This article offers an extensive survey of results obtained using hybrid photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) which constitute one of the most active research fields in contemporary fiber optics. The ability to integrate novel and functional materials in solid-and hollow-core PCFs through various postprocessing methods has enabled new directions toward understanding fundamental linear and nonlinear phenomena as well as novel application aspects, within the fields of optoelectronics, material and laser science, remote sensing, and spectroscopy. Here the recent progress in the field of hybrid PCFs is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated with various liquids, glasses, semiconductors, and metals. The second part concentrates on recent and state-of-the-art advances in the field of gas-filled hollow-core PCFs. Extreme ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics toward light generation in the extreme wavelength regions of vacuum ultraviolet, pulse propagation, and compression dynamics in both atomic and molecular gases, and novel soliton-plasma interactions are reviewed. A discussion of future prospects and directions is also included.
A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or system is a separation of charge along its angular momentum axis and is a direct signal of T violation and, assuming CPT symmetry, CP violation. For over 60 years EDMs have been studied, first as a signal of a parity-symmetry violation and then as a signal of CP violation that would clarify its role in nature and in theory. Contemporary motivations include the role that CP violation plays in explaining the cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry and the search for new physics. Experiments on a variety of systems have become evermore sensitive, but provide only upper limits on EDMs, and theory at several scales is crucial to interpret these limits. Nuclear theory provides connections from standard-model and beyond-standard-model physics to the observable EDMs, and atomic and molecular theory reveal how CP violation is manifest in these systems. EDM results in hadronic systems require that the standard-model QCD parameter of (theta) over bar must be exceptionally small, which could be explained by the existence of axions, also a candidate dark-matter particle. Theoretical results on electroweak baryogenesis show that new physics is needed to explain the dominance of matter in the Universe. Experimental and theoretical efforts continue to expand with new ideas and new questions, and this review provides a broad overview of theoretical motivations and interpretations as well as details about experimental techniques, experiments, and prospects. The intent is to provide specifics and context as this exciting field moves forward.
Topological photonics is a rapidly emerging field of research in which geometrical and topological ideas are exploited to design and control the behavior of light. Drawing inspiration from the discovery of the quantum Hall effects and topological insulators in condensed matter, recent advances have shown how to engineer analogous effects also for photons, leading to remarkable phenomena such as the robust unidirectional propagation of light, which hold great promise for applications. Thanks to the flexibility and diversity of photonics systems, this field is also opening up new opportunities to realize exotic topological models and to probe and exploit topological effects in new ways. This article reviews experimental and theoretical developments in topological photonics across a wide range of experimental platforms, including photonic crystals, waveguides, metamaterials, cavities, optomechanics, silicon photonics, and circuit QED. A discussion of how changing the dimensionality and symmetries of photonics systems has allowed for the realization of different topological phases is offered, and progress in understanding the interplay of topology with non-Hermitian effects, such as dissipation, is reviewed. As an exciting perspective, topological photonics can be combined with optical nonlinearities, leading toward new collective phenomena and novel strongly correlated states of light, such as an analog of the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Conformal field theories have been long known to describe the fascinating universal physics of scale invariant critical points. They describe continuous phase transitions in fluids, magnets, and numerous other materials, while at the same time sit at the heart of our modern understanding of quantum field theory. For decades it has been a dream to study these intricate strongly coupled theories nonperturbatively using symmetries and other consistency conditions. This idea, called the conformal bootstrap, saw some successes in two dimensions but it is only in the last ten years that it has been fully realized in three, four, and other dimensions of interest. This renaissance has been possible due to both significant analytical progress in understanding how to set up the bootstrap equations and the development of numerical techniques for finding or constraining their solutions. These developments have led to a number of groundbreaking results, including world-record determinations of critical exponents and correlation function coefficients in the Ising and O(N) models in three dimensions. This article will review these exciting developments for newcomers to the bootstrap, giving an introduction to conformal field theories and the theory of conformal blocks, describing numerical techniques for the bootstrap based on convex optimization, and summarizing in detail their applications to fixed points in three and four dimensions with no or minimal supersymmetry.
During the last decade, six new superheavy elements were added into the seventh period of the periodic table, with the approval of their names and symbols. This milestone was followed by proclaiming 2019 the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by the United Nations General Assembly. According to theory, due to their large atomic numbers, the new arrivals are expected to be qualitatively and quantitatively different from lighter species. The questions pertaining to superheavy atoms and nuclei are in the forefront of research in nuclear and atomic physics and chemistry. This Colloquium offers a broad perspective on the field and outlines future challenges.
There have been significant recent advances in realizing band structures with geometrical and topological features in experiments on cold atomic gases. This review summarizes these developments, beginning with a summary of the key concepts of geometry and topology for Bloch bands. Descriptions are given of the different methods that have been used to generate these novel band structures for cold atoms and of the physical observables that have allowed their characterization. The focus is on the physical principles that underlie the different experimental approaches, providing a conceptual framework within which to view these developments. Also described is how specific experimental implementations can influence physical properties. Moving beyond single-particle effects, descriptions are given of the forms of interparticle interactions that emerge when atoms are subjected to these energy bands and of some of the many-body phases that may be sought in future experiments.
The observation of metallic ground states in a variety of two-dimensional electronic systems poses a fundamental challenge for the theory of electron fluids. Here evidence is analyzed for the existence of a regime, called the "anomalous metal regime," in diverse 2D superconducting systems driven through a quantum superconductor to metal transition by tuning physical parameters such as the magnetic field, the gate voltage in the case of systems with a metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) geometry, or the degree of disorder. The principal phenomenological observation is that in the anomalous metal, as a function of decreasing temperature, the resistivity first drops as if the system were approaching a superconducting ground state, but then saturates at low temperatures to a value that can be orders of magnitude smaller than the Drude value. The anomalous metal also shows a giant positive magneto-resistance. Thus, it behaves as if it were a "failed superconductor." This behavior is observed in a broad range of parameters. It will be moreover exhibited, by theoretical solution of a model of superconducting grains embedded in a metallic matrix, that as a matter of principle such anomalous metallic behavior can occur in the neighborhood of a quantum superconductor to metal transition. However, it will be also argued that the robustness and ubiquitous nature of the observed phenomena are difficult to reconcile with any existing theoretical treatment and speculate about the character of a more fundamental theoretical framework.
Quantum resource theories (QRTs) offer a highly versatile and powerful framework for studying different phenomena in quantum physics. From quantum entanglement to quantum computation, resource theories can be used to quantify a desirable quantum effect, develop new protocols for its detection, and identify processes that optimize its use for a given application. Particularly, QRTs have revolutionized the way we think about familiar properties of physical systems such as entanglement, elevating them from being just interesting fundamental phenomena to being useful in performing practical tasks. The basic methodology of a general QRT involves partitioning all quantum states into two groups, one consisting of free states and the other consisting of resource states. Accompanying the set of free states is a collection of free quantum operations arising from natural restrictions placed on the physical system, restrictions that force the free operations to act invariantly on the set of free states. The QRT then studies what information processing tasks become possible using the restricted operations. Despite the large degree of freedom in how one defines the free states and free operations, unexpected similarities emerge among different QRTs in terms of resource measures and resource convertibility. As a result, objects that appear quite distinct on the surface, such as entanglement and quantum reference frames, appear to have great similarity on a deeper structural level. This article reviews the general framework of a quantum resource theory, focusing on common structural features, operational tasks, and resource measures. To illustrate these concepts, an overview is provided on some of the more commonly studied QRTs in the literature.
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is one of the most important techniques for microstructure determination, being utilized in a wide range of scientific disciplines, such as materials science, physics, chemistry, and biology. The reason for its great significance is that conventional SANS is probably the only method capable of probing structural inhomogeneities in the bulk of materials on a mesoscopic real-space length scale from roughly 1 to 300 nm. Moreover, the exploitation of the spin degree of freedom of the neutron provides SANS with a unique sensitivity to study magnetism and magnetic materials at the nanoscale. As such, magnetic SANS ideally complements more real-space and surface-sensitive magnetic imaging techniques, e.g., Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, electron holography, magnetic force microscopy, Kerr microscopy, or spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. This review summarizes the recent applications of the SANS method to study magnetism and magnetic materials. This includes a wide range of materials classes from nanomagnetic systems such as soft magnetic Fe-based nanocomposites, hard magnetic Nd-Fe-B-based permanent magnets, magnetic steels, ferrofluids, nanoparticles, and magnetic oxides to more fundamental open issues in contemporary condensed matter physics such as skyrmion crystals, noncollinear magnetic structures in noncentrosymmetric compounds, magnetic or electronic phase separation, and vortex lattices in type-II superconductors. Special attention is paid not only to the vast variety of magnetic materials and problems where SANS has provided direct insight, but also to the enormous progress made regarding the micromagnetic simulation of magnetic neutron scattering.
A theory of fractional electricity and magnetism is presented here which is capable of describing phenomena as disparate as the nonlocality of the Pippard kernel in superconductivity and anomalous dimensions for conserved currents in holographic dilatonic models. While it is a standard result in field theory that the scaling dimension of conserved currents and their associated gauge fields are determined strictly by dimensional analysis and hence cannot change under any amount of renormalization, it is also the case that the standard conservation laws for currents, dJ=0, remain unchanged in form if any differential operator that commutes with the total exterior derivative, [d,Y^]=0, multiplies the current. Such an operator, effectively changing the dimension of the current, increases the allowable gauge transformations in electromagnetism and is at the heart of Nöther's second theorem. However, this observation has not been exploited to generate new electromagnetisms. Here a consistent theory of electromagnetism is developed that exploits this hidden redundancy in which the standard gauge symmetry in electromagnetism is modified by the rotationally invariant operator, the fractional Laplacian. The resultant theories are shown to all allow for anomalous (nontraditional) scaling dimensions of the gauge field and the associated current. Using the Caffarelli-Silvestre theorem [Caffarelli, L., and L. Silvestre, 2007, Commun. Partial Differ. Equations 32, 1245.], its extension [La Nave, G., and P. Phillips, 2017, arXiv:1708.00863 [Commun. Math. Phys. (in press)] ] to p forms and the membrane paradigm, either the boundary (UV) or horizon (IR) theory of holographic dilatonic models are shown to both be described by such fractional electromagnetic theories. The nonlocal Pippard kernel introduced to solve the problem of the Meissner effect in elemental superconductors can also be formulated as a special case of fractional electromagnetism. Because the holographic dilatonic models produce boundary theories that are equivalent to those arising from a bulk theory with a massive gauge field along the radial direction, the common thread linking both of these problems is the breaking of U(1) symmetry down to Z2. The standard charge quantization rules fail when the gauge field acquires an anomalous dimension. The breakdown of charge quantization is discussed extensively in terms of the experimentally measurable modified Aharonov-Bohm effect in the strange metal phase of the cuprate superconductors.
Ion transport through nanopores permeates through many areas of science and technology, from cell behavior to sensing and separation to catalysis and batteries. Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), are recent additions to these fields. Low-dimensional materials present new opportunities to develop filtration, sensing, and power technologies, encompassing ion exclusion membranes, DNA sequencing, single molecule detection, osmotic power generation, and beyond. Moreover, the physics of ionic transport through pores and constrictions within these materials is a distinct realm of competing many-particle interactions (e.g., solvation or dehydration, electrostatic blockade, hydrogen bond dynamics) and confinement. This opens up alternative routes to creating biomimetic pores and may even give analogs of quantum phenomena, such as quantized conductance, in the classical domain. These prospects make membranes of 2D materials, i.e., 2D membranes, fascinating. This Colloquium gives a discussion of the physics and applications of ionic transport through nanopores in 2D membranes.
Recent experiments have demonstrated that light and matter can mix together to an extreme degree, and previously uncharted regimes of light-matter interactions are currently being explored in a variety of settings. The so-called ultrastrong coupling (USC) regime is established when the light-matter interaction energy is a comparable fraction of the bare frequencies of the uncoupled systems. Furthermore, when the interaction strengths become larger than the bare frequencies, the deep-strong coupling (DSC) regime emerges. This article reviews advances in the field of the USC and DSC regimes, in particular, for light modes confined in cavities interacting with two-level systems. An overview is first provided on the theoretical progress since the origins from the semiclassical Rabi model until recent developments of the quantum Rabi model. Next, several key experimental results from a variety of quantum platforms are described, including superconducting circuits, semiconductor quantum wells, and other hybrid quantum systems. Finally, anticipated applications are highlighted utilizing USC and DSC regimes, including novel quantum optical phenomena, quantum simulation, and quantum computation.
Recently, many Earth-sized planets have been discovered around stars other than the Sun that might possess appropriate conditions for life. The development of theoretical methods for assessing the putative habitability of these worlds is of paramount importance, since it serves the dual purpose of identifying and quantifying what types of biosignatures may exist and determining the selection of optimal target stars and planets for subsequent observations. This Colloquium discusses how a multitude of physical factors act in tandem to regulate the propensity of worlds for hosting detectable biospheres. The focus is primarily on planets around low-mass stars, as they are most readily accessible to searches for biosignatures. This Colloquium outlines how factors such as stellar winds, the availability of ultraviolet and visible light, the surface water and land fractions, stellar flares, and associated phenomena place potential constraints on the evolution of life on these planets.
This review covers the modern era of experimental kaonic atom studies, encompassing 20 years of activity, defined by breakthroughs in technological developments which allowed performing a series of long-awaited precision measurements. Kaonic atoms are atomic systems where an electron is replaced by a negatively charged kaon, containing the strange quark, which interacts in the lowest orbits with the nucleus also by the strong interaction. As a result, their study offers the unique opportunity to perform experiments equivalent to scattering at vanishing relative energy. This allows one to study the strong interaction between the antikaon and the nucleon or the nucleus "at threshold," namely, at zero relative energy, without the need of ad hoc extrapolation to zero energy, as in scattering experiments. The fast progress achieved in performing precision light kaonic atom experiments, which also solved long-pending inconsistencies with theoretical calculations generated by old measurements, relies on the development of novel cryogenic targets, x-ray detectors, and the availability of pure and intense charged kaon beams, which propelled an unprecedented progress in the field. Future experiments, based on new undergoing technological developments, will further boost the kaonic atom studies, thus fostering a deeper understanding of the low-energy strong interaction extended to the second family of quarks.
This review discusses the lattice Boltzmann-particle dynamics (LBPD) multiscale paradigm for the simulation of complex states of flowing matter at the interface between physics, chemistry, and biology. In particular, current large-scale LBPD simulations of biopolymer translocation across cellular membranes, molecular transport in ion channels, and amyloid aggregation in cells are described. Prospects are provided for future LBPD explorations in the direction of cellular organization, the direct simulation of full biological organelles, all the way up to physiological scales of potential relevance to future precision-medicine applications, such as the accurate description of homeostatic processes. It is argued that. with the advent of Exascale computing, the mesoscale physics approach advocated in this review may come to age in the next decade and open up new exciting perspectives for physics-based computational medicine.
Discovered in 1963, the Roper resonance appears to be an exact copy of the proton except that its mass is 50% greater and it is unstable. These features of the Roper have been very difficult to explain so that for half a century this lightest excited state of the proton has defied understanding. The last decade has presented a new challenge, viz. precise information on the proton-to-Roper electroproduction transition form factors. Reaching to momentum transfer Q(2) approximate to 4.5 GeV2, the data probe a domain within which hard valence-quark degrees of freedom could be expected to determine form factor behavior. An explanation of the Roper should combine an understanding of all these things. This is a prodigious task, but a ten-year international collaborative effort, involving experimentalists and theorists, has presented a candidate solution to the puzzle. Namely, the observed Roper is at the heart of the proton's first radial excitation, consisting of a dressed-quark core augmented by a meson cloud that reduces the core mass by approximately 20% and materially alters its electroproduction form factors on Q(2) < 2m(N)(2), where m(N) is the proton's mass. This Colloquium describes the experimental developments which enabled electroproduction data to be procured within a domain that is the purview of strong quantum chromodynamics, thereby providing challenges and opportunities for modern theory, and surveys the developments in reaction models and QCD theory that have enabled this picture of the Roper resonance to be drawn.