We calculate the spectral function of a smooth edge of a quantum Hall system in the lowest Landau level by means of a bosonization technique. We obtain a general relationship between the one electron spectral function and the dynamical structure factor. The resulting I-V characteristics exhibit, at low voltage and temperature, power law scaling, generally different from the one predicted by the chiral Luttinger liquid theory, and in good agreement with recent experimental results. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Procedures and calibration techniques for measuring the absolute elastic and inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) for electron impact on molecular (atomic) species are described and illustrated by examples. The elastic DCS for the molecule under study is first determined by calibration against helium using the relative flow technique. The second step involves the production of energy-loss spectra for the instrument response function, the unfolding of overlapping inelastic structures and the normalization of inelastic intensities to the elastic cross sections. It is concluded that this method of determining absolute differential electron-molecule (atom) scattering cross sections is generally applicable and provides reliable results.