Croll, Neumark-Sztainer, and Story investigate the meanings of "healthy" and "unhealthy" eating and the importance of healthy eating among adolescents. The findings suggest that healthy eating messages based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are reaching adolescents, but interventions are needed to assist adolescents with the translation of this knowledge into healthy eating behaviors.
Golan and Weizman describe their model for the management of childhood obesity that uses a family-based approach. Change is delivered through the parents emphasizing a healthy lifestyle and not weight reduction as in previously published, family-based management of childhood obesity.
Matvienko et al tested the hypothesis that a nutrition course that stresses fundamental principles of human physiology, energy metabolism and genetics helps prevent weight gain during the first 16 months of college life. The results suggest that nutrition education emphasizing human physiology and energy metabolism is an effective strategy to prevent weight gain in at-risk college students.
The aim of the present study was to assess and describe obesity-related beliefs and attitudes among school staff. Mailed surveys were completed by 115 science, health, home economics, and physical education teachers, school nurses, and school social workers from all junior and senior high schools (n = 17) within a large urban school district (response rate = 66%).
Food consumption plays an important role in health, and understanding the process of food choice is central to health promotion. A person's life-course transitions and trajectories (persistent thoughts, feelings, strategies, and actions over the lifespan) are fundamental influences on the development of his or her personal system for making food choices.
Bissonnette and Contento investigated adolescents' perspectives about the environmental impacts of food production practices and whether these perspectives are related to their food choice. Food choice was operationalized as consumption and purchase of organic foods and locally grown foods.
A study was performed to increase knowledge about family meal patterns of adolescents, identify factors that adolescents perceive as reasons for not eating meals with their family, and assess adolescents' perceptions on whether they eat more healthful foods at family meals than in other eating situations.
Cossrow, Jeffery, and McGuire investigate, in a nonclinical sample of adults, thoughts on and experiences with weight stigmatization. The results indicated that participants experienced weight-based stigmatization in many aspects of their lives. Awareness of these experiences may assist in the development of overweight individuals.
Fruit and vegetable consumption is related to reduced risk for certain forms of cancer. Health organizations recommend the increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Despite these recommendations, few U.S. children eat the recommended number of at least five servings of fruit and vegetables per day.
Boutelle et al examine the level of agreement between adult and adolescent perceptions of the family mealtime environment and adolescent mealtime behavior. The family mealtime environment has great potential to affect the eating behaviors of youth in the family.
Nutrition education has the potential to play an important role in ensuring food security and improving nutritional status. Therefore, food security is recommended for inclusion in nutrition education evaluation efforts. Considerable progress has been made in developing brief tools that can be used to measure food security at the household level.
A systematic review sought to answer the question what is the effectiveness of community-based interventions to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in people four years of age and older. People making decisions about nutrition interventions need to give priority to those interventions that are multipronged, flexible, open to input from target groups, and theoretically based.
A study to increase the understanding of family meal patterns among adolescents is described. Adolescents reported more certainty about making healthful food choices at family meals than in other eating situations.
Objective: To examine the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about weight control and eating disorders among trainee home economics and physical education teachers and to assess their body image and weight control practices. The association between actual body weight and body image was also examined. Design: Survey research was undertaken using a self-report questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Subjects/Settings: Trainee home economics and physical education teachers (N = 216, 96% participation rate) in their last month of training at three major state teacher training universities completed a questionnaire during their regular class times. Main Outcome Measures: Advice teachers give to overweight adolescents knowledge and beliefs about eating disorders, body image, desired weight, food habits, dieting, body appearance ratings, weight control practices, and diagnosed and self-reported eating disorders. Statistical Analysis Performed: Descriptive statistics, chi square, and analyses of variance compare gender and Body Mass Index differences. Results: Males (85%) and females (87%) advised young overweight adolescents to diet to lose weight. Twenty percent of females and 13% of males regularly skipped breakfast. The advise given showed a lack of specific nutrition education about weight control, adolescent nutritional needs, and fad diets. Participants held misconceptions about eating disorders, and a range of 14% to 72% answered these questions incorrectly. Fourteen percent of females self-reported that they currently had in eating disorder,but only 6% had received treatment. Some females used potentially dangerous methods of weight loss, including 19% who abused laxatives and 10% who induced vomiting. Implications: Trainee home economics and physical education teachers need specific nutrition information and training about eating disorders, weight control, and suitable advice for overweight students. The female trainee teacher in our study had a poor body image and disordered eating similar to other young,women in Western countries, and this should be taken into account by teacher training institutions.
Given senior citizens' vulnerability for foodborne illness, a need exists to determine the necessity and focus for education. Focus group at senior centers reveal that the seniors who prepare more than five meals a week at home use both inappropriate and appropriate practices to cook, cool, and thaw foods.
Medeiros et al suggest that food safety education and evaluation in the future be organized around five behavioral constructs: practice personal hygiene, cook foods adequately, avoid cross-contamination, keep foods at safe temperatures, and avoid food from unsafe sources. If evaluation instruments focus on these five behavior areas, the result will be meaningful evaluation data that can be more easily summarized across food safety education programs for consumers.
Liou and Contento determine the usefulness of variables from psychosocial models of health behavior in explaining fat-related dietary behavior among a sample of Chinese Americans. The results imply that nutrition educators should assess the degree of acculturation of groups with whom they work and recognize that the degree of acculturation impacts the relative importance of various psychosocial variables in fat reduction behaviors.
Ethnicity is one of the many factors that play a role in food choices. This project examined how ethnicity was enacted in food choices among 86 adults in one U.S. city, purposively recruited to vary in ethnic identity (Black, Latino, White).