Science and technologies based on terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation (100 GHz-30 THz) have developed rapidly over the last 30 years. For most of the 20th Century, terahertz radiation, then referred to as sub-millimeter wave or far-infrared radiation, was mainly utilized by astronomers and some spectroscopists. Following the development of laser based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 1980s and 1990s the field of THz science and technology expanded rapidly, to the extent that it now touches many areas from fundamental science to 'real world' applications. For example THz radiation is being used to optimize materials for new solar cells, and may also be a key technology for the next generation of airport security scanners. While the field was emerging it was possible to keep track of all new developments, however now the field has grown so much that it is increasingly difficult to follow the diverse range of new discoveries and applications that are appearing. At this point in time, when the field of THz science and technology is moving from an emerging to a more established and interdisciplinary field, it is apt to present a roadmap to help identify the breadth and future directions of the field. The aim of this roadmap is to present a snapshot of the present state of THz science and technology in 2017, and provide an opinion on the challenges and opportunities that the future holds. To be able to achieve this aim, we have invited a group of international experts to write 18 sections that cover most of the key areas of THz science and technology. We hope that The 2017 Roadmap on THz science and technology will prove to be a useful resource by providing a wide ranging introduction to the capabilities of THz radiation for those outside or just entering the field as well as providing perspective and breadth for those who are well established. We also feel that this review should serve as a useful guide for government and funding agencies.
Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio) physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of 'super-resolution' farfield optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough discussion on the concepts underlying super-resolution optical microscopy, the potential of different approaches, the importance of label optimization (such as reversible photoswitchable proteins) and applications in which these methods will have a significant impact. Mark Bates, Christian Eggeling
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published the first Plasma Roadmap in 2012 consisting of the individual perspectives of 16 leading experts in the various sub-fields of low temperature plasma science and technology. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap is the first update of a planned series of periodic updates of the Plasma Roadmap. The continuously growing interdisciplinary nature of the low temperature plasma field and its equally broad range of applications are making it increasingly difficult to identify major challenges that encompass all of the many sub-fields and applications. This intellectual diversity is ultimately a strength of the field. The current state of the art for the 19 sub-fields addressed in this roadmap demonstrates the enviable track record of the low temperature plasma field in the development of plasmas as an enabling technology for a vast range of technologies that underpin our modern society. At the same time, the many important scientific and technological challenges shared in this roadmap show that the path forward is not only scientifically rich but has the potential to make wide and far reaching contributions to many societal challenges.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the closely related reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are often generated in applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas intended for biomedical purposes. These species are also central players in what is sometimes referred to as 'redox' or oxidation-reduction biology. Oxidation-reduction biochemistry is fundamental to all of aerobic biology. ROS and RNS are perhaps best known as disease-associated agents, implicated in diabetes, cancer, heart and lung disease, autoimmune disease and a host of other maladies including ageing and various infectious diseases. These species are also known to play active roles in the immune systems of both animals and plants and are key signalling molecules, among many other important roles. Indeed, the latest research has shown that ROS/RNS play a much more complex and nuanced role in health and ageing than previously thought. Some of the most potentially profound therapeutic roles played by ROS and RNS in various medical interventions have emerged only in the last several years. Recent research suggests that ROS/RNS are significant and perhaps even central actors in the actions of antimicrobial and anti-parasite drugs, cancer therapies, wound healing therapies and therapies involving the cardiovascular system. Understanding the ways ROS/RNS act in established therapies may help guide future efforts in exploiting novel plasma medical therapies. The importance of ROS and RNS to plant biology has been relatively little appreciated in the plasma biomedicine community, but these species are just as important in plants. It appears that there are opportunities for useful applications of plasmas in this area as well.
Oxide electronic materials provide a plethora of possible applications and offer ample opportunity for scientists to probe into some of the exciting and intriguing phenomena exhibited by oxide systems and oxide interfaces. In addition to the already diverse spectrum of properties, the nanoscale form of oxides provides a new dimension of hitherto unknown phenomena due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio. Oxide electronic materials are becoming increasingly important in a wide range of applications including transparent electronics, optoelectronics, magnetoelectronics, photonics, spintronics, thermoelectrics, piezoelectrics, power harvesting, hydrogen storage and environmental waste management. Synthesis and fabrication of these materials, as well as processing into particular device structures to suit a specific application is still a challenge. Further, characterization of these materials to understand the tunability of their properties and the novel properties that evolve due to their nanostructured nature is another facet of the challenge. The research related to the oxide electronic field is at an impressionable stage, and this has motivated us to contribute with a roadmap on 'oxide electronic materials and oxide interfaces'. This roadmap envisages the potential applications of oxide materials in cutting edge technologies and focuses on the necessary advances required to implement these materials, including both conventional and novel techniques for the synthesis, characterization, processing and fabrication of nanostructured oxides and oxide-based devices. The contents of this roadmap will highlight the functional and correlated properties of oxides in bulk, nano, thin film, multilayer and heterostructure forms, as well as the theoretical considerations behind both present and future applications in many technologically important areas as pointed out by Venkatesan. The contributions in this roadmap span several thematic groups which are represented by the following authors: novel field effect transistors and bipolar devices by Fortunato, Grundmann, Boschker, Rao, and Rogers; energy conversion and saving by Zaban, Weidenkaff, and Murakami; new opportunities of photonics by Fompeyrine, and Zuniga-Perez; multiferroic materials including novel phenomena by Ramesh, Spaldin, Mertig, Lorenz, Srinivasan, and Prellier; and concepts for topological oxide electronics by Kawasaki, Pentcheva, and Gegenwart. Finally, Miletto Granozio presents the European action 'towards oxide-based electronics' which develops an oxide electronics roadmap with emphasis on future nonvolatile memories and the required technologies. In summary, we do hope that this oxide roadmap appears as an interesting up-to-date snapshot on one of the most exciting and active areas of solid state physics, materials science, and chemistry, which even after many years of very successful development shows in short intervals novel insights and achievements.
Magnetism is a very fascinating and dynamic field. Especially in the last 30 years, there have been many major advances in a range of areas from novel fundamental phenomena to new products. Applications such as hard disc drives and magnetic sensors are part of our daily life and new applications, such as in non-volatile computer random access memory, are expected to surface shortly. Thus it is an opportune time for describing the current status and current and future challenges in the form of a roadmap article. The 2014 Magnetism Roadmap provides a view on several selected, presently very active innovative developments. It consists of twelve sections, each written by an expert in the field and addressing a specific subject, with a strong emphasis on future potential. This Roadmap cannot cover the entire field. Several highly relevant areas have been selected without attempting to provide a full review - a future update will aim to address further. The scope covers mostly nanomagnetic phenomena and applications, where surfaces and interfaces provide additional functionality. New developments in fundamental topics such as interacting nanoelements, novel magnon-based spintronics concepts, spin-orbit torques and spin-caloric phenomena are addressed. New materials such as organic magnetic materials and permanent magnets are covered. New applications are presented such as nanomagnetic logic, non-local and domain-wall based devices, heat-assisted magnetic recording, magnetic random access memory and applications in biotechnology. This Roadmap acts to serve as a guideline for future emerging research directions in modern magnetism.
Magnonics is a young field of research and technology emerging at the interfaces between the study of spin dynamics, on the one hand, and a number of other fields of nanoscale science and technology, on the other. We review the foundations and recent achievements in magnonics in view of guiding further progress from studying fundamental magnonic phenomena towards applications. We discuss the major challenges that have to be addressed in future research in order to make magnonics a pervasive technology.
A progress report is presented on a selection of scientific, technological and commercial advances in the biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles since 2003. Particular attention is paid to (i) magnetic actuation for in vitro non-viral transfection and tissue engineering and in vivo drug delivery and gene therapy, (ii) recent clinical results for magnetic hyperthermia treatments of brain and prostate cancer via direct injection, and continuing efforts to develop new agents suitable for targeted hyperthermia following intravenous injection and (iii) developments in medical sensing technologies involving a new generation of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and the invention of magnetic particle imaging as a new modality. Ongoing prospects are also discussed.
The excitation of surface plasmons (SPs) in metallic nanoparticles (NPs) induces optical properties hardly achievable in other optical materials, yielding a wide range of applications in many fields. This review presents an overview of SPs in metallic NPs. The concept of SPs in NPs is qualitatively described using a comparison with simple linear oscillators. The mathematical models to carry on calculations on SPs are presented as well as the most common approximations. The different parameters governing the features of SPs and their effect on the optical properties of the materials are reviewed. Finally, applications of SPs in different fields such as biomedicine, energy, environment protection and information technology are revised.
Low-temperature plasma physics and technology are diverse and interdisciplinary fields. The plasma parameters can span many orders of magnitude and applications are found in quite different areas of daily life and industrial production. As a consequence, the trends in research, science and technology are difficult to follow and it is not easy to identify the major challenges of the field and their many sub-fields. Even for experts the road to the future is sometimes lost in the mist. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is addressing this need for clarity and thus providing guidance to the field by this special Review article, The 2012 Plasma Roadmap. Although roadmaps are common in the microelectronic industry and other fields of research and development, constructing a roadmap for the field of low-temperature plasmas is perhaps a unique undertaking. Realizing the difficulty of this task for any individual, the plasma section of the Journal of Physics D Board decided to meet the challenge of developing a roadmap through an unusual and novel concept. The roadmap was divided into 16 formalized short subsections each addressing a particular key topic. For each topic a renowned expert in the sub-field was invited to express his/her individual visions on the status, current and future challenges, and to identify advances in science and technology required to meet these challenges. Together these contributions form a detailed snapshot of the current state of the art which clearly shows the lifelines of the field and the challenges ahead. Novel technologies, fresh ideas and concepts, and new applications discussed by our authors demonstrate that the road to the future is wide and far reaching. We hope that this special plasma science and technology roadmap will provide guidance for colleagues, funding agencies and government institutions. If successful in doing so, the roadmap will be periodically updated to continue to help in guiding the field.
Early experiments in magnonics were made using ferrite samples, largely due to the intrinsically low magnetic (spin-wave) damping in these materials. Historically, magnonic phenomena were studied on micrometre to millimetre length scales. Today, the principal challenge in applied magnonics is to create sub-micrometre devices using modern polycrystalline magnetic alloys. However, until certain technical obstacles are overcome in these materials, ferrites-in particular yttrium iron garnet (YIG)-remain a valuable source of insight. At a time when interest in magnonic systems is particularly strong, it is both useful and timely to review the main scientific results of YIG magnonics of the last two decades, and to discuss the transferability of the concepts and ideas learned in ferrite materials to modern nano-scale systems.
Gallium nitride 9GaN) is a compound semiconductor that has tremendous potential to facilitate economic growth in a semiconductor industry that is silicon-based and currently faced with diminishing returns of performance versus cost of investment. At a material level, its high electric field strength and electron mobility have already shown tremendous potential for high frequency communications and photonic applications. Advances in growth on commercially viable large area substrates are now at the point where power conversion applications of GaN are at the cusp of commercialisation. The future for building on the work described here in ways driven by specific challenges emerging from entirely new markets and applications is very exciting. This collection of GaN technology developments is therefore not itself a road map but a valuable collection of global state-of-the-art GaN research that will inform the next phase of the technology as market driven requirements evolve. First generation production devices are igniting large new markets and applications that can only be achieved using the advantages of higher speed, low specific resistivity and low saturation switching transistors. Major investments are being made by industrial companies in a wide variety of markets exploring the use of the technology in new circuit topologies, packaging solutions and system architectures that are required to achieve and optimise the system advantages offered by GaN transistors. It is this momentum that will drive priorities for the next stages of device research gathered here.
The aim of this paper is to provide a survey of plasma sources at atmospheric pressure used for microbicidal treatment. In order to consider the interdisciplinary character of this topic an introduction and definition of basic terms and procedures are given for plasma as well as for microbicidal issues. The list of plasma sources makes no claim to be complete, but to represent the main principles of plasma generation at atmospheric pressure and to give an example of their microbicidal efficiency. The interpretation of the microbicidal results remain difficult due to the non-standardized methods used by different authors and due to the fact that small variations in the setup can change the results dramatically.
The quest for novel low-dissipation devices is one of the most critical for the future of semiconductor technology and nano-systems. The development of a low-power, universal memory will enable a new paradigm of non-volatile computation. Here we consider STT-RAM as one of the emerging candidates for low-power non-volatile memory. We show different configurations for STT memory and demonstrate strategies to optimize key performance parameters such as switching current and energy. The energy and scaling limits of STT-RAM are discussed, leading us to argue that alternative writing mechanisms may be required to achieve ultralow power dissipation, a necessary condition for direct integration with CMOS at the gate level for non-volatile logic purposes. As an example, we discuss the use of the giant spin Hall effect as a possible alternative to induce magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions using pure spin currents. Further, we concentrate on magnetoelectric effects, where electric fields are used instead of spin-polarized currents to manipulate the nanomagnets, as another candidate solution to address the challenges of energy efficiency and density. The possibility of an electric-field-controlled magnetoelectric RAM as a promising candidate for ultralow-power non-volatile memory is discussed in the light of experimental data demonstrating voltage-induced switching of the magnetization and reorientation of the magnetic easy axis by electric fields in nanomagnets.
During the last two decades atmospheric ( or high) pressure non-thermal plasmas in and in contact with liquids have received a lot of attention in view of their considerable environmental and medical applications. The simultaneous generation of intense UV radiation, shock waves and active radicals makes these discharges particularly suitable for decontamination, sterilization and purification purposes. This paper reviews the current status of research on atmospheric pressure non-thermal discharges in and in contact with liquids. The emphasis is on their generation mechanisms and their physical characteristics.
The special mechanical properties of nanoparticles allow for novel applications in many fields, e. g., surface engineering, tribology and nanomanufacturing/nanofabrication. In this review, the basic physics of the relevant interfacial forces to nanoparticles and the main measuring techniques are briefly introduced first. Then, the theories and important results of the mechanical properties between nanoparticles or the nanoparticles acting on a surface, e. g., hardness, elastic modulus, adhesion and friction, as well as movement laws are surveyed. Afterwards, several of the main applications of nanoparticles as a result of their special mechanical properties, including lubricant additives, nanoparticles in nanomanufacturing and nanoparticle reinforced composite coating, are introduced. A brief summary and the future outlook are also given in the final part.
We fabricated three types of high luminous efficacy white light emitting diodes (LEDs). The first was a white LED with a high luminous efficacy (eta(L)) of 249 lmW(-1) and a high luminous flux (phi(v)) of 14.4 lm at a forward-bias current of 20 mA. This eta(L) was approximately triple that of a tri-phosphor fluorescent lamp (90 lmW(-1)). The blue LED used as the excitation source in this white LED had a high output power (phi(e)) of 47.1mW and a high external quantum efficiency (eta(ex)) of 84.3%. The second was a high-power white LED, fabricated from the above high-power blue LED, and had a high phi(e) of 756mW at 350 mA. phi(v) and eta(L) of the high-power white LED were 203 lm and 183 lmW(-1) at 350 mA, respectively. The third was a high-power white LED fabricated from four high-power blue LED dies. phi(v) and eta(L) of the high-power white LED were 1913 lm and 135 lmW(-1) at 1A, respectively. The white LED had a higher flux than a 20W-class fluorescent lamp and 1.5 times the luminous efficacy of a tri-phosphor fluorescent lamp (90 lmW(-1)).
An ensemble of nanoparticles in which the inter-particle magnetic interactions are sufficiently weak shows superparamagnetic behaviour as described by the Neel-Brown model. On the contrary, when inter-particle interactions are non-negligible, the system eventually shows collective behaviour, which overcomes the individual anisotropy properties of the particles. At sufficiently strong interactions a magnetic nanoparticle ensemble can show superspin glass (SSG) properties similar to those of atomic spin glass systems in bulk. With a further increase in concentration, but still below physical percolation, sufficiently strong interactions can be experienced to form a superferromagnetic (SFM) state. SFM domains in a non-percolated nanoparticle assembly are expected to be similar to conventional ferromagnetic domains in a continuous film, with the decisive difference that the atomic spins are replaced by the superspins of the single-domain nanoparticles. In this review we highlight the most important developments in the field of supermagnetism, which comprises three fascinating subjects: superparamagnetism, SSG and superferromagnetism.
The interaction of plasmas with liquids is of increasing importance in biomedical applications. Tissues treated by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in plasma medicine are often covered by a thin layer of liquid, typically a blood serum like water with dissolved gases and proteins up to hundreds of micrometres thick. The liquid processes the plasma-produced radicals and ions prior to their reaching the tissue. In this paper, we report on a computational investigation of the interaction of DBDs in humid air with a thin water layer covering tissue. The water layer, 50-400 mu m thick, contains dissolved O-2aq ((aq) means an aqueous species) and alkane-like hydrocarbons (RHaq). In the model, the DBDs are operated with multiple pulses at 100 Hz followed by a 1 s afterglow. Gas phase reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) intersect the water-vapour saturated air above the liquid and then solvate when reaching the water. The photolysis of water by plasma-produced UV/VUV plays a significant role in the production of radicals. Without RHaq, O-2aq(-), ONOOaq-, NO3aq- and hydronium (H3Oaq+) dominate the water ions with H3Oaq+ determining the pH. The dominant RONS in the liquid are O-3aq, H2O2aq, and HNOxaq. Dissolved O-2aq assists the production of HNO3aq and HOONOaq during the afterglow. With RHaq, reactive oxygen species are largely consumed, leaving an R.(aq) (alkyl radical) to reach the tissue. These results are sensitive to the thickness of the water layer.
Building upon the success and relevance of the 2014 Magnetism Roadmap, this 2017 Magnetism Roadmap edition follows a similar general layout, even if its focus is naturally shifted, and a different group of experts and, thus, viewpoints are being collected and presented. More importantly, key developments have changed the research landscape in very relevant ways, so that a novel view onto some of the most crucial developments is warranted, and thus, this 2017 Magnetism Roadmap article is a timely endeavour. The change in landscape is hereby not exclusively scientific, but also reflects the magnetism related industrial application portfolio. Specifically, Hard Disk Drive technology, which still dominates digital storage and will continue to do so for many years, if not decades, has now limited its footprint in the scientific and research community, whereas significantly growing interest in magnetism and magnetic materials in relation to energy applications is noticeable, and other technological fields are emerging as well. Also, more and more work is occurring in which complex topologies of magnetically ordered states are being explored, hereby aiming at a technological utilization of the very theoretical concepts that were recognised by the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics. Given this somewhat shifted scenario, it seemed appropriate to select topics for this Roadmap article that represent the three core pillars of magnetism, namely magnetic materials, magnetic phenomena and associated characterization techniques, as well as applications of magnetism. While many of the contributions in this Roadmap have clearly overlapping relevance in all three fields, their relative focus is mostly associated to one of the three pillars. In this way, the interconnecting roles of having suitable magnetic materials, understanding (and being able to characterize) the underlying physics of their behaviour and utilizing them for applications and devices is well illustrated, thus giving an accurate snapshot of the world of magnetism in 2017. The article consists of 14 sections, each written by an expert in the field and addressing a specific subject on two pages. Evidently, the depth at which each contribution can describe the subject matter is limited and a full review of their statuses, advances, challenges and perspectives cannot be fully accomplished. Also, magnetism, as a vibrant research field, is too diverse, so that a number of areas will not be adequately represented here, leaving space for further Roadmap editions in the future. However, this 2017 Magnetism Roadmap article can provide a frame that will enable the reader to judge where each subject and magnetism research field stands overall today and which directions it might take in the foreseeable future. The first material focused pillar of the 2017 Magnetism Roadmap contains five articles, which address the questions of atomic scale confinement, 2D, curved and topological magnetic materials, as well as materials exhibiting unconventional magnetic phase transitions. The second pillar also has five contributions, which are devoted to advances in magnetic characterization, magneto-optics and magneto-plasmonics, ultrafast magnetization dynamics and magnonic transport. The final and application focused pillar has four contributions, which present non-volatile memory technology, antiferromagnetic spintronics, as well as magnet technology for energy and bio-related applications. As a whole, the 2017 Magnetism Roadmap article, just as with its 2014 predecessor, is intended to act as a reference point and guideline for emerging research directions in modern magnetism.