In the past decade, the field of medical image analysis has grown exponentially, with an increased number of pattern recognition tools and an increase in data set sizes. These advances have facilitated the development of processes for high-throughput extraction of quantitative features that result in the conversion of images into mineable data and the subsequent analysis of these data for decision support; this practice is termed radiomics. This is in contrast to the traditional practice of treating medical images as pictures intended solely for visual interpretation. Radiomic data contain first-, second-, and higher-order statistics. These data are combined with other patient data and are mined with sophisticated bioinformatics tools to develop models that may potentially improve diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive accuracy. Because radiomics analyses are intended to be conducted with standard of care images, it is conceivable that conversion of digital images to mineable data will eventually become routine practice. This report describes the process of radiomics, its challenges, and its potential power to facilitate better clinical decision making, particularly in the care of patients with cancer.
Incomplete reporting has been identified as a major source of avoidable waste in biomedical research. Essential information is often not provided in study reports, impeding the identification, critical appraisal, and replication of studies. To improve the quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies, the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement was developed. Here we present STARD 2015, an updated list of 30 essential items that should be included in every report of a diagnostic accuracy study. This update incorporates recent evidence about sources of bias and variability in diagnostic accuracy and is intended to facilitate the use of STARD. As such, STARD 2015 may help to improve completeness and transparency in reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies.
Purpose: To determine if repeated intravenous exposures to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are associated with neuronal tissue deposition. Materials and Methods: In this institutional review board-approved single-center study, signal intensities from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and postmortem neuronal tissue samples from 13 patients who underwent at least four GBCA-enhanced brain MR examinations between 2000 and 2014 (contrast group) were compared with those from 10 patients who did not receive GBCA (control group). Antemortem consent was obtained from all study participants. Neuronal tissues from the dentate nuclei, pons, globus pallidus, and thalamus of these 23 deceased patients were harvested and analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy to quantify, localize, and assess the effects of gadolinium deposition. Associations between cumulative gadolinium dose, changes in T1-weighted MR signal intensity, and ICP-MS-derived tissue gadolinium concentrations were examined by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho). Results: Compared with neuronal tissues of control patients, all of which demonstrated undetectable levels of gadolinium, neuronal tissues of patients from the contrast group contained 0.1-58.8 mu g gadolinium per gram of tissue, in a significant dose-dependent relationship that correlated with signal intensity changes on precontrast T1-weighted MR images (rho = 0.49-0.93). All patients in the contrast group had relatively normal renal function at the time of MR examination. Gadolinium deposition in the capillary endothelium and neural interstitium was observed only in the contrast group. Conclusion: Intravenous GBCA exposure is associated with neuronal tissue deposition in the setting of relatively normal renal function. Additional studies are needed to investigate the clinical significance of these findings and the generalizability to other GBCAs. (C)RSNA, 2015
The Fleischner Society Guidelines for management of solid nodules were published in 2005, and separate guidelines for subsolid nodules were issued in 2013. Since then, new information has become available; therefore, the guidelines have been revised to reflect current thinking on nodule management. The revised guidelines incorporate several substantive changes that reflect current thinking on the management of small nodules. The minimum threshold size for routine follow-up has been increased, and recommended follow-up intervals are now given as a range rather than as a precise time period to give radiologists, clinicians, and patients greater discretion to accommodate individual risk factors and preferences. The guidelines for solid and subsolid nodules have been combined in one simplified table, and specific recommendations have been included for multiple nodules. These guidelines represent the consensus of the Fleischner Society, and as such, they incorporate the opinions of a multidisciplinary international group of thoracic radiologists, pulmonologists, surgeons, pathologists, and other specialists. Changes from the previous guidelines issued by the Fleischner Society are based on new data and accumulated experience. (c) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article. An earlier incorrect version of this article appeared online. This article was corrected on March 13, 2017.
Purpose: To use inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to evaluate gadolinium accumulation in brain tissues, including the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP), in subjects who received a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study. Written informed consent for postmortem investigation was obtained either from the subject prior to his or her death or afterward from the subject's relatives. Brain tissues obtained at autopsy in five subjects who received a linear GBCA (GBCA group) and five subjects with no history of GBCA administration (non-GBCA group) were examined with ICP-MS. Formalin-fixed DN tissue, the inner segment of the GP, cerebellar white matter, the frontal lobe cortex, and frontal lobe white matter were obtained, and their gadolinium concentrations were measured. None of the subjects had received a diagnosis of severely compromised renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) or acute renal failure. Fisher permutation test was used to compare gadolinium concentrations between the two groups and among brain regions. Results: Gadolinium was detected in all specimens in the GBCA agent group (mean, 0.25 mu g per gram of brain tissue +/- 0.44 [standard deviation]), with significantly higher concentrations in each region (P = .004 vs the non-GBCA group for all regions). In the GBCA group, the DN and GP showed significantly higher gadolinium concentrations (mean, 0.44 mu g/g +/- 0.63) than other regions (0.12 mu g/g +/- 0.16) (P = .029). Conclusion: Even in subjects without severe renal dysfunction, GBCA administration causes gadolinium accumulation in the brain, especially in the DN and GP. (C) RSNA, 2015
Purpose: To explore any correlation between the number of previous gadolinium-based contrast material administrations and high signal intensity (SI) in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this study, waiving the requirement to obtain written informed consent. A group of 381 consecutive patients who had undergone brain MR imaging was identified for cross-sectional analysis. For longitudinal analysis, 19 patients who had undergone at least six contrast-enhanced examinations were compared with 16 patients who had undergone at least six unenhanced examinations. The mean SIs of the dentate nucleus, pons, globus pallidus, and thalamus were measured on unenhanced T1-weighted images. The dentate nucleus-to-pons SI ratio was calculated by dividing the SI in the dentate nucleus by that in the pons, and the globus pallidus-to-thalamus SI ratio was calculated by dividing the SI in the globus pallidus by that in the thalamus. Stepwise regression analysis was undertaken in the consecutive patient group to detect any relationship between the dentate nucleus-to-pons or globus pallidus-to-thalamus SI ratio and previous gadolinium- based contrast material administration or other factors. A random coefficient model was used to evaluate for longitudinal analysis. Results: The dentate nucleus-to-pons SI ratio showed a significant correlation with the number of previous gadolinium-based contrast material administrations (P <.001; regression coefficient, 0.010; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.009, 0.011; standardized regression coefficient, 0.695). The globus pallidus-to-thalamus SI ratio showed a significant correlation with the number of previous gadolinium-based contrast material administrations (P <.001; regression coefficient, 0.004; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.006; standardized regression coefficient, 0.288), radiation therapy (P=.009; regression coefficient, -0.014; 95% CI: -0.025, -0.004; standardized regression coefficient, -0.151), and liver function (P=.031; regression coefficient, 0.023; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.044; standardized regression coefficient, 0.107). The dentate nucleus-to-pons and globus pallidus-to-thalamus SI ratios in patients who had undergone contrast-enhanced examinations were significantly greater than those of patients who had undergone unenhanced examinations(P <.001 for both). Conclusion: High SI in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted images may be a consequence of the number of previous gadolinium- based contrast material administrations. (C) RSNA, 2013
Purpose: To compare changes in signal intensity (SI) ratios of the dentate nucleus (DN) and the globus pallidus (GP) to those of other structures on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images between linear and macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the ethical committee of the University of Heidelberg (reference no. S-324/2014). Owing to the retrospective character of the study, the ethical committee did not require any written informed consent. Two groups of 50 patients who underwent at least six consecutive MR imaging examinations with the exclusive use of either a linear GBCA (gadopentetate dimeglumine) or a macrocyclic GBCA (gadoterate meglumine) were analyzed retrospectively. The difference in mean SI ratios of DN to pons and GP to thalamus on unenhanced T1-weighted images from the last and first examinations was calculated. One-sample and independent-sample t tests were used to assess the difference in SI ratios for both groups, and regression analysis was performed to account for potential confounders. Results: The SI ratio difference in the linear group was greater than 0 (mean DN difference +/- standard deviation, 0.0407 +/- 0.0398 [P < .001]; GP, 0.0287 +/- 0.0275 [P < .001]) and significantly larger (DN, P < .001 and standardized difference of 1.16; GP, P < .001 and standardized difference of 0.81) than that in the macrocyclic group, which did not differ from 0 (DN, 0.0016 +/- 0.0266 [P = .680]; GP, 0.0031 +/- 0.0354 [P = .538]). The SI ratio difference between the last and first examinations for the DN remained significantly different between the two groups in the regression analysis (P < .001). Conclusion: This study indicates that an SI increase in the DN and GP on T1-weighted images is caused by serial application of the linear GBCA gadopentetate dimeglumine but not by the macrocyclic GBCA gadoterate meglumine. Clinical implications of this observation remain unclear. (C) RSNA, 2015
In x-ray computed tomography (CT), materials having different elemental compositions can be represented by identical pixel values on a CT image (ie, CT numbers), depending on the mass density of the material. Thus, the differentiation and classification of different tissue types and contrast agents can be extremely challenging. In dual-energy CT, an additional attenuation measurement is obtained with a second x-ray spectrum (ie, a second "energy"), allowing the differentiation of multiple materials. Alternatively, this allows quantification of the mass density of two or three materials in a mixture with known elemental composition. Recent advances in the use of energy-resolving, photon-counting detectors for CT imaging suggest the ability to acquire data in multiple energy bins, which is expected to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio for material-specific imaging. In this review, the underlying motivation and physical principles of dualor multi-energy CT are reviewed and each of the current technical approaches is described. In addition, current and evolving clinical applications are introduced. (C)RSNA, 2015
Purpose: To assess cancer detection rates, false-positive rates before arbitration, positive predictive values for women recalled after arbitration, and the type of cancers detected with use of digital mammography alone and combined with tomosynthesis in a large prospective screening trial. Materials and Methods: A prospective, reader- and modality-balanced screening study of participants undergoing combined mammography plus tomosynthesis, the results of which were read independently by four different radiologists, is under way. The study was approved by a regional ethics committee, and all participants provided written informed consent. The authors performed a preplanned interim analysis of results from 12 631 examinations interpreted by using mammography alone and mammography plus tomosynthesis from November 22, 2010, to December 31, 2011. Analyses were based on marginal log-linear models for binary data, accounting for correlated interpretations and adjusting for reader- specific performance levels by using a two-sided significance level of .0294. Results: Detection rates, including those for invasive and in situ cancers, were 6.1 per 1000 examinations for mammography alone and 8.0 per 1000 examinations for mammography plus tomosynthesis (27% increase, adjusted for reader; P = .001). False-positive rates before arbitration were 61.1 per 1000 examinations with mammography alone and 53.1 per 1000 examinations with mammography plus tomosynthesis (15% decrease, adjusted for reader; P < .001). After arbitration, positive predictive values for recalled patients with cancers verified later were comparable (29.1% and 28.5%, respectively, with mammography alone and mammography plus tomosynthesis; P = .72). Twenty-five additional invasive cancers were detected with mammography plus tomosynthesis (40% increase, adjusted for reader; P < .001). The mean interpretation time was 45 seconds for mammography alone and 91 seconds for mammography plus tomosynthesis (P < .001). Conclusion: The use of mammography plus tomosynthesis in a screening environment resulted in a significantly higher cancer detection rate and enabled the detection of more invasive cancers. (c) RSNA, 2013
Purpose: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3/Covidien, Irvine, Calif) in the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms. Materials and Methods: The Pipeline for Uncoilable or Failed Aneurysms is a multicenter, prospective, interventional, single-arm trial of PED for the treatment of uncoilable or failed aneurysms of the internal carotid artery. Institutional review board approval of the HIPAA-compliant study protocol was obtained from each center. After providing informed consent, 108 patients with recently unruptured large and giant wide-necked aneurysms were enrolled in the study. The primary effectiveness endpoint was angiographic evaluation that demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion and absence of major stenosis at 180 days. The primary safety endpoint was occurrence of major ipsilateral stroke or neurologic death at 180 days. Results: PED placement was technically successful in 107 of 108 patients (99.1%). Mean aneurysm size was 18.2 mm; 22 aneurysms (20.4%) were giant (>25 mm). Of the 106 aneurysms, 78 met the study's primary effectiveness endpoint (73.6%; 95% posterior probability interval: 64.4%81.0%). Six of the 107 patients in the safety cohort experienced a major ipsilateral stroke or neurologic death (5.6%; 95% posterior probability interval: 2.6%-11.7%). Conclusion: PED offers a reasonably safe and effective treatment of large or giant intracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms, demonstrated by high rates of complete aneurysm occlusion and low rates of adverse neurologic events; even in aneurysms failing previous alternative treatments.
This report is to complement the original Fleischner Society recommendations for incidentally detected solid nodules by proposing a set of recommendations specifically aimed at subsolid nodules. The development of a standardized approach to the interpretation and management of subsolid nodules remains critically important given that peripheral adenocarcinomas represent the most common type of lung cancer, with evidence of increasing frequency. Following an initial consideration of appropriate terminology to describe subsolid nodules and a brief review of the new classification system for peripheral lung adenocarcinomas sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS), six specific recommendations were made, three with regard to solitary subsolid nodules and three with regard to multiple subsolid nodules. Each recommendation is followed first by the rationales underlying the recommendation and then by specific pertinent remarks. Finally, issues for which future research is needed are discussed. The recommendations are the result of careful review of the literature now available regarding subsolid nodules. Given the complexity of these lesions, the current recommendations are more varied than the original Fleischner Society guidelines for solid nodules. It cannot be overemphasized that these guidelines must be interpreted in light of an individual's clinical history. Given the frequency with which subsolid nodules are encountered in daily clinical practice, and notwithstanding continuing controversy on many of these issues, it is anticipated that further refinements and modifications to these recommendations will be forthcoming as information continues to emerge from ongoing research.
Purpose: To assess whether an association exists between hyper-intensity in the dentate nucleus (DN) on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and previous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) that contain different types of gadolinium chelates. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this study. Written informed consent was waived because this was a retrospective study. Evaluated were 127 cases among 360 consecutive patients who underwent contrast agent-enhanced brain MR imaging. Two radiologists conducted visual evaluation and quantitative analysis on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images by using regions of interest. DN-to-cerebellum (DN/cerebellum) signal intensity ratios were calculated and the relationship between DN/cerebellum and several factors was evaluated, including the number of previous linear chelate and/or macrocyclic GBCA administrations by using a generalized additive model. The Akaike information criterion was used in model selection. Interobserver correlation was evaluated with paired t tests and the Lin concordance correlation coefficient. Results: The images of nine patients (7.1%) showed hyperintensity in the DN. Twenty-three patients (18.1%) received linear GBCAs (median, two patients; maximum, 11 patients), 36 patients (28.3%) received macrocyclic GBCAs (median, two patients; maximum, 15 patients), 14 patients (11.0%) received both types of GBCA (linear [median, two patients; maximum, five patients] and macrocyclic [median, three patients; maximum, eight patients]), and 54 patients (42.5%) had no history of administration of gadolinium chelate. Interobserver correlation was almost perfect (0.992 [95% confidence interval: 0.990, 0.994]). The DN/cerebellum ratio was associated with linear GBCA (P < .001), but not with macrocyclic GBCA exposure (P = .875). According to the Akaike information criterion, only linear GBCA was selected for the final model, and the DN/cerebellum ratio had strong association only with linear GBCA. Conclusion: Hyperintensity in the DN on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images is associated with previous administration of linear GBCA, while the previous administration of macrocyclic GBCAs showed no such association. (C) RSNA, 2015
Image-guided tumor ablation has become a well-established hallmark of local cancer therapy. The breadth of options available in this growing field increases the need for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria to facilitate effective communication of ideas and appropriate comparison among treatments that use different technologies, such as chemical (eg, ethanol or acetic acid) ablation, thermal therapies (eg, radiofrequency, laser, microwave, focused ultrasound, and cryoablation) and newer ablative modalities such as irreversible electroporation. This updated consensus document provides a framework that will facilitate the clearest communication among investigators regarding ablative technologies. An appropriate vehicle is proposed for reporting the various aspects of image-guided ablation therapy including classification of therapies, procedure terms, descriptors of imaging guidance, and terminology for imaging and pathologic findings. Methods are addressed for standardizing reporting of technique, follow-up, complications, and clinical results. As noted in the original document from 2003, adherence to the recommendations will improve the precision of communications in this field, leading to more accurate comparison of technologies and results, and ultimately to improved patient outcomes. (C) RSNA, 2014
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) for detecting tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs. Materials and Methods: Four deidentified HIPAA-compliant datasets were used in this study that were exempted from review by the institutional review board, which consisted of 1007 posteroanterior chest radiographs. The datasets were split into training (68.0%), validation (17.1%), and test (14.9%). Two different DCNNs, AlexNet and GoogLeNet, were used to classify the images as having manifestations of pulmonary TB or as healthy. Both untrained and pretrained networks on ImageNet were used, and augmentation with multiple preprocessing techniques. Ensembles were performed on the best-performing algorithms. For cases where the classifiers were in disagreement, an independent boardcertified cardiothoracic radiologist blindly interpreted the images to evaluate a potential radiologist-augmented workflow. Receiver operating characteristic curves and areas under the curve (AUCs) were used to assess model performance by using the DeLong method for statistical comparison of receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: The best-performing classifier had an AUC of 0.99, which was an ensemble of the AlexNet and GoogLeNet DCNNs. The AUCs of the pretrained models were greater than that of the untrained models (P < .001). Augmenting the dataset further increased accuracy (P values for AlexNet and GoogLeNet were.03 and.02, respectively). The DCNNs had disagreement in 13 of the 150 test cases, which were blindly reviewed by a cardiothoracic radiologist, who correctly interpreted all 13 cases (100%). This radiologist-augmented approach resulted in a sensitivity of 97.3% and specificity 100%. Conclusion: Deep learning with DCNNs can accurately classify TB at chest radiography with an AUC of 0.99. A radiologist-augmented approach for cases where there was disagreement among the classifiers further improved accuracy.
Purpose: To determine whether adding shear-wave (SW) elastographic features could improve accuracy of ultrasonographic (US) assessment of breast masses. Materials and Methods: From September 2008 to September 2010, 958 women consented to repeat standard breast US supplemented by quantitative SW elastographic examination in this prospective multicenter institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant protocol. B-mode Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features and assessments were recorded. SW elastographic evaluation (mean, maximum, and minimum elasticity of stiffest portion of mass and surrounding tissue; lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio; ratio of SW elastographic-to-B-mode lesion diameter or area; SW elastographic lesion shape and homogeneity) was performed. Qualitative color SW elastographic stiffness was assessed independently. Nine hundred thirty-nine masses were analyzable; 102 BI-RADS category 2 masses were assumed to be benign; reference standard was available for 837 category 3 or higher lesions. Considering BI-RADS category 4a or higher as test positive for malignancy, effect of SW elastographic features on area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity after reclassifying category 3 and 4a masses was determined. Results: Median participant age was 50 years; 289 of 939 (30.8%) masses were malignant (median mass size, 12 mm). B-mode BI-RADS AUC was 0.950; eight of 303 (2.6%) BI-RADS category 3 masses, 18 of 193 (9.3%) category 4a lesions, 41 of 97 (42%) category 4b lesions, 42 of 57 (74%) category 4c lesions, and 180 of 187 (96.3%) category 5 lesions were malignant. By using visual color stiffness to selectively upgrade category 3 and lack of stiffness to downgrade category 4a masses, specificity improved from 61.1% (397 of 650) to 78.5% (510 of 650) (P < .001); AUC increased to 0.962 (P = .005). Oval shape on SW elastographic images and quantitative maximum elasticity of 80 kPa (5.2 m/sec) or less improved specificity (69.4% [451 of 650] and 77.4% [503 of 650], P < .001 for both), without significant improvement in sensitivity or AUC. Conclusion: Adding SW elastographic features to BI-RADS feature analysis improved specificity of breast US mass assessment without loss of sensitivity.
The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a randomized multicenter study comparing low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) with chest radiography in the screening of older current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Five-year survival rates approach 70% with surgical resection of stage IA disease; however, more than 75% of individuals have incurable locally advanced or metastatic disease, the latter having a 5-year survival of less than 5%. It is plausible that treatment should be more effective and the likelihood of death decreased if asymptomatic lung cancer is detected through screening early enough in its preclinical phase. For these reasons, there is intense interest and intuitive appeal in lung cancer screening with low-dose CT. The use of survival as the determinant of screening effectiveness is, however, confounded by the well-described biases of lead time, length, and overdiagnosis. Despite previous attempts, no test has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, an endpoint that circumvents screening biases and provides a definitive measure of benefit when assessed in a randomized controlled trial that enables comparison of mortality rates between screened individuals and a control group that does not undergo the screening intervention of interest. The NLST is such a trial. The rationale for and design of the NLST are presented. (C) RSNA, 2010
Purpose: To compare screening recall rates and cancer detection rates of tomosynthesis plus conventional digital mammography to those of conventional digital mammography alone. Materials and Methods: All patients presenting for screening mammography between October 1, 2011, and September 30, 2012, at four clinical sites were reviewed in this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, for which the institutional review board granted approval and waived the requirement for informed consent. Patients at sites with digital tomosynthesis were offered screening with digital mammography plus tomosynthesis. Patients at sites without tomosynthesis underwent conventional digital mammography. Recall rates were calculated and stratified according to breast density and patient age. Cancer detection rates were calculated and stratified according to the presence of a risk factor for breast cancer. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of screening method, breast density, patient age, and cancer risk on the odds of recall from screening. Results: A total of 13 158 patients presented for screening mammography; 6100 received tomosynthesis. The overall recall rate was 8.4% for patients in the tomosynthesis group and 12.0% for those in the conventional mammography group (P < .01). The addition of tomosynthesis reduced recall rates for all breast density and patient age groups, with significant differences (P < .05) found for scattered fibro-glandular, heterogeneously dense, and extremely dense breasts and for patients younger than 40 years, those aged 40-49 years, those aged 50-59 years, and those aged 60-69 years. These findings persisted when multivariate logistic regression was used to control for differences in age, breast density, and elevated risk of breast cancer. The cancer detection rate was 5.7 per 1000 in patients receiving tomosynthesis versus 5.2 per 1000 in patients receiving conventional mammography alone (P = .70). Conclusion: Patients undergoing tomosynthesis plus digital mammography had significantly lower screening recall rates. The greatest reductions were for those younger than 50 years and those with dense breasts. A nonsignificant 9.5% increase in cancer detection was observed in the tomosynthesis group. (C)RSNA, 2013
This review presents the current state of the art regarding multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of prostate cancer. Technical requirements and clinical indications for the use of multiparametric MR imaging in detection, localization, characterization, staging, biopsy guidance, and active surveillance of prostate cancer are discussed. Although reported accuracies of the separate and combined multiparametric MR imaging techniques vary for diverse clinical prostate cancer indications, multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate has shown promising results and may be of additional value in prostate cancer localization and local staging. Consensus on which technical approaches (field strengths, sequences, use of an endorectal coil) and combination of multiparametric MR imaging techniques should be used for specific clinical indications remains a challenge. Because guidelines are currently lacking, suggestions for a general minimal protocol for multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate based on the literature and the authors' experience are presented. Computer programs that allow evaluation of the various components of a multiparametric MR imaging examination in one view should be developed. In this way, an integrated interpretation of anatomic and functional MR imaging techniques in a multiparametric MR imaging examination is possible. Education and experience of specialist radiologists are essential for correct interpretation of multiparametric prostate MR imaging findings. Supportive techniques, such as computer-aided diagnosis are needed to obtain a fast, cost-effective, easy, and more reproducible prostate cancer diagnosis out of more and more complex multiparametric MR imaging data.
Purpose: To determine the interobserver reproducibility of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 lexicon. Materials and Methods: This retrospective HIPAA-compliant study was institutional review board-approved. Six radiologists from six separate institutions, all experienced in prostate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, assessed prostate MR imaging examinations performed at a single center by using the PI-RADS lexicon. Readers were provided screen captures that denoted the location of one specific lesion per case. Analysis entailed two sessions (40 and 80 examinations per session) and an intersession training period for individualized feedback and group discussion. Percent agreement (fraction of pairwise reader combinations with concordant readings) was compared between sessions. k coefficients were computed. Results: No substantial difference in interobserver agreement was observed between sessions, and the sessions were subsequently pooled. Agreement for PI-RADS score of 4 or greater was 0.593 in peripheral zone (PZ) and 0.509 in transition zone (TZ). In PZ, reproducibility was moderate to substantial for features related to diffusion-weighted imaging (k = 0.535-0.619); fair to moderate for features related to dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) imaging (k = 0.266-0.439); and fair for definite extraprostatic extension on T2-weighted images (k = 0.289). In TZ, reproducibility for features related to lesion texture and margins on T2-weighted images ranged from 0.136 (moderately hypointense) to 0.529 (encapsulation). Among 63 lesions that underwent targeted biopsy, classification as PI-RADS score of 4 or greater by a majority of readers yielded tumor with a Gleason score of 3+4 or greater in 45.9% (17 of 37), without missing any tumor with a Gleason score of 3+4 or greater. Conclusion: Experienced radiologists achieved moderate reproducibility for PI-RADS version 2, and neither required nor benefitted from a training session. Agreement tended to be better in PZ than TZ, although was weak for DCE in PZ. The findings may help guide future PI-RADS lexicon updates. (C) RSNA, 2016
Purpose: To document the imaging findings associated with congenital Zika virus infection as found in the Instituto de Pesquisa in Campina Grande State Paraiba (IPESQ) in northeastern Brazil, where the congenital infection has been particularly severe. Materials and Methods: From June 2015 to May 2016, 438 patients were referred to the IPESQ for rash occurring during pregnancy or for suspected fetal central nervous system abnormality. Patients who underwent imaging at IPESQ were included, as well as those with documented Zika virus infection in fluid or tissue (n = 17, confirmed infection cohort) or those with brain findings suspicious for Zika virus infection, with intracranial calcifications (n = 28, presumed infection cohort). Imaging examinations included 12 fetal magnetic resonance (MR) examinations, 42 postnatal brain computed tomographic examinations, and 11 postnatal brain MR examinations. Images were reviewed by four radiologists, with final opinion achieved by means of consensus. Results: Brain abnormalities seen in confirmed (n = 17) and presumed (n = 28) congenital Zika virus infections were similar, with ventriculomegaly in 16 of 17 (94%) and 27 of 28 (96%) infections, respectively; abnormalities of the corpus callosum in 16 of 17 (94%) and 22 of 28 (78%) infections, respectively; and cortical migrational abnormalities in 16 of 17 (94%) and 28 of 28 (100%) infections, respectively. Although most fetuses underwent at least one examination that showed head circumference below the 5th percentile, head circumference could be normal in the presence of severe ventriculomegaly (seen in three fetuses). Intracranial calcifications were most commonly seen at the gray matter-white matter junction, in 15 of 17 (88%) and 28 of 28 (100%) confirmed and presumed infections, respectively. The basal ganglia and/or thalamus were also commonly involved with calcifications in 11 of 17 (65%) and 18 of 28 (64%) infections, respectively. The skull frequently had a collapsed appearance with overlapping sutures and redundant skin folds and, occasionally, intracranial herniation of orbital fat and clot in the confluence of sinuses. Conclusion: The spectrum of findings associated with congenital Zika virus infection in the IPESQ in northeastern Brazil is illustrated to aid the radiologist in identifying Zika virus infection at imaging. (C) RSNA, 2016