Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the developed world. NAFLD is tightly linked to insulin resistance and considered to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of any treatment regimen for patients with NAFLD is lifestyle modification focused on weight loss, exercise, and improving insulin sensitivity. Here we review the literature and discuss the role of diet and nutrient composition in the management of NAFLD. Because there are currently no specific dietary guidelines for NAFLD, this review proposes a dietary framework for patients with NAFLD based on the available evidence and extrapolates from dietary guidelines aimed at reducing insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk.
Abstract Adequate iron availability is essential to human development and overall health. Iron is a key component of oxygen-carrying proteins, has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism, and is essential to cell growth and differentiation. Inadequate dietary iron intake, chronic and acute inflammatory conditions, and obesity are each associated with alterations in iron homeostasis. Tight regulation of iron is necessary because iron is highly toxic and human beings can only excrete small amounts through sweat, skin and enterocyte sloughing, and fecal and menstrual blood loss. Hepcidin, a small peptide hormone produced mainly by the liver, acts as the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin controls movement of iron into plasma by regulating the activity of the sole known iron exporter ferroportin-1. Downregulation of the ferroportin-1 exporter results in sequestration of iron within intestinal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and iron-storing macrophages reducing iron bioavailability. Hepcidin expression is increased by higher body iron levels and inflammation and decreased by anemia and hypoxia. Importantly, existing data illustrate that hepcidin may play a significant role in the development of several iron-related disorders, including the anemia of chronic disease and the iron dysregulation observed in obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss iron regulation, with specific emphasis on systemic regulation by hepcidin, and examine the role of hepcidin within several disease states, including iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, and obesity. The relationship between obesity and iron depletion and the clinical assessment of iron status will also be reviewed.
Abstract Background Malnutrition is common in older adults and early and appropriate nutrition intervention can lead to positive quality of life and health outcomes. Objective The purpose of our study was to determine the concurrent validity of several malnutrition screening tools and anthropometric parameters against validated nutrition assessment tools in the long-term-care setting. Study design This work was a cross-sectional, observational study. Participants/setting Older adults (aged >55 years) from two long-term-care facilities were screened. Main outcomes Nutrition screening tools used included the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), and the Simplified Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), body mass index (BMI), corrected arm muscle area, and calf circumference. Residents were rated as either well nourished or malnourished according to each nutrition assessment tool. Statistical analysis A contingency table was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the nutrition screening tools and objective measures in detecting patients at risk of malnutrition compared with the SGA and MNA. Results One hundred twenty-seven residents (31.5% men; mean age 82.7±9 years, 57.5% high care) consented. According to SGA, 27.6% (n=31) of residents were malnourished and 13.4% were rated as malnourished by MNA. MST had the best sensitivity and specificity compared with the SGA (sensitivity 88.6%, specificity 93.5%, κ=0.806), followed by MNA-SF (85.7%, 62%, κ=0.377), MUST (68.6%, 96.7%, κ=0.703), and Simplified Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (45.7%, 77.2%, κ=0.225). Compared with MNA, MNA-SF had the highest sensitivity of 100%, but specificity was 56.4% (κ=0.257). MST compared with MNA had a sensitivity of 94.1%, specificity 80.9% (κ=0.501). The anthropometric screens ranged from κ=0.193 to 0.468 when compared with SGA and MNA. Conclusions MST, MUST, MNA-SF, and the anthropometric screens corrected arm muscle area and calf circumference have acceptable concurrent validity compared with validated nutrition assessment tools and can be used to triage nutrition care in the long-term-care setting.
Abstract Individuals who frequently read nutrition labels tend to both value healthy eating and engage in healthy dietary practices more than individuals who read labels infrequently. However, the relationship between label use, attitude toward healthy eating, and dietary quality remains unclear, particularly among young adults, about whom little is known with regard to nutrition label use. Our study investigated whether nutrition label use mediates the relationship between eating-related attitudes and dietary behaviors among young adult college students. Using cross-sectional online survey data collected in 2010 from a convenience sample in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN (598 attending a 2-year community college; 603 attending a public 4-year university; mean age 21.5 years; 53.4% nonwhite; 52.5% women), study findings indicate that students who reported frequently reading nutrition labels were more likely to have healthier dietary intakes (eg, less fast food and added sugar; more fiber, fruits, and vegetables) compared to those who read labels sometimes or rarely ( P <0.001). Further, frequent nutrition label use was a significant partial mediator of the relationship between eating-related attitude (ie, feeling that it is important to prepare healthy meals) and dietary quality, indicating that label use may be one means by which individuals who value healthy eating translate their attitude into healthy eating behaviors. Even among those who did not believe it was important to prepare healthy meals, frequent nutrition label use was significantly associated with healthier dietary intake, suggesting that label use may operate independently of nutrition-related attitude in contributing to healthful diet.
Abstract Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is a method for evaluating nutritional status based on a practitioner's clinical judgment rather than objective, quantitative measurements. Encompassing historical, symptomatic, and physical parameters, SGA aims to identify an individual's initial nutrition state and consider the interplay of factors influencing the progression or regression of nutrition abnormalities. SGA has been widely used for more than 25 years to assess the nutritional status of adults in both clinical and research settings. Perceiving multiple benefits of its use in children, we recently adapted and validated the SGA tool for use in a pediatric population, demonstrating its ability to identify the nutritional status of children undergoing surgery and their risk of developing nutrition-associated complications postoperatively. Objective measures of nutritional status, on the other hand, showed no association with outcomes. The purpose of this article is to describe in detail the methods used in conducting nutrition-focused physical examinations and the medical history components of a pediatric Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment tool. Guidelines are given for performing and interpreting physical examinations that look for evidence of loss of subcutaneous fat, muscle wasting, and/or edema in children of different ages. Age-related questionnaires are offered to guide history taking and the rating of growth, weight changes, dietary intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, functional capacity, and any metabolic stress. Finally, the associated rating form is provided, along with direction for how to consider all components of a physical exam and history in the context of each other, to assign an overall rating of normal/well nourished, moderate malnutrition, or severe malnutrition. With this information, interested health professionals will be able to perform Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment to determine a global rating of nutritional status for infants, children, and adolescents, and use this rating to guide decision making about what nutrition-related attention is necessary. Dietetics practitioners and other clinicians are encouraged to incorporate physical examination for signs of protein-energy depletion when assessing the nutritional status of children.
Abstract Background As morbid obesity increasingly affects Hispanic Americans, the incidence of bariatric procedures among this population is rising. Despite this, prospective research on the effects of comprehensive postoperative education-centered interventions on weight loss and physical activity focused on Hispanic Americans is lacking. Objective To examine whether a comprehensive nutrition education and behavior modification intervention improves weight loss and physical activity in Hispanic Americans with obesity following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). Methods A prospective randomized-controlled trial was conducted between November 2008 and April 2010. At 6 months following RYGB, 144 Hispanic Americans with obesity were randomly assigned to a comprehensive nutrition and lifestyle educational intervention (n=72) or a noncomprehensive approach (comparison group n=72). Those in the comprehensive group received education sessions every other week for 6 weeks in small groups and frequent contact with a registered dietitian. Those in the comparison group received brief, printed healthy lifestyle guidelines. Patients were reassessed at 12 months following surgery. Main outcome measures were excess weight loss and physical activity changes over time. Statistical analyses used t test, χ2 test, Wilcoxon signed rank, Mann-Whitney U test, and intent-to-treat analysis, significance P <0.05. Results Participants (mean age 44.5±13.5 years) were mainly Cuban-born women (83.3%). Mean preoperative excess weight and body mass index (calculated as kg/m2 ) were 72.20±27.81 kg and 49.26±9.06, respectively. At 12 months following surgery, both groups lost weight significantly, but comprehensive group participants experienced greater excess weight loss (80% vs 64% from preoperative excess weight; P <0.001) and greater body mass index reduction (6.48±4.37 vs 3.63±3.41; P <0.001) than comparison group participants. Comprehensive group participants were significantly more involved in physical activity (+14 min/wk vs −4 min/wk; P <0.001) than comparison group participants. Mean protein intake was significantly lower in the comparison group than that in the comprehensive group ( P <0.024). Conclusions Findings support the importance of comprehensive nutrition education for achieving more effective weight reduction in Hispanic Americans following RYGB.
Abstract Few if any studies have examined weight loss among term newborns by weighing infants daily for the first week of life. Perhaps because so few data exist, there is no standard in the United States for normal newborn weight loss. Our objective was to investigate normal newborn weight loss among infants born in a US Baby-Friendly hospital, by weighing infants daily for the first week of life. Using a prospective cohort design, infants born at an urban Boston, MA, hospital were enrolled within 72 hours of delivery and weighed daily for the first week of life. In hospital, infant weight was obtained from the medical record; post discharge, a research assistant visited the home daily and weighed the baby. All feeds in week 1 of life were recorded. Birth-related factors potentially affecting weight loss were abstracted from the medical record. Complete data were collected on 121 infants. Mean weight loss was 4.9% (range=0.0% to 9.9%); 19.8% (24 of 121) of infants lost >7% of their birth weight; no infant lost >10%. Maximum percent weight loss was significantly associated with feeding type: exclusively and mainly breastfed infants lost 5.5%, mainly formula-fed infants lost 2.7% and exclusively formula-fed infants lost 1.2% ( P <0.001). Type of delivery and fluids received during labor were not associated with weight loss. Clinical practices at a Baby-Friendly hospital, which support and optimize breastfeeding, appear to be associated with only moderate weight loss in exclusively and mainly breastfed infants.
Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is common in older women and can negatively impact bone status. A simple method by which clinicians and researchers can evaluate a patient's vitamin D dietary intake could help identify individuals at risk for vitamin D deficiency. This study was done to validate a short dietary vitamin D questionnaire. Postmenopausal women (n=122), with a mean age of 63.9±7.8 years, completed a Brief Vitamin D Questionnaire (BVDQ), the Block Health History and Habits Questionnaire 1998 (BHHHQ98), a 3-day food record, and an evaluation of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients, Wilcoxon signed ranks tests, and Bland-Altman analyses to compare the performance of the BVDQ to the BHHHQ98 and to the diet record. As assessed by the BVDQ, vitamin D intake averaged 178.7±112.3 IU per day, correlating well with the Block HHHQ98 ( r =0.51, P <0.001) and the 3-day food record ( r =0.43, P <0.001). Compared with the food record, both the BVDQ and the BHHHQ98 overestimated dietary vitamin D intake by less than 100 IU/day. The two questionnaires performed nearly identically at all levels of vitamin D intake. Serum 25(OH)D was not related to vitamin D intake as measured by either the BVDQ or the BHHHQ98, but did correlate weakly with vitamin D intake from the 3-day diet record ( r =0.20, P =0.04). The Brief Vitamin D Questionnaire correlated well with the longer and more intense dietary assessment methods, making it a simple and accurate instrument for assessing vitamin D intake.
Abstract It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation’s children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services.
Abstract Self-monitoring is the centerpiece of behavioral weight loss intervention programs. This article presents a systematic review of the literature on three components of self-monitoring in behavioral weight loss studies: diet, exercise, and self-weighing. This review included articles that were published between 1993 and 2009 that reported on the relationship between weight loss and these self-monitoring strategies. Of the 22 studies identified, 15 focused on dietary self-monitoring, one on self-monitoring exercise, and six on self-weighing. A wide array of methods was used to perform self-monitoring; the paper diary was used most often. Adherence to self-monitoring was reported most frequently as the number of diaries completed or the frequency of log-ins or reported weights. The use of technology, which included the Internet, personal digital assistants, and electronic digital scales were reported in five studies. Descriptive designs were used in the earlier studies whereas more recent reports involved prospective studies and randomized trials that examined the effect of self-monitoring on weight loss. A significant association between self-monitoring and weight loss was consistently found; however, the level of evidence was weak because of methodologic limitations. The most significant limitations of the reviewed studies were the homogenous samples and reliance on self-report. In all but two studies, the samples were predominantly white and women. This review highlights the need for studies in more diverse populations, for objective measures of adherence to self-monitoring, and for studies that establish the required dose of self-monitoring for successful outcomes.
Abstract Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This report significantly expands the available dAGE database, validates the dAGE testing methodology, compares cooking procedures and inhibitory agents on new dAGE formation, and introduces practical approaches for reducing dAGE consumption in daily life. Based on the findings, dry heat promotes new dAGE formation by >10- to 100-fold above the uncooked state across food categories. Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally AGE-rich and prone to new AGE formation during cooking. In contrast, carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk contain relatively few AGEs, even after cooking. The formation of new dAGEs during cooking was prevented by the AGE inhibitory compound aminoguanidine and significantly reduced by cooking with moist heat, using shorter cooking times, cooking at lower temperatures, and by use of acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or vinegar. The new dAGE database provides a valuable instrument for estimating dAGE intake and for guiding food choices to reduce dAGE intake.
Abstract Objective The objective of this research was to identify top dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among 2- to 18-year-olds in the United States. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study, were used to examine food sources (percentage contribution and mean intake with standard errors) of total energy (data from 2005-2006) and energy from solid fats and added sugars (data from 2003-2004). Differences were investigated by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family income, and the consumption of empty calories—defined as the sum of energy from solid fats and added sugars—was compared with the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance. Results The top sources of energy for 2- to 18-year-olds were grain desserts (138 kcal/day), pizza (136 kcal/day), and soda (118 kcal/day). Sugar-sweetened beverages (soda and fruit drinks combined) provided 173 kcal/day. Major contributors varied by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income. Nearly 40% of total energy consumed (798 of 2,027 kcal/day) by 2- to 18-year-olds were in the form of empty calories (433 kcal from solid fat and 365 kcal from added sugars). Consumption of empty calories far exceeded the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance for all sex–age groups (which range from 8% to 20%). Half of empty calories came from six foods: soda, fruit drinks, dairy desserts, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. Conclusions There is an overlap between the major sources of energy and empty calories: soda, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. The landscape of choices available to children and adolescents must change to provide fewer unhealthy foods and more healthy foods with less energy. Identifying top sources of energy and empty calories can provide targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment. However, product reformulation alone is not sufficient—the flow of empty calories into the food supply must be reduced.
Abstract Background Disordered eating behaviors are prevalent in adolescence and can have harmful consequences. An important question is whether use of these behaviors in adolescence sets the pattern for continued use into young adulthood. Objective To examine the prevalence and tracking of dieting, unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors, and binge eating from adolescence to young adulthood. Design Population-based, 10-year longitudinal study (Project EAT-III: Eating Among Teens and Young Adults, 1999-2010). Participants/setting The study population included 2,287 young adults (55% girls, 52% nonwhite). The sample included a younger group (mean age 12.8±0.7 years at baseline and 23.2±1.0 years at follow-up) and an older group (mean age 15.9±0.8 at baseline and 26.2±0.9 years at follow-up). Statistical analyses performed Longitudinal trends in prevalence of behaviors were tested using generalized estimating equations. Tracking of behaviors were estimated using the relative risk of behaviors at follow-up given presence at baseline. Results In general, the prevalence of dieting and disordered eating was high and remained constant, or increased, from adolescence to young adulthood. Furthermore, behaviors tended to track within individuals and, in general, participants who engaged in dieting and disordered eating behaviors during adolescence were at increased risk for these behaviors 10 years later. Tracking was particularly consistent for the older girls and boys transitioning from middle adolescence to middle young adulthood. Conclusions Study findings indicate that disordered eating behaviors are not just an adolescent problem, but continue to be prevalent among young adults. The tracking of dieting and disordered eating within individuals suggests that early use is likely to set the stage for ongoing use. Findings suggest a need for both early prevention efforts before the onset of harmful behavioral patterns as well as ongoing prevention and treatment interventions to address the high prevalence of disordered eating throughout adolescence and young adulthood.
Abstract Measuring dietary intake in children enables the assessment of nutritional adequacy of individuals and groups and can provide information about nutrients, including energy, food, and eating habits. The aim of this review was to determine which dietary assessment method(s) provide a valid and accurate estimate of energy intake by comparison with the gold standard measure, doubly labeled water (DLW). English-language articles published between 1973 and 2009 and available from common nutrition databases were retrieved. Studies were included if the subjects were children birth to age 18 years and used the DLW technique to validate reported energy intake by any other dietary assessment method. The review identified 15 cross-sectional studies, with a variety of comparative dietary assessment methods. These included a total of 664 children, with the majority having <30 participants. The majority of dietary assessment method validation studies indicated a degree of misreporting, with only eight studies identifying this to a significant level ( P <0.05) compared to DLW estimated energy intake. Under-reporting by food records varied from 19% to 41% (n=5 studies) with over-reporting most often associated with 24-hour recalls (7% to 11%, n=4), diet history (9% to 14%, n=3), and food frequency questionnaires (2% to 59%, n=2). This review suggested that the 24-hour multiple pass recall conducted over at least a 3-day period that includes weekdays and weekend days and uses parents as proxy reporters is the most accurate method to estimate total energy intake in children aged 4 to 11 years, compared to total energy expenditure measured by DLW. Weighed food records provided the best estimate for younger children aged 0.5 to 4 years, whereas the diet history provided better estimates for adolescents aged ≥16 years. Further research is needed in this area to substantiate findings and improve estimates of total energy expenditure in children and adolescents.
Abstract It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence-based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients, food purchase and preparation, and dietary modifications to meet their needs.
Abstract Attention to the role of n-3 long-chain fatty acids in human health and disease has been continuously increased during recent decades. Many clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown positive roles for n-3 fatty acids in infant development; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; and more recently, in various mental illnesses, including depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dementia. These fatty acids are known to have pleiotropic effects, including effects against inflammation, platelet aggregation, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. These beneficial effects may be mediated through several distinct mechanisms, including alterations in cell membrane composition and function, gene expression, or eicosanoid production. A number of authorities have recently recommended increases in intakes of n-3 fatty acids by the general population. To comply with this recommendation a variety of food products, most notably eggs, yogurt, milk, and spreads have been enriched with these fatty acids. Ongoing research will further determine the tissue distribution, biological effects, cost-effectiveness, and consumer acceptability of such enriched products. Furthermore, additional controlled clinical trials are needed to document whether long-term consumption or supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid or the plant-derived counterpart (α-linolenic acid) results in better quality of life.
Abstract Objective To assist health professionals who counsel patients with overweight and obesity, a systematic review was undertaken to determine types of weight-loss interventions that contribute to successful outcomes and to define expected weight-loss outcomes from such interventions. Design A search was conducted for weight-loss–focused randomized clinical trials with ≥1-year follow-up. Eighty studies were identified and are included in the evidence table. Outcomes measures The primary outcomes were a measure of weight loss at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months. Eight types of weight-loss interventions—diet alone, diet and exercise, exercise alone, meal replacements, very-low-energy diets, weight-loss medications (orlistat and sibutramine), and advice alone—were identified. By using simple pooling across studies, subjects mean amount of weight loss at each time point for each intervention was determined. Statistical analyses performed Efficacy outcomes were calculated by meta-analysis and provide support for the pooled data. Hedges’ gu was combined across studies to obtain an average effect size (and confidence level). Results A mean weight loss of 5 to 8.5 kg (5% to 9%) was observed during the first 6 months from interventions involving a reduced-energy diet and/or weight-loss medications with weight plateaus at approximately 6 months. In studies extending to 48 months, a mean 3 to 6 kg (3% to 6%) of weight loss was maintained with none of the groups experiencing weight regain to baseline. In contrast, advice-only and exercise-alone groups experienced minimal weight loss at any time point. Conclusions Weight-loss interventions utilizing a reduced-energy diet and exercise are associated with moderate weight loss at 6 months. Although there is some regain of weight, weight loss can be maintained. The addition of weight-loss medications somewhat enhances weight-loss maintenance.
Abstract Given the widespread use of out-of-home child care and an all-time high prevalence of obesity among US preschool-aged children, it is imperative to consider the opportunities that child-care facilities may provide to reduce childhood obesity. This review examines the scientific literature on state regulations, practices and policies, and interventions for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, and for preventing obesity in preschool-aged children attending child care. Research published between January 2000 and July 2010 was identified by searching PubMed and MEDLINE databases, and by examining the bibliographies of relevant studies. Although the review focused on US child-care settings, interventions implemented in international settings were also included. In total, 42 studies were identified for inclusion in this review: four reviews of state regulations, 18 studies of child-care practices and policies that may influence eating or physical activity behaviors, two studies of parental perceptions and practices relevant to obesity prevention, and 18 evaluated interventions. Findings from this review reveal that most states lack strong regulations for child-care settings related to healthy eating and physical activity. Recent assessments of child-care settings suggest opportunities for improving the nutritional quality of food provided to children, the time children are engaged in physical activity, and caregivers' promotion of children's health behaviors and use of health education resources. A limited number of interventions have been designed to address these concerns, and only two interventions have successfully demonstrated an effect on child weight status. Recommendations are provided for future research addressing opportunities to prevent obesity in child-care settings.
Benjamin emphasizes how to prevent osteoporosis. She argues that strong bones require not only calcium and vitamin D, a necessary component of calcium absorption from the gut, but also healthy weight maintenance and daily physical activity, including weight-bearing exercises. Older adults, white women, postmenopausal women, persons with a low body weight, and those with a low calcium intake are most at risk for osteoporosis. Other factors such as cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and certain medications may also reduce bone mass. In comparison with other ethnic and racial groups, risk is disproportionately rising most rapidly among Hispanic women. Moreover, Benjamin suggests that people must work together now to improve health literacy and prevention awareness to ensure that the entire nation understands the principles of bone health: by eating healthfully, getting enough vitamin D and calcium, exercising regularly, and avoiding smoking or drinking heavily.
Abstract Background National data comparing nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures in children/adolescents in the United States who skip breakfast or consume different types of breakfasts are limited. Objective To examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and adiposity status. Subjects Children aged 9 to 13 years (n=4,320) and adolescents aged 14 to 18 years (n=5,339). Design Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Methods Breakfast consumption was self-reported. A 24-hour dietary recall was used to assess nutrient intakes. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for micronutrients and anthropometric indexes were evaluated. Covariate-adjusted sample-weighted means were compared using analysis of variance and Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons among breakfast skippers (breakfast skippers), ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal consumers, and other breakfast (other breakfast) consumers. Results Twenty percent of children and 31.5% of adolescents were breakfast skippers; 35.9% of children and 25.4% of adolescents consumed RTE cereal. In children/adolescents, RTE cereal consumers had lower intakes of total fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and several micronutrients ( P <0.05 for all) than breakfast skippers and other breakfast consumers. RTE cereal consumers had the highest MAR for micronutrients, and MAR was the lowest for breakfast skippers ( P <0.05). In children/adolescents, breakfast skippers had higher body mass index-for-age z scores ( P <0.05) and a higher waist circumference ( P <0.05) than RTE cereal and other breakfast consumers. Prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥95th percentile) was higher in breakfast skippers than RTE cereal consumers ( P <0.05) in children/adolescents and was higher in other breakfast consumers than RTE cereal consumers only in adolescents ( P <0.05). Conclusions RTE cereal consumers had more favorable nutrient intake profiles and adiposity indexes than breakfast skippers or other breakfast consumers in US children/adolescents.