Reducing energy use in buildings is a critical component of meeting carbon reduction commitments. There are several ways of accomplishing this goal, each of which emphasizes actions by a different set of stakeholders. This article argues that building users play a critical but poorly understood and often overlooked role in the built environment. In the face of climate change, the article finds purely architectural solutions, such as those proposed by the Architecture 2030 Challenge, to be necessary but not sufficient to achieve climate change mitigation targets. To fully address the task ahead, it argues that architects need to develop their professional expertise to improve buildings and seek ways of integrating user involvement in building performance. Moreover, from a professional standpoint, this paper suggests it may be wise for architects to claim a leadership role in this area before another group of building professionals does.
In recent years, the notion of intelligent buildings (IBs) has become increasingly popular due to their potentials for deploying design initiatives and emerging technologies towards maximized occupants' comfort and well-being with sustainable design. However, various definitions, interpretations, and implications regarding the essence of IBs exist. Various key performance indicators of IBs have been proposed in different contexts. This study explores the notion of IBs and presents an analysis of their main constituents. Through a comparison of these constituents in different contexts, this study aims to extract the common features of IBs leading to an evolved definition which could be useful as a reference framework for design, evaluation, and development of future IBs. Findings also scrutinize the long run benefits of IBs, while demonstrating the constraints and challenges of the current international interpretations.
This study presents a summary of green building research through a bibliometric approach. A total of 2980 articles published in 2000-2016 were reviewed and analyzed. The results indicated that green building research had been concentrated on the subject categories of engineering, environmental sciences & ecology, and construction & building technology, and the keywords 'building envelope' and 'living wall' obtained citation bursts in the recent years. Additionally, based on the cluster analysis and content analysis, the hot research topics were identified: green and cool roof, vertical greening systems, water efficiency, occupants' comfort and satisfaction, financial benefits of green building, life cycle assessment and rating systems, green retrofit, green building project delivery, and information and communication technologies in green building. Knowledge gaps were detected in the areas of corporate social responsibility, the validation of real performance of green building, the ICT application in green building, as well as the safety and health risks in the construction process of green projects. Future research directions are recommended to fill these gaps and extend the body of green building research.
Tall building developments have been rapidly increasing worldwide. This paper reviews the evolution of tall building's structural systems and the technological driving force behind tall building developments. For the primary structural systems, a new classification-interior structures and exterior structures-is presented. While most representative structural systems for tall buildings are discussed, the emphasis in this review paper is on current trends such as outrigger systems and diagrid structures. Auxiliary damping systems controlling building motion are also discussed. Further, contemporary "out-of-the-box" architectural design trends, such as aerodynamic and twisted forms, which directly or indirectly affect the structural performance of tall buildings, are reviewed. Finally, the future of structural developments in tall buildings is envisioned briefly.
Building information modelling (BIM) implementation involves various risks, which prevent users from assuring the potential benefits. The objectives of this study are to identify the risks associated with BIM implementation in architectural, engineering and construction projects and model the paths of these risks. To achieve these objectives, 16 risks categorized into 9 groups were identified from a literature review, and a questionnaire survey was conducted with 38 professionals in Australia. The hypothetical risk paths were tested using partial least square-structural equation modelling. Eight risk paths were statistically significant, which further formed nine chains of risk paths. 'Inadequate relevant knowledge and expertise' was the primary root risk category, and 'technological issues', 'poor information sharing and collaboration' and 'data ownership issues' were the secondary root risk category. Additionally, the expense associated with BIM implementation can be offset by the cost savings brought by BIM.
Nearly a quarter of a million of Australia's ageing population live in residential aged care facilities. Given the growing ageing population in Australia, it is important to understand the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of these settings in consideration of not only measurable IEQ data but also senior occupants' perceived comfort for their health and wellbeing. In this research, a residential aged care facility was selected in Victoria, Australia, as a case study to examine these relationships across different seasons. IEQ monitoring devices were deployed for continuous and instantaneous data collection on site. Questionnaires and personal interviews were also conducted across three user groups (residents, staff and visitors) to establish an understanding of the users' perceptions. This study found the existence of a gap between measurable and perceptual IEQ according to the building configuration and occupancy as well as the user lifestyle and activity.
The elderly suffer from discomfort in social life owing to the decline of their physical, psychological, and social functions. The elderly who spend a lot of time indoors require an intelligent system to extend their time to live independently in a residential environment. Recently, the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) concept was introduced to commercialize various technologies and apply them to urban and architectural environments. However, AAL's connection to architectural elements is insufficient. This study intends to build a residential environment platform that integrates Internet of Things (IoT) technology and architectural elements to support the independence of the elderly based on the AAL concept. The proposed platform is designed to be applied to various scenarios and services. A responsive façade system was designed to verify the platform, and the usefulness of the system was evaluated through the interaction of the designed façade and an acting manager.
Although construction and demolition (C&D) waste has drawn increasing attention from scholars, there is a lack of study to summarize the latest development of C&D waste research. By using a bibliometric analysis method, this study carries out a holistic review of C&D waste articles published from 1994 to 2017. It shows that the number of C&D waste articles has risen eight-times within the period. This study also demonstrates the social networks among the authors, countries, and organizations. Based on the keywords cluster analysis, the C&D waste research can be divided into five clusters, including (1) environmental concerns of C&D waste; (2) recyclability of C&D waste; (3) performance and behaviour tests of recycled products; (4) C&D waste management; and (5) C&D waste with industrial ecology. Meanwhile, the research status and future directions are discussed as well. The results would be valuable for understanding the streams and trends in C&D waste research.
This empirical study sought to validate the spatial-choice modelling approach to user simulation. This validation is challenging, because spatial-choice behaviour is difficult to observe in real-life settings. To overcome this challenge, the study assembled 1137 activity cases from time-use diaries kept by university students and then extracted 74 space-rejection cases (i.e. events when students were unable to take up a particular space-option and so moved to another one). We assessed the attributes of the space-options in the rejection cases by means of a site investigation, predicted space-use probabilities using spatial-choice models, and assessed forecasting accuracy by a Brier score. The spatial-choice models scored 0.35, demonstrating higher forecasting accuracy than two alternative methods, namely space-use analysis (0.50) and the closest distance method (0.84). This study contributes to user simulation by validating the accuracy of the spatial-choice models based on revealed spatial-choice data in real-life settings and comparing it with other methods.
The goal of this research is to attempt establishing occupant behaviour profiles and how that behaviour impacts energy consumption with regard to indoor comfort levels in the current social housing stock in Turkey. The data consists of a large statistical survey that included four housing complexes situated in different climate regions in Turkey. Another more detailed survey was given to occupants of housing blocks in Ankara. Apartments were also monitored during a one-week period in summer and again in winter. All collected data were evaluated by sensitivity analysis. The results showed that occupant presence at home and operating windows had the most profound effect on internal loads and comfort levels whole year. Additionally, the transparency level of curtains, impacts the indoor temperature during the winter time. The results were used to develop a web-based tool which is going to be a guide for renovation strategies of current housing stock.
This paper presents a learning model for the automated generation of built environments, demonstrated by the creation of minimal apartments situated in dense urban settings. The research utilizes the techniques of parametric modelling, multi-criteria optimization and supervised machine learning to provide 3D configurations of minimal apartments with improved visibility from significant viewpoints, and with a functional layout defined by 'the wisdom of the crowd'. The model seeks to maximize the measured 3D visibility in generated units - an attribute associated with low perceived density, recognized as having a positive effect on the well-being of dwellers. Simultaneously, the model engages a learning process, through which the classification of the suitability of each apartment is refined through 'the wisdom of the crowd', collected through an open web-simulation. This automated design model, regarding both perceptual and physical needs, demonstrates its potential for future use in the development of larger-scale densified urban environments.
This article presents a pilot study of effects of glazing on participants' satisfaction and performance in a full-scale office in Beijing, China. Five glazing systems were tested during a heating season (17 November 2016 to 11 January 2017). Research methods include lighting measurements, subjective assessments, and reaction time test (GO/NOGO). Key findings are given as follows: Daylight illuminances associated with glazing types and times of day play a major role of influencing participants' visual performances, alertness, physical wellbeing, and relaxation. The glazing type and CCT of daylight did not significantly affect visual responses if a proper daylight illuminance can be achieved. Circadian Stimulus (CS) under daylighting varies in times of day and glazing types, which would affect participants' alertness and relaxation. Under varying daylight illuminances, some glazing types that can deliver a higher CCT of light would improve participants' physical comfort and give rise to a longer reaction time.
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an emerging technology. Its application in the refurbishment of building project can significantly improve the construction workflows throughout the project lifecycle. Despite the promising benefits of BIM adoption for the entire Architecture, Engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, this process seems to be ambitious due to the highly fragmented nature of construction practices, resulting in a difficult integration of diverse information throughout the project lifecycle. In the backdrop of recent updated research, Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and thorough examination of Social Network Analysis (SNA), this research study has identified four distinct components comprising refurbishment attributes, environmental influence factors, stakeholders' interaction and structure optimization to realize BIM on refurbishment projects. Furthermore, it posits a conceptual research framework for detailed investigation of effective BIM adoption on refurbishment project and strongly advocates that the embedded knowledge postulated needs to be actively pursued to improve the maximization of the uncovered BIM research for refurbishment projects through an extended review investigation. The framework is presented as a first step to understand the BIM adoption requirements and the real benefits of BIM for all refurbishment stakeholders planning to adopt BIM.
This paper reviews the historical research that has led to widespread policies on compact urban form, in particular, residential development, and collates evidence that demonstrates that dispersed urban form may be more energy efficient than compact form. This is counterintuitive but is supported by both challenging the conventional modelling of energy use of buildings as well as case studies with empirical evidence. The conclusion is that policies on urban form should be driven not by existing technologies but by the disruptive technologies of the future. The increased use in distributed energy generation in urban areas (generally roof-mounted photovoltaics), the growth in ownership of electric vehicles and the potential introduction of smart and micro-grids and the possibility of virtual power plants is changing the impact that energy has on built form and conflicts with current policies for denser, contained and compact development.
This paper proposes a morphological generation method based on the integration of wind forces which leads to organic geometries fostering new spatial experiences and environmental adaptation. It suggests that analogical simulations can generate creative design solutions responding to complex environmental fluxes and can accelerate the design process for architects through tactile explorations of form, matter and spatiality. The aerodynamic design solutions, although contextual, are not deterministic, in the sense that they are reinterpreted to meet the functional needs and constraints of an architectural project. The paper concludes on a sample application that enables practical understanding of the possible uses of the method for architectural and urban design applications.
This work aims to improve the process of calibration of ENVI-met model based on air temperature in both built-up and vegetated areas, considering various parameters and models of trees. Field measurements were carried out in the city of Sao Paulo to monitor representative hot weather conditions inside an urban park and in a non-vegetated area nearby. The leaf density was calculated using a non-destructive indirect method with hemispherical photographs analysed in Can-Eye 6.1 model. Based on LAI measurements and on the characteristics of tropical species, four typologies of trees were created with different leaf distribution inside the crown. After a calibration process in which modelling parameters were tested and several simulations were run, a high agreement between simulation results and on-site measurements with an RMSE of 0.7 K could be achieved.