This review gives a pedagogical introduction to the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), its basis, and its implications to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. In the first part, ETH is introduced as a natural extension of ideas from quantum chaos and random matrix theory (RMT). To this end, we present a brief overview of classical and quantum chaos, as well as RMT and some of its most important predictions. The latter include the statistics of energy levels, eigenstate components, and matrix elements of observables. Building on these, we introduce the ETH and show that it allows one to describe thermalization in isolated chaotic systems without invoking the notion of an external bath. We examine numerical evidence of eigenstate thermalization from studies of many-body lattice systems. We also introduce the concept of a quench as a means of taking isolated systems out of equilibrium, and discuss results of numerical experiments on quantum quenches. The second part of the review explores the implications of quantum chaos and ETH to thermodynamics. Basic thermodynamic relations are derived, including the second law of thermodynamics, the fundamental thermodynamic relation, fluctuation theorems, the fluctuation-dissipation relation, and the Einstein and Onsager relations. In particular, it is shown that quantum chaos allows one to prove these relations for individual Hamiltonian eigenstates and thus extend them to arbitrary stationary statistical ensembles. In some cases, it is possible to extend their regimes of applicability beyond the standard thermal equilibrium domain. We then show how one can use these relations to obtain nontrivial universal energy distributions in continuously driven systems. At the end of the review, we briefly discuss the relaxation dynamics and description after relaxation of integrable quantum systems, for which ETH is violated. We present results from numerical experiments and analytical studies of quantum quenches at integrability. We introduce the concept of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and discuss its connection with ideas of prethermalization in weakly interacting systems.
Multiferroics are those materials with more than one ferroic order, and magnetoelectricity refers to the mutual coupling between magnetism (spins and/or magnetic field) and electricity (electric dipoles and/or electric field). In spite of the long research history in the whole twentieth century, the discipline of multiferroicity has never been so highly active as that in the first decade of the twenty-first century, and it has become one of the hottest disciplines of condensed matter physics and materials science. A series of milestones and steady progress in the past decade have enabled our understanding of multiferroic physics substantially comprehensive and profound, which is further pushing forward the research frontier of this exciting area. The availability of more multiferroic materials and improved magnetoelectric performance are approaching to make the applications within reach. While seminal review articles covering the major progress before 2010 are available, an updated review addressing the new achievements since that time becomes imperative. In this review, following a concise outline of the basic knowledge of multiferroicity and magnetoelectricity, we summarize the important research activities on multiferroics, especially magnetoelectricity and related physics in the last six years. We consider not only single-phase multiferroics but also multiferroic heterostructures. We address the physical mechanisms regarding magnetoelectric coupling so that the backbone of this divergent discipline can be highlighted. A series of issues on lattice symmetry, magnetic ordering, ferroelectricity generation, electromagnon excitations, multiferroic domain structure and domain wall dynamics, and interfacial coupling in multiferroic heterostructures, will be revisited in an updated framework of physics. In addition, several emergent phenomena and related physics, including magnetic skyrmions and generic topological structures associated with magnetoelectricity will be discussed. The review is ended with a set of prospectives and forward-looking conclusions, which may inevitably reflect the authors' biased opinions but are certainly critical.
We give a general overview of the high-frequency regime in periodically driven systems and identify three distinct classes of driving protocols in which the infinite-frequency Floquet Hamiltonian is not equal to the time-averaged Hamiltonian. These classes cover systems, such as the Kapitza pendulum, the Harper-Hofstadter model of neutral atoms in a magnetic field, the Haldane Floquet Chern insulator and others. In all setups considered, we discuss both the infinite-frequency limit and the leading finite-frequency corrections to the Floquet Hamiltonian. We provide a short overview of Floquet theory focusing on the gauge structure associated with the choice of stroboscopic frame and the differences between stroboscopic and non-stroboscopic dynamics. In the latter case, one has to work with dressed operators representing observables and a dressed density matrix. We also comment on the application of Floquet Theory to systems described by static Hamiltonians with well-separated energy scales and, in particular, discuss parallels between the inverse-frequency expansion and the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation extending the latter to driven systems.
A wide range of materials, like d-wave superconductors, graphene, and topological insulators, share a fundamental similarity: their low-energy fermionic excitations behave as massless Dirac particles rather than fermions obeying the usual Schrödinger Hamiltonian. This emergent behavior of Dirac fermions in condensed matter systems defines the unifying framework for a class of materials we call "Dirac materials." In order to establish this class of materials, we illustrate how Dirac fermions emerge in multiple entirely different condensed matter systems and we discuss how Dirac fermions have been identified experimentally using electron spectroscopy techniques (angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy). As a consequence of their common low-energy excitations, this diverse set of materials shares a significant number of universal properties in the low-energy (infrared) limit. We review these common properties including nodal points in the excitation spectrum, density of states, specific heat, transport, thermodynamic properties, impurity resonances, and magnetic field responses, as well as discuss many-body interaction effects. We further review how the emergence of Dirac excitations is controlled by specific symmetries of the material, such as time-reversal, gauge, and spin-orbit symmetries, and how by breaking these symmetries a finite Dirac mass is generated. We give examples of how the interaction of Dirac fermions with their distinct real material background leads to rich novel physics with common fingerprints such as the suppression of back scattering and impurity-induced resonant states.
The response of the worldwide scientific community to the discovery in 2008 of superconductivity at T c = 26 K in the Fe-based compound LaFeAsO 1−x F x has been very enthusiastic. In short order, other Fe-based superconductors with the same or related crystal structures were discovered with T c up to 56 K. Many experiments were carried out and theories formulated to try to understand the basic properties of these new materials and the mechanism for T c . In this selective critical review of the experimental literature, we distill some of this extensive body of work, and discuss relationships between different types of experiments on these materials with reference to theoretical concepts and models. The experimental normal-state properties are emphasized, and within these the electronic and magnetic properties because of the likelihood of an electronic/magnetic mechanism for superconductivity in these materials.
The unique plasma-specific features and physical phenomena in the organization of nanoscale soild-state systems in a broad range of elemental composition, structure, and dimensionality are critically reviewed. These effects lead to the possibility to localize and control energy and matter at nanoscales and to produce self-organized nano-solids with highly unusual and superior properties. A unifying conceptual framework based on the control of production, transport, and self-organization of precursor species is introduced and a variety of plasma-specific non-equilibrium and kinetics-driven phenomena across the many temporal and spatial scales is explained. When the plasma is localized to micrometer and nanometer dimensions, new emergent phenomena arise. The examples range from semiconducting quantum dots and nanowires, chirality control of single-walled carbon nanotubes, ultra-fine manipulation of graphenes, nano-diamond, and organic matter to nano-plasma effects and nano-plasmas of different states of matter.
The electronic properties of graphene, a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms, are exceptionally novel. For instance, the low-energy quasiparticles in graphene behave as massless chiral Dirac fermions which has led to the experimental observation of many interesting effects similar to those predicted in the relativistic regime. Graphene also has immense potential to be a key ingredient of new devices, such as single molecule gas sensors, ballistic transistors and spintronic devices. Bilayer graphene, which consists of two stacked monolayers and where the quasiparticles are massive chiral fermions, has a quadratic low-energy band structure which generates very different scattering properties from those of the monolayer. It also presents the unique property that a tunable band gap can be opened and controlled easily by a top gate. These properties have made bilayer graphene a subject of intense interest. In this review, we provide an in-depth description of the physics of monolayer and bilayer graphene from a theorist's perspective. We discuss the physical properties of graphene in an external magnetic field, reflecting the chiral nature of the quasiparticles near the Dirac point with a Landau level at zero energy. We address the unique integer quantum Hall effects, the role of electron correlations, and the recent observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in the monolayer graphene. The quantum Hall effect in bilayer graphene is fundamentally different from that of a monolayer, reflecting the unique band structure of this system. The theory of transport in the absence of an external magnetic field is discussed in detail, along with the role of disorder studied in various theoretical models. Recent experminental observations of a metal-insulator transition in hydrogenated graphene is discussed in terms of a self-consistent theory and compared with related numerical simulations. We highlight the differences and similarities between monolayer and bilayer graphene, and focus on thermodynamic properties such as the compressibility, the plasmon spectra, the weak localization correction, quantum Hall effect and optical properties. Confinement of electrons in graphene is non-trivial due to Klein tunnelling. We review various theoretical and experimental studies of quantum confined structures made from graphene. The band structure of graphene nanoribbons and the role of the sublattice symmetry, edge geometry and the size of the nanoribbon on the electronic and magnetic properties are very active areas of research, and a detailed review of these topics is presented. Also, the effects of substrate interactions, adsorbed atoms, lattice defects and doping on the band structure of finite-sized graphene systems are discussed. We also include a brief description of graphane-gapped material obtained from graphene by attaching hydrogen atoms to each carbon atom in the lattice.
Multiferroics, defined for those multifunctional materials in which two or more kinds of fundamental ferroicities coexist, have become one of the hottest topics of condensed matter physics and materials science in recent years. The coexistence of several order parameters in multiferroics brings out novel physical phenomena and offers possibilities for new device functions. The revival of research activities on multiferroics is evidenced by some novel discoveries and concepts, both experimentally and theoretically. In this review, we outline some of the progressive milestones in this stimulating field, especially for those single-phase multiferroics where magnetism and ferroelectricity coexist. First, we highlight the physical concepts of multiferroicity and the current challenges to integrate the magnetism and ferroelectricity into a single-phase system. Subsequently, we summarize various strategies used to combine the two types of order. Special attention is paid to three novel mechanisms for multiferroicity generation: (1) the ferroelectricity induced by the spin orders such as spiral and E-phase antiferromagnetic spin orders, which break the spatial inversion symmetry; (2) the ferroelectricity originating from the charge-ordered states; and (3) the ferrotoroidic system. Then, we address the elementary excitations such as electromagnons, and the application potentials of multiferroics. Finally, open questions and future research opportunities are proposed.
This paper reviews progress that has been made in the use of Raman spectroscopy to study graphene and carbon nanotubes. These are two nanostructured forms of sp 2 carbon materials that are of major current interest. These nanostructured materials have attracted particular attention because of their simplicity, small physical size and the exciting new science they have introduced. This review focuses on each of these materials systems individually and comparatively as prototype examples of nanostructured materials. In particular, this paper discusses the power of Raman spectroscopy as a probe and a characterization tool for sp 2 carbon materials, with particular emphasis given to the field of photophysics. Some coverage is also given to the close relatives of these sp 2 carbon materials, namely graphite, a three-dimensional (3D) material based on the AB stacking of individual graphene layers, and carbon nanoribbons, which are one-dimensional (1D) planar structures, where the width of the ribbon is on the nanometer length scale. Carbon nanoribbons differ from carbon nanotubes is that nanoribbons have edges, whereas nanotubes have terminations only at their two ends.
Memory effects are ubiquitous in nature and are particularly relevant at the nanoscale where the dynamical properties of electrons and ions strongly depend on the history of the system, at least within certain time scales. We review here the memory properties of various materials and systems which appear most strikingly in their non-trivial, time-dependent resistive, capacitative and inductive characteristics. We describe these characteristics within the framework of memristors, memcapacitors and meminductors, namely memory-circuit elements with properties that depend on the history and state of the system. We examine basic issues related to such systems and critically report on both theoretical and experimental progress in understanding their functionalities. We also discuss possible applications of memory effects in various areas of science and technology ranging from digital to analog electronics, biologically inspired circuits and learning. We finally discuss future research opportunities in the field.
This article reviews recent developments in the theoretical understanding and the numerical implementation of variational renormalization group methods using matrix product states and projected entangled pair states.
Over a long period of exploration, the successful observation of quantized version of anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in thin film of magnetically doped topological insulator (TI) completed a quantum Hall trio-quantum Hall effect (QHE), quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE), and quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE). On the theoretical front, it was understood that the intrinsic AHE is related to Berry curvature and U(1) gauge field in momentum space. This understanding established connection between the QAHE and the topological properties of electronic structures characterized by the Chern number. With the time-reversal symmetry (TRS) broken by magnetization, a QAHE system carries dissipationless charge current at edges, similar to the QHE where an external magnetic field is necessary. The QAHE and corresponding Chern insulators are also closely related to other topological electronic states, such as TIs and topological semimetals, which have been extensively studied recently and have been known to exist in various compounds. First-principles electronic structure calculations play important roles not only for the understanding of fundamental physics in this field, but also towards the prediction and realization of realistic compounds. In this article, a theoretical review on the Berry phase mechanism and related topological electronic states in terms of various topological invariants will be given with focus on the QAHE and Chern insulators. We will introduce the Wilson loop method and the band inversion mechanism for the selection and design of topological materials, and discuss the predictive power of first-principles calculations. Finally, remaining issues, challenges and possible applications for future investigations in the field will be addressed.
The success of new scientific areas can be assessed by their potential in contributing to new theoretical approaches and in applications to real-world problems. Complex networks have fared extremely well in both of these aspects, with their sound theoretical basis being developed over the years and with a variety of applications. In this survey, we analyze the applications of complex networks to real-world problems and data, with emphasis in representation, analysis and modeling. A diversity of phenomena are surveyed, which may be classified into no less than 11 areas, providing a clear indication of the impact of the field of complex networks.
We review recent theoretical work on two closely related issues: excitation of an isolated quantum condensed matter system driven adiabatically across a continuous quantum phase transition or a gapless phase, and apparent relaxation of an excited system after a sudden quench of a parameter in its Hamiltonian. Accordingly, the review is divided into two parts. The first part revolves around a quantum version of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism including also phenomena that go beyond this simple paradigm. What they have in common is that excitation of a gapless many-body system scales with a power of the driving rate. The second part attempts a systematic presentation of recent results and conjectures on apparent relaxation of a pure state of an isolated quantum many-body system after its excitation by a sudden quench. This research is motivated in part by recent experimental developments in the physics of ultracold atoms with potential applications in the adiabatic quantum state preparation and quantum computation.
This article reviews the static and dynamic properties of spontaneous superstructures formed by electrons. Representations of such electronic crystals are charge density waves (CDW) and spin density waves in inorganic as well as organic low-dimensional materials. A special attention is paid to the collective effects in pinning and sliding of these superstructures, and the glassy properties at low temperature. Charge order and charge disproportionation which occur in organic materials resulting from correlation effects are analysed. Experiments under magnetic field, and more specifically field-induced CDWs are discussed. Properties of meso- and nanostructures of CDWs are also reviewed.
In this review, we discuss the persistence and the related first-passage properties in extended many-body nonequilibrium systems. Starting with simple systems with one or few degrees of freedom, such as random walk and random acceleration problems, we progressively discuss the persistence properties in systems with many degrees of freedom. These systems include spin models undergoing phase-ordering dynamics, diffusion equation, fluctuating interfaces, etc. Persistence properties are nontrivial in these systems as the effective underlying stochastic process is non-Markovian. Several exact and approximate methods have been developed to compute the persistence of such non-Markov processes over the last two decades, as reviewed in this article. We also discuss various generalizations of the local site persistence probability. Persistence in systems with quenched disorder is discussed briefly. Although the main emphasis of this review is on the theoretical developments on persistence, we briefly touch upon various experimental systems as well.
We review recent developments in the physics of ultracold atomic and molecular gases in optical lattices. Such systems are nearly perfect realisations of various kinds of Hubbard models, and as such may very well serve to mimic condensed matter phenomena. We show how these systems may be employed as quantum simulators to answer some challenging open questions of condensed matter, and even high energy physics. After a short presentation of the models and the methods of treatment of such systems, we discuss in detail, which challenges of condensed matter physics can be addressed with (i) disordered ultracold lattice gases, (ii) frustrated ultracold gases, (iii) spinor lattice gases, (iv) lattice gases in "artificial" magnetic fields, and, last but not least, (v) quantum information processing in lattice gases. For completeness, also some recent progress related to the above topics with trapped cold gases will be discussed. Motto: There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy1,We review recent developments in the physics of ultracold atomic and molecular gases in optical lattices. Such systems are nearly perfect realisations of various kinds of Hubbard models, and as such may very well serve to mimic condensed matter phenomena. We show how these systems may be employed as quantum simulators to answer some challenging open questions of condensed matter, and even high energy physics. After a short presentation of the models and the methods of treatment of such systems, we discuss in detail, which challenges of condensed matter physics can be addressed with (i) disordered ultracold lattice gases, (ii) frustrated ultracold gases, (iii) spinor lattice gases, (iv) lattice gases in "artificial" magnetic fields, and, last but not least, (v) quantum information processing in lattice gases. For completeness, also some recent progress related to the above topics with trapped cold gases will be discussed. Motto: There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy 1
Oxides have become a key ingredient for new concepts of electronic devices. To a large extent, this is due to the profusion of new physics and novel functionalities arising from ultrathin oxide films and at oxide interfaces. We present here a perspective on selected topics within this vast field and focus on two main issues. The first part of this review is dedicated to the use of ultrathin films of insulating oxides as barriers for tunnel junctions. In addition to dielectric non-magnetic epitaxial barriers, which can produce tunneling magnetoresistances in excess of a few hundred percent, we pay special attention to the possibility of exploiting the multifunctional character of some oxides in order to realize 'active' tunnel barriers. In these, the conductance across the barrier is not only controlled by the bias voltage and/or the electrodes magnetic state, but also depends on the barrier ferroic state. Some examples include spin-filtering effects using ferro- and ferrimagnetic oxides, and the possibility of realizing hysteretic, multi-state junctions using ferroelectric barriers. The second part of this review is devoted to novel states appearing at oxide interfaces. Often completely different from those of the corresponding bulk materials, they bring about novel functionalities to be exploited in spintronics and electronics architectures. We review the main mechanisms responsible for these new properties (such as magnetic coupling, charge transfer and proximity effects) and summarize some of the most paradigmatic phenomena. These include the formation of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases at the interface between insulators, the emergence of superconductivity (or ferromagnetism) at the interface between non-superconducting (or non-ferromagnetic) materials, the observation of magnetoelectric effects at magnetic/ferroelectric interfaces or the effects of the interplay and competing interactions at all-oxide ferromagnetic/superconducting interfaces. Finally, we link up the two reviewed research fields and emphasize that the tunneling geometry is particularly suited to probe novel interface effects at oxide barrier/electrode interfaces. We close by giving some directions toward tunneling devices exploiting novel oxide interfacial phenomena.
In the last two decades non-equilibrium spectroscopies have evolved from avant-garde studies to crucial tools for expanding our understanding of the physics of strongly correlated materials. The possibility of obtaining simultaneously spectroscopic and temporal information has led to insights that are complementary to (and in several cases beyond) those attainable by studying the matter at equilibrium. From this perspective, multiple phase transitions and new orders arising from competing interactions are benchmark examples where the interplay among electrons, lattice and spin dynamics can be disentangled because of the different timescales that characterize the recovery of the initial ground state. For example, the nature of the broken-symmetry phases and of the bosonic excitations that mediate the electronic interactions, eventually leading to superconductivity or other exotic states, can be revealed by observing the sub-picosecond dynamics of impulsively excited states. Furthermore, recent experimental and theoretical developments have made it possible to monitor the time-evolution of both the single-particle and collective excitations under extreme conditions, such as those arising from strong and selective photo-stimulation. These developments are opening the way for new, non-equilibrium phenomena that can eventually be induced and manipulated by short laser pulses. Here, we review the most recent achievements in the experimental and theoretical studies of the non-equilibrium electronic, optical, structural and magnetic properties of correlated materials. The focus will be mainly on the prototypical case of correlated oxides that exhibit unconventional superconductivity or other exotic phases. The discussion will also extend to other topical systems, such as iron-based and organic superconductors, and charge-transfer insulators. With this review, the dramatically growing demand for novel experimental tools and theoretical methods, models and concepts, will clearly emerge. In particular, the necessity of extending the actual experimental capabilities and the numerical and analytic tools to microscopically treat the non-equilibrium phenomena beyond the simple phenomenological approaches represents one of the most challenging new frontiers in physics.
Each complex network (or class of networks) presents specific topological features which characterize its connectivity and highly influence the dynamics of processes executed on the network. The analysis, discrimination, and synthesis of complex networks therefore rely on the use of measurements capable of expressing the most relevant topological features. This article presents a survey of such measurements. It includes general considerations about complex network characterization, a brief review of the principal models, and the presentation of the main existing measurements. Important related issues covered in this work comprise the representation of the evolution of complex networks in terms of trajectories in several measurement spaces, the analysis of the correlations between some of the most traditional measurements, perturbation analysis, as well as the use of multivariate statistics for feature selection and network classification. Depending on the network and the analysis task one has in mind, a specific set of features may be chosen. It is hoped that the present survey will help the proper application and interpretation of measurements.