Advances in therapy in recent years have led investigators to challenge the dogma that multiple myeloma (MM) is incurable. We assessed overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of young patients (<= 50 years) with MM and compared outcomes with follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). All patients <= 50 years with newly diagnosed MM (n = 212), FL (n = 168), DLBCL (n = 195), and HL (n = 233) between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2015 were included. Observed vs. expected survival was summarized by standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Compared to the background US population, excess mortality risk was seen at diagnosis in all four cancers, SMR 19.5 (15.2-24.5) in MM, 4.2 (2.3-7.2) in FL, 13.0 (9.2-18.4) in DLBCL, and 5.2 (2.6-9.3) in HL. We reasoned that cure would most likely occur in the first 3 years after diagnosis and be reflected by an overall survival probability similar to the background population. From the 36-month landmark, excess mortality risk was seen in MM (SMR 20.7 [14.7-28.3]) and FL (SMR 3.8 [1.5-7.8]), but not with DLBCL (SMR 3.1 [0.8-8.0]) or HL (SMR 0.9 [0.0-5.1]). MM patients have 20-fold excess mortality risk compared to the background population at diagnosis and at 3 years after diagnosis, suggesting that MM remains an incurable cancer.
Gene mutations have not yet been included in the 2016 WHO classification and revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R), which are now widely utilized to discriminate myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients regarding risk of leukemia evolution and overall survival (OS). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether integration of gene mutations with other risk factors could further improve the stratification of MDS patients. Mutational analyses of 25 genes relevant to myeloid malignancies in 426 primary MDS patients showed that mutations of CBL, IDH2, ASXL1, DNMT3A, and TP53 were independently associated with shorter survival. Patients within each IPSS-R or 2016 WHO classification-defined risk group could be stratified into two risk subgroups based on the mutational status of these five genes; patients with these poor-risk mutations had an OS shorter than others in the same risk group, but similar to those with the next higher risk category. A scoring system incorporating age, IPSS-R and five poor-risk mutations could divide the MDS patients into four risk groups (P < 0.001 for both OS and leukemia-free survival). In conclusion, integration of gene mutations in current IPSS-R improves the prognostication of MDS patients and may help identify high-risk patients for more aggressive treatment in IPSS-R lower risk group.
Whole Body Low Dose CT (WBLDCT) has important advantages as a first-line imaging modality for bone disease assessment in patients with plasma cell disorders and has been included in the 2014 International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria for multiple myeloma (MM) definition. Nevertheless, standardization guidelines for the optimal use of WBLDCT in MM patients are still lacking, preventing its more widespread use, both in daily practice and clinical trials. The aim of this report by the Bone Group of the IMWG is to provide practical recommendations for the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of WBLDCT in patients with multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders.
In 2014, the International Myeloma Working Group reclassified patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and bone marrow-plasma cell percentage (BMPC%) >= 60%, or serum free light chain ratio (FLCr) >= 100 or > 1 focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging as multiple myeloma (MM). Predictors of progression in patients currently classified as SMM are not known. We identified 421 patients with SMM, diagnosed between 2003 and 2015. The median time to progression (TTP) was 57 months (CI, 45-72). BMPC% > 20% [hazard ratio (HR): 2.28 (CI, 1.63-3.20); p 2g/dL [HR: 1.56 (CI, 1.11-2.20); p = 0.01], and FLCr > 20 [HR: 2.13 (CI, 1.55-2.93); p = 2 of the three risk factors; n = 153). The median TTP for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 110, 68, and 29 months, respectively (p 20%, M-protein > 2 g/dL, and FLCr > 20 at diagnosis can be used to risk stratify patients with SMM. Patients with high-risk SMM need close follow-up and are candidates for clinical trials aiming to prevent progression.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is two- to three-fold more common in African Americans (AAs) compared to European Americans (EAs). This striking disparity, one of the highest of any cancer, may be due to underlying genetic predisposition between these groups. There are multiple unique cytogenetic subtypes of MM, and it is likely that the disparity is associated with only certain subtypes. Previous efforts to understand this disparity have relied on self-reported race rather than genetic ancestry, which may result in bias. To mitigate these difficulties, we studied 881 patients with monoclonal gammopathies who had undergone uniform testing to identify primary cytogenetic abnormalities. DNA from bone marrow samples was genotyped on the Precision Medicine Research Array and biogeographical ancestry was quantitatively assessed using the Geographic Population Structure Origins tool. The probability of having one of three specific subtypes, namely t(11;14), t(14;16), or t(14;20) was significantly higher in the 120 individuals with highest African ancestry (>= 80%) compared with the 235 individuals with lowest African ancestry (<0.1%) (51% vs. 33%, respectively, p value = 0.008). Using quantitatively measured African ancestry, we demonstrate a major proportion of the racial disparity in MM is driven by disparity in the occurrence of the t(11;14), t(14;16), and t (14;20) types of MM.
In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), risk stratification based on cytogenetics and mutation profiling is essential but remains insufficient to select the optimal therapy. Accurate biomarkers are needed to improve prognostic assessment. We analyzed RNA sequencing and survival data of 430 AML patients and identified HMGA2 as a novel prognostic marker. We validated a quantitative PCR test to study the association of HMGA2 expression with clinical outcomes in 358 AML samples. In this training cohort, HMGA2 was highly expressed in 22.3% of AML, mostly in patients with intermediate or adverse cytogenetics. High expression levels of HMGA2 (H +) were associated with a lower frequency of complete remission (58.8% vs 83.4%, P < 0.001), worse 3-year overall survival (OS, 13.2% vs 43.5%, P < 0.001) and relapse-free survival (RFS, 10.8% vs 44.2%, P < 0.001). A positive HMGA2 test also identified a subgroup of patients unresponsive to standard treatments. Multivariable analyses showed that H + was independently associated with significantly worse OS and RFS, including in the intermediate cytogenetic risk category. These associations were confirmed in a validation cohort of 260 patient samples from the UK NCRI AML17 trial. The HMGA2 test could be implemented in clinical trials developing novel therapeutic strategies for high-risk AML.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by bone destruction due to increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. Semaphorin 4D (CD100, Sema4D) is expressed by osteoclasts, binds to its receptor Plexin-B1, and acts as a mediator of osteoclast-osteoblast interaction that ultimately inhibits osteoblastic bone formation. Preclinical data suggest that Sema4D/Plexin-B1 pathway is implicated in MM-induced bone disease. However, there is no information on the role of Sema4D in MM patients. Thus, we evaluated Sema4D and Plexin-B1 in six myeloma cells lines in vitro; in the bone marrow plasma (BMP) and serum of 72 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM) patients and in 25 healthy controls. Only one myeloma cell line produced high Sema4D. BMP and circulating Sema4D and Plexin-B1 levels were significantly higher in MM patients compared to controls (p < 0.01). Sema4D correlated with serum calcium levels (p < 0.001), increased bone resorption (as assessed by CTX; p < 0.01), and ISS (p < 0.001). There was a trend for higher Sema4D levels in patients with osteolysis (p = 0.07), while patients with diffuse MRI pattern had higher BMP Sema4D levels (p = 0.02). Our data suggest that Sema4D is elevated in MM patients and correlate with adverse myeloma features and increased bone resorption, providing a possible target for novel therapeutic approaches in MM.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients. We explored cellular and plasma hypercoagulability in NDMM patients to identify relevant biomarkers that can be used in combination with clinical factors in the development of a risk assessment model (RAM) for VTE. Untreated patients (n = 144) with NDMM were prospectively enrolled, baseline biomarkers prior to anti-myeloma treatment and thromboprophylaxis initiation were obtained. These were compared against values in a group of healthy individuals with similar age and sex distribution. The primary study end point was symptomatic VTE occurrence. At 12-month follow-up cumulative VTE rate was 10.4%. NDMM patients showed biological signs of cellular and plasma hypercoagulability and endothelial cell activation. Procoagulant phospholipid clotting time (Procoagulant-PPL) was shorter, P-selectin levels lower and thrombin generation attenuated overall compared to healthy subjects. Longer Procoag-PPL (R), lower endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), and higher levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) were associated with VTE occurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that Procoag-PPL (R) and ETP were independent risk factors for VTE. We conclude that Procoag-PPL (R) and ETP can be prospectively incorporated into a RAM for VTE in MM in combination with clinical and disease risk factors.
Ixazomib is the first oral proteasome inhibitor to enter the clinic. Given the efficacy of bortezomib in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone, we studied the combination of ixazomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (ICd) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) and patients with measurable disease, irrespective of transplant eligibility, were enrolled. The phase 1 was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cyclophosphamide in the combination. Patients received ixazomib 4 mg (days 1, 8, 15), dexamethasone 40 mg (days 1, 8, 15, 22), and cyclophosphamide 300 or 400 mg/m(2) days 1, 8, 15, 22; cycles were 28 days. We enrolled 51 patients, 10 in phase 1 and 41 patients in phase 2. The median age was 64.5 years (range: 41-88); 29% had high or intermediate risk FISH. The MTD was 400 mg/m(2) of cyclophosphamide weekly. The best confirmed response in all 48 patients included >= partial response in 77%, including >= VGPR in 35%; 3 patients had a sCR. The response rate for all 48 evaluable patients at 4-cycles was 71%; the median time to response was 1.9 months. Common adverse events included cytopenias, fatigue and GI intolerance. ICd is a convenient, all oral combination that is well tolerated and effective in NDMM.
From a liquid biopsy, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can provide information regarding basal tumoral genetic patterns and changes upon treatment. In a prospective cohort of 30 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), we determined the clinical relevance of cfDNA using targeted next-generation sequencing and its correlation with PET scan imaging at the time of diagnosis and during treatment. Using a dedicated DLBCL panel, mutations were identified at baseline for 19 cfDNAs and profiles were consistent with expected DLBCL patterns. Tumor burden-related clinical and PET scan features (LDH, IPI, and metabolic tumor volume) were significantly correlated with the quantity of tumoral cfDNA. Among the four patients presenting additional mutations in their cfDNAs, three had high metabolic tumor volumes, suggesting that cfDNA more accurately reflects tumor heterogeneity than tissues biopsy itself. Mid-treatment, four patients still had basal mutations in their cfDNAs, including three in partial response according to their Deauville scores. Our study highlights the major interests in liquid biopsy, in particular in the context of bulky tumors where cfDNA allows capturing the entire tumoral mutation profile. Therefore, cfDNA analysis in DLBCL represents a complementary approach to PET scan imaging.
Autoimmune conditions are strong risk factors for developing lymphoma, but their role in lymphoma prognosis is less clear. In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated self-reported history of eight autoimmune conditions with outcomes in 736 diffuse large B-cell, 703 follicular, 302 marginal zone (MZL), 193 mantle cell (MCL), 297 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and 186 T-cell lymphomas. We calculated event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS), and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for sex, prognostic score, and treatment. History of any of the eight autoimmune conditions ranged from 7.4% in HL to 18.2% in MZL, and was not associated with EFS or OS for any lymphoma subtype. However, there was a positive association of autoimmune conditions primarily mediated by B-cell responses with inferior EFS in MCL (HR = 2.23, CI: 1.15-4.34) and HL (HR = 2.63, CI: 1.04-6.63), which was largely driven by rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmune conditions primarily mediated by T-cell responses were not found to be associated with EFS or OS in any lymphoma subtype, although there were few events for this exposure. Our results indicate that distinguishing autoimmune conditions primarily mediated by B-cell/T-cell responses may yield insight regarding the impact of this comorbid disease, affecting similar to 10% of lymphoma patients, on survival.
Refractoriness to ruxolitinib in patients with myelofibrosis (MF) was associated with clonal evolution; however, whether genetic instability is promoted by ruxolitinib remains unsettled. We evaluated the mutation landscape in 71 MF patients receiving ruxolitinib (n = 46) and hydroxyurea (n = 25) and correlated with response. A spleen volume response (SVR) was obtained in 57% and 12%, respectively. Highly heterogenous patterns of mutation acquisition/loss and/or changes of variant allele frequency (VAF) were observed in the 2 patient groups without remarkable differences. In patients receiving ruxolitinib, driver mutation type and high-molecular risk profile (HMR) at baseline did not impact on response rate, while HMR and sole ASXL1 mutations predicted for SVR loss at 3 years. In patients with SVR, a decrease of >= 20% of JAK2V617F VAF predicted for SVR duration. VAF increase of non-driver mutations and clonal progression at follow-up correlated with SVR loss and treatment discontinuation, and clonal progression also predicted for shorter survival. These data indicate that (i) ruxolitinib does not appreciably promote clonal evolution compared with hydroxyurea, (ii) VAF increase of pre-existing and/or (ii) acquisition of new mutations while on treatment correlated with higher rate of discontinuation and/or death, and (iv) reduction of JAK2V617F VAF associated with SVR duration.
The current definition of plasma cell leukemia (PCL)->= 20% circulating plasma cells (CPCs) on peripheral smear and plasma cell count >= 2 x 10(9)/L-may be too stringent. We reviewed outcomes of 176 multiple myeloma (MM) patients diagnosed between 1971 and 2016, and who had CPCs detectable at diagnosis, to determine whether a lower threshold could be used to diagnose PCL. Median overall survival (mOS) was 1.1 years (95% CI 0.8-1.4) and was similar between patients with = 20% CPCs (n = 59, mOS = 1.1 years [0.7-1.5], p = 0.349). As survival was similar between those with 5-19% and >= 20% CPCs, we stratified patients by = 5% CPCs were much poorer when compared with a cohort of MM patients diagnosed between 1971 and 2016, who did not have CPCs at diagnosis (n = 9724, mOS = 4.4 yrs [4.3-4.5], p = 5% CPCs (n = 62, mOS = 1.4 years [0.8-2.5]) compared with patients with standard risk (n = 1326, mOS = 7.5 years [7.0-8.7]) and high-risk MM (n = 381, mOS = 4.3 years [3.5-4.9], p = 5% CPCs on peripheral blood smear, who otherwise meet diagnostic criteria for MM.
We analyzed 597 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) who presented transient ischemic attacks (TIA, n = 270) or ischemic stroke (IS, n = 327). Treatment included aspirin, oral anticoagulants, and cytoreductive drugs. The composite incidence of recurrent TIA and IS, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and cardiovascular (CV) death was 4.21 and 19.2%, respectively at one and five years after the index event, an estimate unexpectedly lower than reported in the general population. Patients tended to replicate the first clinical manifestation (hazard ratio, HR: 2.41 and 4.41 for recurrent TIA and IS, respectively); additional factors for recurrent TIA were previous TIA (HR: 3.40) and microvascular disturbances (HR: 2.30); for recurrent IS arterial hypertension (HR: 4.24) and IS occurrence after MPN diagnosis (HR: 4.47). CV mortality was predicted by age over 60 years (HR: 3.98), an index IS (HR: 3.61), and the occurrence of index events after MPN diagnosis (HR: 2.62). Cytoreductive therapy was a strong protective factor (HR: 0.24). The rate of major bleeding was similar to the general population (0.90 per 100 patient-years). In conclusion, the long-term clinical outcome after TIA and IS in MPN appears even more favorable than in the general population, suggesting an advantageous benefit-risk profile of antithrombotic and cytoreductive treatment.
Central nervous system (CNS) relapse of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a devastating event occurring in similar to 5% of patients treated with R-CHOP. We hypothesized that adding lenalidomide to R-CHOP (R2CHOP) may decrease the risk of CNS relapse. We analyzed records for patients with DLBCL from two R2CHOP trials. We assessed variables pertinent to the CNS-International Prognostic Index (CNS-IPI) scoring system and classified patients into groups of low, intermediate, and high risk of CNS relapse. The 2-year CNS relapse rate for each risk group was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with reported rates in cohorts treated with contemporary chemoimmunotherapy. A total of 136 patients were included. Mean age was 65 and median follow-up was 48.2 months. 10.3, 71.3, and 18.4% of patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk CNS-IPI groups, respectively. Only one of 136 patients developed CNS relapse, corresponding to an incidence of 0.7% and an estimated 2-year CNS relapse rate of 0.9% for the entire R2CHOP cohort. The estimated 2-year CNS relapse rates for the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups were 0, 0, and 5.0%, respectively. Frontline therapy with R2CHOP in patients with DLBCL is associated with a lower-than-expected rate of CNS relapse.
Lenalidomide-RCHOP (R2-CHOP21) has been shown to be safe and effective in patients with untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this analysis is to report long-term outcome and toxicities in newly diagnosed DLBCL patients who received R2-CHOP21 in two independent phase 2 trials, conducted by Mayo Clinic (MC) and Fondazione Italiana Linfomi (FIL). All patients received R-CHOP21 plus lenalidomide. Long-term progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS) and late toxicities and second tumors were analyzed. Hundred and twelve patients (63 MC, 49 FIL) were included. Median age was 69 years, 88% were stage III-IV. At a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 5y-PFS was 63.5%, 5y-TTP 70.1% and 5y-OS 75.4%; according to cell of origin (COO): 5y-PFS 52.8% vs 64.5%, 5y-TTP 61.6% vs 69.6% and 5y-OS 68.6% vs 74.1% in germinal center (GCB) vs non-GCB respectively. Four patients experienced grade 4-5 late toxicities. Grade <= 3 toxicities were infections (N = 4), thrombosis (N = 1) and neuropathy (N = 3). Seven seconds tumors were observed. Long-term follow-up demonstrates that R2-CHOP21 efficacy was maintained with high rates of PFS, TTP, and OS. Lenalidomide appears to mitigate the negative prognosis of non-GCB phenotype. Incidence of therapy-related secondary malignancies and late toxicities were low.