To answer the question of whether teaching social and emotional skills to foster social–emotional development can help schools extend their role beyond the transfer of knowledge, the authors conducted a meta‐analytical review of 75 recently published studies that reported the effects of universal, school‐based social, emotional, and/or behavioral (SEB) programs. The analyzed interventions had a variety of intended outcomes, but the increase in social skills and decrease in antisocial behavior were most often reported. Although considerable differences in efficacy exist, the analysis demonstrated that overall beneficial effects on all seven major categories of outcomes occurred: social skills, antisocial behavior, substance abuse, positive self‐image, academic achievement, mental health, and prosocial behavior. Generally, immediate effects were stronger than delayed effects, with the exception of substance abuse, which showed a sleeper effect. Limitations of the analysis and moderators of the effectiveness of SEB programs in schools are discussed in the final section of the article.
The topic of emotion regulation and its relationship with teacher effectiveness is beginning to garner attention by researchers. This study examined the relationship between emotion-regulation ability (ERA), as assessed by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and both job satisfaction and burnout among secondary-school teachers (N = 123). It also examined the mediating effects of affect and principal support on these outcomes. ERA was associated positively with positive affect, principal support, job satisfaction, and one component of burnout, personal accomplishment. Two path models demonstrated that both positive affect and principal support mediated independently the associations between ERA and both personal accomplishment and job satisfaction. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Previous studies so far have investigated various aspects of cyberbullying. Using meta‐analytic approaches, the study was primarily to determine the target factors predicting individuals’ perpetration and victimization in cyberbullying. A meta‐analysis of 77 studies containing 418 primary effect sizes was conducted to exam the relative magnitude of demographic, individual, and contextual predictors. Several study characteristics (i.e., sample age, sample gender, study location, publication status, and publication year) were further analyzed as moderators. The results showed the average effect size of each predictor for both cyberbully and cybervictim groups. Several significant shared and unique predictors were identified as important factors for designing effective prevention and intervention programs. The implications of the findings for future research were discussed in relation to interventions on cyberbullying.
The increasing use of cyberspace as a social networking forum creates a new medium for youth to become victims of peer aggression. This study used factor analysis techniques to confirm whether survey questions about frequency of cyber victimization formed a distinct latent construct from questions about relational and overt victimization information in a large (N = 1, 665) sample of middle school students. A secondary goal was to relate experiences of cyber victimization to symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Results indicate that cyber victimization is separate latent factor from overt and relational victimization. Experiences of cyber victimization were weakly associated with symptoms of social anxiety, but not depression. These results signify that cyber victimization deserves future empirical and clinical attention. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
School-based prevention programs can positively impact a range of social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Yet the current climate of accountability pressures schools to restrict activities that are not perceived as part of the core curriculum. Building on models from public health and prevention science, we describe an integrated approach to school-based prevention. These models leverage the most effective structural and content components of social-emotional and behavioral health prevention interventions. Integrated interventions are expected to have additive and synergistic effects that result in greater impacts on multiple student outcomes. Integrated programs are also expected to be more efficient to deliver, easier to implement with high quality and integrity, and more sustainable. We provide a detailed example of the process through which the PAX-Good Behavior Game and the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum were integrated into the PATHS to PAX model. Implications for future research are proposed. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
To successfully integrate technology into any educational program, practitioners need awareness of available technology, an understanding of how it can assist with instruction, knowledge of ways it can support day‐to‐day activities and, finally, the ability to teach students as well as educators to use the technology. The proliferation of advanced mobile technologies specifically targeting individuals with moderate to severe intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder means increased access to new tools and a greater need for educational service providers to be trained and ready to identify, recommend and deploy appropriate supports. The rapid rate of change in the technology industry is a formidable barrier to adequately preparing anyone except a technology specialist to be current on the latest advances. This article presents recommendations for school psychologists in terms of becoming familiar with the generally available technologies and the underlying instructional techniques rather than any specific technology products. Complete familiarity with all emergent technologies is improbable but through understanding the general ways technology can be used and the basic instructional practices, school psychologists will be better equipped to recommend further exploration of technological solutions for students.
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which public school teachers implemented evidence‐based interventions for students with autism in the way these practices were designed. Evidence‐based practices for students with autism are rarely incorporated into community settings, and little is known about the quality of implementation. An indicator of intervention quality is procedural implementation fidelity (the degree to which a treatment is implemented as prescribed). Procedural fidelity likely affects student outcomes. This project examined procedural implementation fidelity of three evidence‐based practices used in a randomized trial of a comprehensive program for students with autism in partnership with a large, urban school district. Results indicate that teachers in public school special education classrooms can learn to implement evidence‐based strategies; however, they require extensive training, coaching, and time to reach and maintain moderate procedural implementation fidelity. Procedural fidelity over time and across intervention strategies is examined.
High‐stakes tests have played an increasingly important role in how student achievement and school effectiveness are measured. Test anxiety has risen with the use of tests in educational decision making. Students with high test anxiety perform poorly on tests when compared to students with low test anxiety. School psychologists can play an important role as experts both in tests and measurement and mental health in providing consultation and treatment for students with test anxiety. This article describes the results of a systematic literature review of the last 10 years of test‐anxiety interventions. Results indicate that there are few studies that have examined test‐anxiety interventions with elementary and secondary school students. However, techniques including biofeedback, behavior therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, priming competency, and mixed approaches have demonstrated promising results. Suggestions are made for school psychologists for the delivery of evidenced‐based test anxiety interventions.
This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty students in Grades 6 through 8 completed a survey that assessed normative beliefs about aggression, peer attachment, and traditional bullying and cyberbullying behaviors, which suggested that students who are involved with traditional bullying are also involved in cyberbullying. Adolescents with higher normative beliefs about aggression are more likely to be traditional bullies, traditional victims, cyberbullies, and cybervictims. Additionally, peer attachment was found to be negatively associated with both types of bullying and victimization. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Bullying is one of the most common forms of school violence. Engagement ill bullying has been shown to have adverse effects on perpetrators and victims of bullying. In this study, the impact of bullying on well-being (quality of life/life satisfaction) was explored in a sample of elementary and middle school children (N = 4,331). Results suggest that students who bully and/or are bullied experience reduced life satisfaction and support from peers and teachers compared to "bystanders" (children who are neither victims nor perpetrators of bullying). Mediational analyses demonstrate that peer and teacher support might mitigate the impact of bullying on the quality of life of victims. This study underscores the value of efforts to promote social support from peers and teachers in both universal bullying prevention programs and school climate initiatives. Furthermore, results support further investigation into the possible contributions of bystanders in supporting school-wide bullying prevention/school climate strategies. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A critical debate within the field of school psychology has centered on the relationship between bullying and cyberbullying in terms of prevalence, overlap, and impact. The current study sought to address the following questions: (1) Does cyberbullying create new victims or merely a new means of victimization? (2) Does cyberbullying uniquely contribute to negative outcomes above and beyond those of traditional bullying? Utilizing an anonymous survey to examine students’ experiences with cyberbullying, traditional bullying, and negative psychological symptoms, it was found that the vast majority of students who were bullied online were also victims of in‐person bullying. Both forms of victimization were independently associated with negative outcomes. However, when controlling for traditional bullying, cyberbullying did not remain a predictor of negative mental health outcomes. In contrast, when controlling for cyberbullying, traditional bullying remained a significant predictor of negative mental health outcomes. These results suggest that although traditional and cyber forms of bullying tend to target the same victims, traditional bullying is more uniquely associated with negative psychological outcomes.
This study explored differences in test anxiety on high‐stakes standardized achievement testing and low‐stakes testing among elementary school children. This is the first study to directly examine differences in young students’ reported test anxiety between No Child Left Behind (NCLB) achievement testing and classroom testing. Three hundred thirty‐five students in Grades 3 through 5 participated in the study. Students completed assessments of test anxiety following NCLB testing and typical classroom testing. Students reported significantly more overall test anxiety in relation to high‐stakes testing versus classroom testing on two measures of test anxiety, effect sizes r = −.21 and r = −.10. Students also reported significantly more cognitive ( r = −.20) and physiological ( r = −.24) symptoms of test anxiety in relation to high‐stakes testing. This study adds to the test anxiety literature by demonstrating that students experience heightened anxiety in response to NCLB testing.
Student behavioral engagement is a key condition supporting academic achievement, yet student disengagement in middle and high schools is all too common. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the efficacy of the My Teaching Partner‐Secondary program to increase behavioral engagement. The program offers teachers personalized coaching and systematic feedback on teachers’ interactions with students, based on systematic observation of videorecordings of teacher‐student interactions in the classroom. The study found that intervention teachers had significantly higher increases, albeit to a modest degree, in student behavioral engagement in their classrooms after 1 year of involvement with the program compared to the teachers in the control group (explaining 4% of variance). In exploratory analyses, two dimensions of teachers’ interactions with students—their focus on analysis and problem solving during instruction and their use of diverse instructional learning formats—acted as mediators of increased student engagement. The findings offer implications for new directions in teacher professional development and for understanding the classroom as a setting for adolescent development.
Mindfulness‐based curricula are being implemented in K‐12 schools across the nation. Many of these programs, although well considered and implemented, have little or no research support for their effectiveness. Recognizing the paucity of published research in this area, a sampling of school‐based programs currently being implemented in the schools is reviewed. The programs reviewed are Inner Explorer , Master Mind and Moment Program , Mindfulness and Mind‐Body Skills for Children , Mindful Schools , Resilient Kids , Still Quiet Place , Stress Reduction and Mindfulness Curriculum and Mindful Moment , and Wellness and Resilience Program . We offer a summary of research support for each program and discussion of unpublished, mostly qualitative indicators of feasibility, acceptability, efficacy, and effectiveness. Strengths and limitations of each program are described, along with suggestions for bolstering informative and useful research. We encourage researchers, educators, and mindfulness practitioners to work collaboratively to conduct rigorous program evaluations.
Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high school. Intrinsic motivation to learn was indirectly and positively related to academic performance via classroom engagement. Seventy‐five percent of the variance in engagement and 33% of the variance in GPA were explained by variables in the study. Results were generally replicated when the model was tested separately with the 336 African American students and the 311 Latin@ students. The significant indirect effect of intrinsic motivation to learn on GPA via engagement, as well as the positive direct association between learning goals and academic performance, suggest that students will benefit from schools fostering intrinsic motivation to learn and learning goals.
Contemporary Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has evolved over the past 20 years and serves as the theoretical foundation for a number of current cognitive ability assessments. CHC theory provides a means by which we can better understand the relationships between cognitive abilities and academic achievement, an important component of learning disabilities identification and instructional planning. A research synthesis of the extant CHC cognitive-achievement (COG-ACH) research literature is reported. Systematic and operationally defined research synthesis procedures were employed to address limitations present in the only prior attempted synthesis. Nineteen studies met the criteria for inclusion, which yielded 134 analyses. The 134 analyses were organized by three age groups (6-8, 9-13, and 14-19) and by four achievement domains (basic reading skills, reading comprehension, basic math skills, and math reasoning). The results reveal a much more nuanced set of CHC COG-ACM relations than was identified in the only prior review because of (a) breadth of cognitive abilities and measures (broad vs. narrow), (b) breadth of achievement domains (e.g., basic reading skills and reading comprehension vs. broad reading), and (c) developmental (age) status. The findings argue for selective, flexible, and referral-focused intelligence testing, particularly in the context of emerging Response to Intervention (RTI) assessment models. The results suggest that narrow CHC abilities should be the primary focus of instructionally relevant intelligence testing. Furthermore, the finding that more than 90% of the available research is based on the Woodcock Johnson Battery argues for significant caution in generalizing the findings to other batteries. CHC-based COG-ACH research with other intelligence batteries is recommended. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Internationalization has been described as a moral, intellectual, and professional imperative for psychology and its subdisciplines. Numerous scholars within and outside of psychology have been discussing the meaning and importance of internationalization, but the descriptions, definitions, and goals described within the existing literature vary. Furthermore, many authors have used the term “internationalization” without providing any description or definition at all, as is likewise the case with the school and educational psychology scholarship. The central purpose of this paper is to propose a working definition, set of potential goals, and conceptual model of internationalization that has relevance for school and educational psychology. As discussed in the paper, the ideas presented are meant to stimulate opportunities for dialogue, reflection, and critique among a global community of scholars and practitioners—they are not presented with the viewpoint that they ought to be adopted. Within the conceptual model, it is argued, for example, that intentionality, inclusivity, reciprocity, and consideration of goals will help to support internationalization efforts. Proposed goals include relatively more immediate objectives (e.g., enhancing internationally representative scholarship, improving discipline‐relevant advocacy and support efforts) that should help to enable broader internationalization goals (e.g., offering the most effective services to those supported by the international community of school and educational psychologists). The conceptual model is also discussed in the context of existing discipline‐specific research and areas of scholarship that are relatively scarce. The paper concludes by describing limitations, considerations, and potential future efforts relevant to definitions and conceptualizations of internationalization.