations and experiments on a vehicle show the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
In this paper, an optimal torque distribution approach is proposed for electric vehicle equipped with four independent wheel motors to improve vehicle handling and stability performance. A novel objective function is formulated which works in a multifunctional way by considering the interference among different performance indices: forces and moment errors at the centre of gravity of the vehicle, actuator control efforts and tyre workload usage. To adapt different driving conditions, a weighting factors tuning scheme is designed to adjust the relative weight of each performance in the objective function. The effectiveness of the proposed optimal torque distribution is evaluated by simulations with CarSim and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results under different driving scenarios indicate that the proposed control strategy can effectively improve the vehicle handling and stability even in slippery road conditions.
It has been 15 years since the first generation of adaptive cruise control (ACC)-equipped vehicles was available on the market and 7 years since the ISO standard for the first generation of ACC systems was produced. Since the next generation of ACC systems and more advanced driver-assistant systems are at the verge of complete introduction and deployment, it is necessary to summarise the development and research achievements of the first generation of ACC systems in order to provide more useful experiential guidance for the new deployment. From multidimensional perspectives, this paper looks into the related development and research achievements to objectively and comprehensively introduce an ACC system to researchers, automakers, governments and consumers. It attempts to simply explain what an ACC system is and how it operates from a systematic perspective. Then, it clearly draws a broad historical picture of ACC development by splitting the entire history into three different phases. Finally, the most significant research findings-related ACC systems have been reviewed and summarised from the human, traffic and social perspectives respectively.