Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a general mathematical model for laminated curved structure of different geometries using higher-order shear deformation theory to evaluate in-plane and out of plane shear stress and strains correctly. Subsequently, the model has to be validated by comparing the responses with developed simulation model (ANSYS) as well as available published literature. It is also proposed to analyse thermal buckling load parameter of laminated structures using Green–Lagrange type non-linear strains for excess thermal distortion under uniform temperature loading. Design/methodology/approach – Laminated structures known for their flexibility as compared to conventional material and the deformation behaviour are greatly affected due to combined thermal/aerodynamic environment. The vibration/buckling behaviour of shell structures are very different than that of the plate structures due to their curvature effect. To model the exact behaviour of laminated structures mathematically, a general mathematical model is developed for laminated shell geometries. The responses are evaluated numerically using a finite element model-based computer code developed in MATLAB environment. Subsequently, a simulation model has been developed in ANSYS using ANSYS parametric design language code to evaluate the responses. Findings – Vibration and thermal buckling responses of laminated composite curved panels have been obtained based on proposed model through a customised computer code in MATLAB environment and ANSYS simulation model using ANSYS parametric design language code. The convergence behaviour are tested and compared with those available in published literature and ANSYS results. Finally, the investigation has been extended to examine the effect of different parameters (thickness ratios, curvature ratios, modular ratios, number of layers and support conditions) on the free vibration and thermal buckling responses of laminated curved structures. Practical implications – The present paper intends to give sufficient amount of numerical experimentation, which may lead to help in designing of finished product made up of laminated composites. Most of the aerospace, space research and defence organisation intend to develop low cost and high durable products for real hazard conditions by taking combined loading and environmental conditions. Further, case studies might lead to a lighter design of the laminated composite panels used in high-performance systems, where the weight reduction is the major parameter, such as aerospace, space craft and missile structures. Originality/value – In this analysis, the geometrical distortion due to temperature is being introduced through Green–Lagrange sense in the framework of higher-order shear deformation theory for different types of laminated shells (cylindrical/spherical/hyperboloid/elliptical). A simulation-based model is developed using ANSYS parametric design language in ANSYS environment for different geometries and loading condition and compared with the numerical model.
Purpose This paper aims to deal with the experimental estimation of both longitudinal- and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a new twin-engine, 11-seat commuter aircraft. Design/methodology/approach Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a 1:8.75 scaled model. A modular model (fuselage, wing, nacelle, winglet and tail planes) has been built to analyze both complete aircraft aerodynamic characteristics and mutual effects among components. The model has been also equipped with trailing edge flaps, elevator and rudder control surfaces. Findings Longitudinal tests have shown the goodness of the aircraft design in terms of aircraft stability, control and trim capabilities at typical clean, take-off and landing conditions. The effects of fuselage, nacelles and winglets on lift, pitching moment and drag coefficients have been investigated. Lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the complete aircraft and several aircraft component combinations have been tested to estimate the aircraft components’ interactions. Research limitations/implications The experimental tests have been performed at a Reynolds number of about 0.6e6, whereas the free-flight Reynolds number range should be between 4.5e6 and 9.5e6. Thus, all the measured data suffer from the Reynolds number scaling effect. Practical implications The study provides useful aerodynamic database for P2012 Traveller commuter aircraft. Originality/value The paper deals with the experimental investigation of a new general aviation 11-seat commuter aircraft being brought to market by Tecnam Aircraft Industries and it brings some material on applied industrial design in the open literature.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a conceptual design of Martian aircraft. This study focuses on the aerodynamic and longitudinal dynamic stability analysis. The main research questions are as follows: Does a tailless aircraft configuration can be used for Martian aircraft? How to the short period characteristic can be improved by side plates modification? Design/methodology/approach Because of a conceptual design stage of this Martian aircraft, aerodynamic characterises were computed by the Panukl package by using the potential flow model. The longitudinal dynamic stability was computed by MATLAB code, and the derivatives computed by the SDSA software were used as the input data. Different aircraft configurations have been studied, including different wing’s aerofoils and configurations of the side plate. Findings This paper presents results of aerodynamic characteristics computations and longitudinal dynamic stability analysis. This paper shows that tailless aircraft configuration has potential to be used as Martian aircraft. Moreover, the study of the impact of side plates’ configurations on the longitudinal dynamic stability is presented. This investigation reveals that the most effective method to improve the short period damping ratio is to change the height of the bottom plate. Practical implications The presented result might be useful in case of further design of the aircrafts for the Mars mission and designing the aircrafts in a tailless configuration. Social implications It is considered by the human expedition that Mars is the most probable planet to explore. This paper presents the conceptual study of aircraft which can be used to take the high-resolution pictures of the surface of Mars, which can be crucial to find the right place to establish a potential Martian base. Originality/value Most of aircrafts proposed for the Mars mission are designed in a configuration with a classic tail; this paper shows a preliminary calculation of the tailless Martian aircraft. Moreover, this paper shows the results of a dynamic stability analysis, where similar papers about aircrafts for the Mars mission do not show such outcomes, especially in the case of the tailless configuration. Moreover, this paper presents the results of the dynamic stability analysis of tailless aircraft with different configurations of the side plates.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to elaborate and develop an automatic system for automatic flight control system (AFCS) performance evaluation. Consequently, the developed AFCS algorithm is implemented and tested in a virtual environment on one of the mission task elements (MTEs) described in Aeronautical Design Standard 33 (ADS-33) performance specification. Design/methodology/approach Control algorithm is based on the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) which is adopted to work as a controller in this case. Developed controller allows for automatic flight of the helicopter via desired three-dimensional trajectory by calculating iteratively deviations between desired and actual helicopter position and multiplying it by gains obtained from the LQR methodology. For the AFCS algorithm validation, the objective data analysis is done based on specified task accomplishment requirements, reference trajectory and actual flight parameters. Findings In the paper, a description of an automatic flight control algorithm for small helicopter and its evaluation methodology is presented. Necessary information about helicopter dynamic model is included. The test and algorithm analysis are performed on a slalom maneuver, on which the handling qualities are calculated. Practical implications Developed automatic flight control algorithm can be adapted and used in autopilot for a small helicopter. Methodology of evaluation of an AFCS performance can be used in different applications and cases. Originality/value In the paper, an automatic flight control algorithm for small helicopter and solution for the validation of developed AFCS algorithms are presented.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology for the determination of the stiffness when using simplified substitutive model of the joint. The usage of detailed finite element (FE) model of the joint in complex assemblies is not convenient; therefore, the substitutive model of the joint is used in FE models. Design/methodology/approach The detailed and simplified FE model of the joint is created in ABAQUS software and the analysis as well. The results of displacements are used for the determination of the stiffness of connecting element in simplified substitutive FE model. The approach is presented based on the general view on the different regions in the joint. Findings A simple FE modelling approach for the joint including the equivalent stiffness is presented. The particular solution is performed for Magna-Lok type of the rivet. The results show the same displacement for the detailed and simplified FE models. The analytical formula for stiffness determination in the load case with minimal secondary bending is introduced. Practical implications The approach for stiffness determination is straightforward and so no stiffness “tuning” is necessary in the simplified FE model. Originality/value The new approach for definition of simple FE model of the joint is introduced. It is not necessary to model a complex structure with detailed joints. The equivalent stiffness can be determined by presented procedure for every joint without limitation of the type.
Purpose This paper aims to present a fast and effective approach to tackle complex fluid structure interaction problems that are relevant for the aeronautical design. Design/methodology/approach High fidelity computer-aided engineering models (computational fluid dynamics [CFD] and computational structural mechanics) are coupled by embedding modal shapes into the CFD solver using RBF mesh morphing. Findings The theoretical framework is first explained and its use is then demonstrated with a review of applications including both steady and unsteady cases. Different flow and structural solvers are considered to showcase the portability of the concept. Practical implications The method is flexible and can be used for the simulation of complex scenarios, including components vibrations induced by external devices, as in the case of flapping wings. Originality/value The computation mesh of the CFD model becomes parametric with respect to the modal shape and, so, capable to self-adapt to the loads exerted by the surrounding fluid both for steady and transient numerical studies.
Purpose This paper aims to present stability analysis of a small pulsejet-powered airplane. This analysis is a part of a student project dedicated to designing an airplane to test valved pulsejet engine in flight conditions. Design/methodology/approach The panel method was chosen to compute the airplane’s aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives for various geometry configurations, as it provides accurate results in a short computational time. Also, the program (PANUKL) that was used allows frequent and easy changes of the geometry. The evaluation of dynamic stability was done using another program (SDSA) equipped with means to formulate and solve eigenvalue problem for various flight speeds. Findings As a result of calculations, some geometry corrections were established, such as an increase of the vertical stabilizer’s size and a new wing position. Resulting geometry provides satisfactory dynamic and static stability characteristics for all flight speeds. This conclusion was based on criteria given by MIL-F-8785C specifications. This paper presents the results of the first and the final configuration. Practical implications The results shown in this paper are necessary for the continuation of the project. The aircraft’s structure was being designed in the same time as the calculations described in this paper proceeded. With a few modifications to make up for the changes of external geometry, the structure will be ready to be built. Originality/value The idea to design an airplane specifically to test a pulsejet in flight is a unique one. Most RC pulsejet-powered constructions that can be heard of are modified versions of already existing models. What adds more to the value of the project is that it is being developed only by students. This allows them to learn various aspects of aircraft design and construction on a soon-to-be real object.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of manufacturing fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printed structures such as wings or fuselages for small remote control (RC) air craft and mini unmaned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Design/methodology/approach Material tests, design assumptions and calculations were verified by designing and manufacturing a small radio-controlled motor-glider using as many printed parts as possible and performing test flights. Findings It is possible to create an aircraft with good flight characteristics using FDM 3D printed parts. Current level of technology allows for reasonably fast manufacturing of 3D printed aircraft with good reliability and high success ratio of prints; however, only some of the materials are suitable for printing thin wall structures such as wings. Practical implications The paper proves that apart from currently popular small RC aircraft structural materials such as composites, wood and foam, there is also printed plastic. Moreover, 3D printing is highly competitive in some aspects such as first unit production time or production cost. Originality/value The presented manufacturing technique can be useful for quick and cost-effective creating scale prototypes of the aircraft for performing test flights.
Purpose This paper aims to describe the enhancement of the numerical method for conceptual phase of electric aircraft design. Design/methodology/approach The algorithm provides a balance between lift force and weight of the aircraft, together with drag and thrust force equilibrium, while modifying design variables. Wing geometry adjustment, mass correction and performance estimation are performed in an iterative process. Findings Aircraft numerical model, which is most often very simplified, has a number of new improvements. This enables to make more accurate analyses and to show relationships between design parameters and aircraft performance. Practical implications The presented approach can improve design results. Originality/value The new methodology, which includes enhanced numerical models for conceptual design, has not been presented before.
Purpose This paper aims to present the newly founded Swedish Aeronautical Research Center (SARC), based on the triple helix theory, to foster the seamless Swedish aerospace research interplay between academia, research organizations and industry. Design/methodology/approach The paper is a technical paper, mainly relating and explaining sources and concepts for research planning and organization. Used concepts are the triple helix approach (for socioeconomic effects), the role of academia and industry interplay for education and the technology readiness level (TRL) concept for strategic research planning. Focusing on the establishment of a graduate school, lessons learned from previous national research schools are also presented. Findings The paper gives an overview of and explains the interplay between politics, social welfare and industrial R&D needs, with the academic viewpoint of aeronautical research and education. Shortcomings in both the use of TRL for research program planning and the Swedish competence cluster system are identified and remedies suggested. The main findings are suggestions for future actions to be conducted by SARC in the fields of research and education. Practical implications The paper includes implications for the seamless interplay between academia, research organizations and industry. Originality/value So far, no publication about the newly founded SARC has been made yet. It is unique in the way that it makes substantial use of national technical documents so that this information becomes available for non-Swedish speakers. Additionally, the perhaps-unique system of industrial competence clusters is presented.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is finding the optimal geometric parameters and developing of a method for optimizing a light unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) wing, maximizing, at the same time, its endurance with the assumed parameters of aircraft mission. Design/methodology/approach The research is based on the experience gained by the author’s contribution to the project of building medium-altitude, long-endurance class, light UAV called “Samonit”. The author was responsible for the structure design, wind tunnel tests and flight tests of the “Samonit” aircraft. Based on the experience, the author was able to develop an optimization process considering various disciplines involved in the whole aircraft design topics such as aerodynamics, flight mechanics, structural stiffness and weight, aircraft stability and maneuverability. The presented methodology has a multidisciplinary nature, as in the process of optimization both aerodynamic aspects and the influence of wing geometric parameters on the wing structure and weight and the aircraft payload were taken into account. The optimal wing configuration was obtained using the genetic algorithms. Findings As a result, a set of wing geometrical parameters has been obtained that allowed for achieving twice as long endurance as compared with the initial one. Practical implications Using the methodology presented in the paper, an aircraft designer can easily find the optimum wing configuration of a designed aircraft, satisfying the mission requirements in a best way. Originality/value An original procedure has been developed, based on the actual design, wind tunnel tests and numerical calculations of “Samonit” aircraft, enabling the determination of optimum wing configuration for a small unmanned aircraft.
Purpose The paper aims to obtain an effective solution to the problem on a flow of viscous fluid around a thin plate using a new approximation method based on the exact Navier–Stokes equations. Also, correction factors are proposed to improve the obtained solution at high Reynolds numbers. Design/methodology/approach The paper has opted for a method that is based on an approximation scheme for certain perturbations concerning the velocity of the oncoming unperturbed flow behind a leading edge of the plate as a zero approximation step. The perturbations are assumed to be small, far from the plate when compared to the basic flow to justify the linearization. Numerical methods are used for the integral equations at each approximation step. Findings This paper provides the friction force coefficient compared with the classical Blasius solution and the ANSYS results. Also, some diagrams of the velocity distribution in the flow are presented. The first and second approximation steps provide a sufficiently high degree of accuracy. Research limitations/implications Because of the chosen research approach, the results may lack accuracy for low and average Reynolds numbers. Thus, researchers are encouraged to improve the proposed method further. Practical implications The paper includes implications for the development of an aircraft design or a wind turbine design considering a wing as a thin plate at the first approximation. Originality/value This paper provides a new approximation method based on the exact Navier–Stokes equations, in contrast to the known solutions.
Purpose Aerodynamics of paragliders is very complicated aeroelastic phenomena. The purpose of this work is to quantify the amount of aerodynamic drag related to the flexible nature of a paraglider wing. Design/methodology/approach The laboratory testing on scaled models can be very difficult because of problems in the elastic similitude of such a structure. Testing of full-scale models in a large facility with a large full-scale test section is very expensive. The degradation of aerodynamic characteristics is evaluated from flight tests of the paraglider speed polar. All aspects of the identification such as pilot and suspension lines drag and aerodynamics of spanwise chambered wings are discussed. The drag of a pilot in a harness was estimated by means of wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver was used to estimating smooth wing lift and drag characteristics. Findings The drag related to the flexible nature of the modern paraglider wing is within the range of 4-30 per cent of the total aerodynamic drag depending on the flight speed. From the results, it is evident that considering only the cell opening effect is sufficient at a low-speed flight. The stagnation point moves forwards towards the nose during the high speed flight. This causes more pronounced deformation of the leading edge and thus increased drag. Practical implications This paper deals with a detailed analysis of specific paraglider wing. Although the results are limited to the specific geometry, the findings help in the better understanding of the paraglider aerodynamics generally. Originality/value The data obtained in this paper are not affected by any scaling problems. There are only few experimental results in the field of paragliders on scaled models. Those results were made on simplified models at very low Reynolds number. The aerodynamic drag characteristics of the pilot in the harness with variable angles of incidence and Reynolds numbers have not yet been published.
Purpose This paper aims to present the results of calculations that checked how the longerons and frames arrangement affects the stiffness of a conventional structure. The paper focuses only on first stage of research – analysis of small displacement. Main goal was to compare different structures under static loads. These results are also compared with the results obtained for a geodetic structure fuselage model of the same dimensions subjected to the same internal and external loads. Design/methodology/approach The finite element method analysis was carried out for a section of the fuselage with a diameter of 6.3 m and a length equal to 10 m. A conventional and lattice structure – known as geodetic – was used. Findings Finite element analyses of the fuselage model with conventional and geodetic structures showed that with comparable stiffness, the weight of the geodetic fuselage is almost 20 per cent lower than that of the conventional one. Research limitations/implications This analysis is limited to small displacements, as the linear version of finite element method was used. Research and articles planned for the future will focus on nonlinear finite element method (FEM) analysis such as buckling, structure stability and limit cycles. Practical implications The increasing maturity of composite structures manufacturing technology offers great opportunities for aircraft designers. The use of carbon fibers with advanced resin systems and application of the geodetic fuselage concept gives the opportunity to obtain advanced structures with excellent mechanical properties and low weight. Originality/value This paper presents very efficient method of assessing and comparison of the stiffness and weight of geodetic and conventional fuselage structure. Geodetic fuselage design in combination with advanced composite materials yields an additional fuselage weight reduction of approximately 10 per cent. The additional weight reduction is achieved by reducing the number of rivets needed for joining the elements. A fuselage with a geodetic structure compared to the classic fuselage with the same outer diameter has a larger inner diameter, which gives a larger usable space in the cabin. The approach applied in this paper consisting in analyzing of main parameters of geodetic structure (hoop ribs, helical ribs and angle between the helical ribs) on fuselage stiffness and weight is original.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to document an efficient and accurate approach to generate aerodynamic tables using computational fluid dynamics. This is demonstrated in the context of a concept transport aircraft model. Design/methodology/approach Two designs of experiment algorithms in combination with surrogate modelling are investigated. An adaptive algorithm is compared to an industry-standard algorithm used as a benchmark. Numerical experiments are obtained solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations on a large computational grid. Findings This study demonstrates that a surrogate model built upon an adaptive design of experiments strategy achieves a higher prediction capability than that built upon a traditional strategy. This is quantified in terms of the sum of the squared error between the surrogate model predictions and the computational fluid dynamics results. The error metric is reduced by about one order of magnitude compared to the traditional approach. Practical implications This work lays the ground to obtain more realistic aerodynamic predictions earlier in the aircraft design process at manageable costs, improving the design solution and reducing risks. This may be equally applied in the analysis of other complex and non-linear engineering phenomena. Originality/value This work explores the potential benefits of an adaptive design of experiment algorithm within a prototype working environment, whereby the maximum number of experiments is limited and a large parameter space is investigated.
Purpose This study aims to predict the types of thermally induced dynamics (TID) that can occur on deployable solar panels of a small form factor satellite, CubeSat which flies in low Earth orbit (LEO). The TID effect on the CubeSat body is examined. Design/methodology/approach A 3U CubeSat with four short-edge deployable solar panels is considered. Time historic temperature of the solar panels throughout the orbit is obtained using a thermal analysis software. The results are used in numerical simulation to find the structural response of the solar panel. Subsequently, the effect of solar panel motion on pointing the direction of the satellite is examined using inertia relief method. Findings The thermal snap motion could occur during eclipse transitions due to rapid temperature changes in solar panels’ cross-sections. In the case of asymmetric solar panel configuration, noticeable displacement in the pointing direction can be observed during the eclipse transitions. Research limitations/implications This work only examines an LEO mission where the solar cells of the solar panels point to the Sun throughout the daylight period and point to the Earth while in shadow. Simplification is made to the CubeSat structure and some parameters in the space environment. Practical implications The results from this work reveal several practical applications worthy of simplifying the study of TID on satellite appendages. Originality/value This work presents a computational method that fully uses finite element software to analyze TID phenomenon that can occur in LEO on a CubeSat which has commonly used deployable solar panels structure.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to design an electromechanical actuator which can inherently tolerate a stuck or loose failure without any need for fault detection isolation and reconfiguration. Design/methodology/approach Generalized design methodology for a thrust vector control application is adopted to reduce the design iterations during the initial stages of the design. An optimum ball screw pitch is selected to minimize the motor sizing and maximize the load acceleration. Findings A high redundancy electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control has lower self-inertia and higher reliability than a direct drive simplex configuration. This configuration is a feasible solution for thrust vector control application because it offers a more acceptable and graceful degradation than a complete failure. Research limitations/implications Future work will include testing on actual hardware to study the transient disturbances caused by a fault and their effect on launch vehicle dynamics. Practical implications High redundancy electromechanical actuator concept can be extended to similar applications such as solid motor nozzle in satellite launch vehicles and primary flight control system in aircraft. Social implications High redundancy actuators can be useful in safety critical applications involving human beings. It can also reduce the machine downtime in industrial process automation. Originality/value The jam tolerant electromechanical actuator proposed for the launch vehicle application has a unique configuration which does not require a complex fault detection isolation and reconfiguration logic in the controller. This enhances the system reliability and allows a simplex controller having a lower cost.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to measure the mass diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in jet fuel using digital holography interferometry for cost-effective designing and modeling of the aircraft tank inerting system. Design/methodology/approach The mass diffusion coefficients of N2 in RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels were measured by digital holography interferometry at temperatures ranging from 278.15 to 343.15 K. The Arrhenius equation is used to adequately describe the relationship between mass diffusion coefficients and temperature. The viscosities of RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels were also measured to examine the accuracy of the Stokes–Einstein model in calculating mass diffusion coefficients. Findings As temperature increases from 278.15 to 343.15 K, the mass diffusion coefficients increase 4.23-fold for N2 in RP-3 jet fuel and 5.13-fold for N2 in RP-5 jet fuel. The value of Dµ/T is not constant as the Stokes–Einstein equation expressed, but is a weak linear function of temperature. Practical implications A more accurate diffusion model is proposed by fitting the measured Dµ/T with the temperature and calculating the mass diffusion coefficients of N2 in RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels within 10 per cent relative deviation. Originality/value A measurement system for mass diffusion coefficients of N2 in RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels was constructed based on the digital holography interferometry. The mass diffusion coefficient can be expressed by a uniform polynomial function of temperature and viscosity.
Purpose This paper aims to predict the effect of the hub cavity leakage on the overall performance with numerical simulations in the fan/booster of a high bypass ratio turbofan engine. Design/methodology/approach Simulations are conducted for leakage at the fan, the outlet of guide vane and the three-stage booster, as well as hub leakage (contain cavities and sealing). The results obtained are compared to the corresponding simulations without hub leakage. Findings The rotor/stator interaction locations are evaluated to discover a better location. The results show that the seal tooth structure produces secondary flow and turbulence in the root of blade suction surface, which increases the aerodynamic loss. The sealing clearance should be controlled to shrink the turbulent region and decrease the leakage. Practical implications This work can provide a theoretical guidance and technical support for the compressor design, which avoid many repeated manufactures and reduce waste of resources. Originality/value This work improves the understanding of the impact mechanism of hub cavity leakage on the performance when the clearance size of seal is variable.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a method to obtain the inertia parameter of a captured unknown space target. Design/methodology/approach An inertia parameter identification method is proposed in the post-capture scenario in this paper. This method is to resolve parameter identification with two steps: coarse estimation and precise estimation. In the coarse estimation step, all the robot arms are fixed and inertia tensor of the combined system is first calculated by the angular momentum conservation equation of the system. Then, inertia parameters of the unknown target are estimated using the least square method. Second, in the precise estimation step, the robot arms are controlled to move and then inertia parameters are once again estimated by optimization method. In the process of optimization, the coarse estimation results are used as an initial value. Findings Numerical simulation results prove that the method presented in this paper is effective for identifying the inertia parameter of a captured unknown target. Practical implications The presented method can also be applied to identify the inertia parameter of space robot. Originality/value In the classic momentum-based identification method, the linear momentum and angular momentum of system, both considered to be conserved, are used to identify the parameter of system. If the elliptical orbit in space is considered, the conservation of linear momentum is wrong. In this paper, an identification based on the conservation of angular momentum and dynamics is presented. Compared with the classic momentum-based method, this method can get a more accurate identification result.