The aim of this paper is to continue analyzing the interactions in the three-body system made up of the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth. First, we review new details about Moon-Earth connections, with a special focus on mechanical forces. Following, we expand the study to consider the pair Sun-Earth, with calculations for electromagnetic forces. The objective in both cases is to know how mechanical and electromagnetic forces affect seismological events on Earth. Our calculations found that Solar Cycles have no direct interaction with earthquake variations. Instead, we established that there is an internal discrepancy for quakes below 35 km detected in some of the regions analyzed. The results indicate that geomagnetic variations must be studied next to understand their connections to earthquakes.
Plastic has been accumulating on the beaches of Henderson Island in vast quantities according to recent news reports. It is proposed that the plastic is brought to the island by a very broad permanent surface current flowing southeastward past the island. Other characteristics of the flow are that its temperature is relatively high, its depth is shallow (about 100 m), its speed is sluggish (10 - 20 cm/sec), and by broad is meant more than 5000 km along 28 S. Henderson Island is located at the east/west midpoint of this wide warm current (130 W). By knowing more definitely where the plastic is coming from, than the vague suggestions provided by the news sources, it may be possible in the future to slow down or stop the piling up of trash on what were pristine beaches of this World Heritage Site.
Birds have specific habitat needs as a function of their life cycle and reproductive stage. Migrant shorebirds that may fly from the Arctic to the southern tip of South America have foraging and habitat requirements at sites where they stop to refuel before continuing their migration north or south. Throughout the world, shorebirds mainly forage on mudflats at low tide. Red knots (Calidris canutus rufa ) are threatened in the United States and elsewhere, and it is critical to determine factors that might contribute to their decline. This paper uses Delaware Bay as a case study to examine shorebird (and red knot) use of the intertidal habitat, and competing claims to habitats they require during their northward migration, as well as some of the key stakeholders that play a role in protecting red knots. Shorebirds are drawn to Delaware Bay to feed on the eggs of Horseshoe Crabs (Limulus polyphemus ) that are concentrated at the high tide. But they also feed on the intertidal mudflat. We examined intertidal habitat use on 17 beaches in an extensive study in 2015, and 5 key beaches in 2016. Most of the beaches were longitudinal, but four were more complex, and were used extensively for resting as well as foraging; numbers there were higher than on the longitudinal beaches. On foraging beaches, some shorebirds were present on over 85% of the intertidal censuses, and red knots were present on over 48% of the intertidal censuses. Average numbers of red knots on the longitudinal beaches varied from 0 to 354 ± 116 when any shorebirds were present, but averaged up to 1184 ± 634 when knots were present in 2015. Some beaches in 2015 had no knots (a beach with long-term aquaculture). Tide, intertidal location, and beach (name) determined the number of knots (and all shorebirds). Numbers decreased with distance from the mean high tide line. The average number of knots present in the intertidal mudflats two hours before or after low tide when knots were present (e.g. no censuses with zeros) was 2040 (=maximum flock size, in 2015). Major threats to red knots are from recreationists, overfishing of horseshoe crabs (reduction in egg prey base), and use of the intertidal by aquaculture. We discuss the role of stakeholders in conservation and protection of red knots.
We herein report our studies into the effects of microwave irradiation on the sol-vent-free esterification of L-leucine with alcohols. In the absence of solvent, micro-wave irradiation accelerated the reaction compared to conventional oil bath heating. Measurement of the dielectric properties under the reaction conditions revealed that the high dielectric loss factor of the reaction mixture containing L-leucine, n-butanol, and a p-toluene sulfonic acid catalyst could be attributed to the acceleration of the reaction. The depth of microwave penetration into the reaction mixture as derived from the insitu measurement of the dielectric properties was ~13 mm, which suggested that a thinner reaction vessel was favorable for the esterification of L-leucine. In addition to the batch reaction using a desktop microwave reactor, two types of flow reaction were also performed using a desktop tubular reactor and a semi-bench-scale tubular reactor. These flow reactions also exhibited high performances, thus allowing the scale-up of this reaction system for industrial use.
Sago palm is flowering and fruiting just once in their life cycle. Sago palms that grow naturally and semi cultivated were generally occurred natural pollination to form fruits and seeds, if not cut down to take the starch contained in their trunk. Sago palm pollination may occur as self-pollinated and cross-pollinated. If cross-pollinated was occurred in the pollination process, it will be varied of their progenies. This study aims to reveal the genetic variation of sago palms progenies with naturally pollinated process. The research method is to collect seeds from one parent trees that have produced ripe fruit. Fruit seeds germinated to be made and tested genetic variation using RAPD markers. Isolation of DNA is done by using the fresh young leaves. DNA amplification is done by using RAPD primers. The results showed that the progenies derived from naturally pollinated of sago palms were genetically varied based on RAPD markers and also varied based on morphological phenotypic. Variations occurred in the progenies of sago palm indicated that the sago palms were estimated cross-pollinated naturally, as a result fruits and seeds with genetically differences.
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) a phytohormon of auxin type is synthesized by different ways in plants and some bacteria (Agrobacteria, Pseudomonas and some others). The enzyme in-dolylacetamide hydrolase transforms indolylacetamide to IAA mainly in bacteria. However, recently published data showed that some plants can also hydrolyze indolylacetamide into IAA. In order to elucidate the role of indolylacetamide as an auxin precursor in plants and bacteria, productive method of determination of the activity of indoleacetamide hydrolase is necessary. The simple, inexpensive and productive method for the measurement of indo-leacetamide hydrolase activity was elaborated based on significant difference between IAAM and IAA in color developed with Salkovski' reagent. The light absorbance increased during conversion of IAAM to IAA by protein extracts from some plant cells and this increase may be used for quantitative estimation of indoleacetamide hydrolase activity. The method is suitable for fast discovery of indoleacetamide hydrolase activity before planning more complicated analyses and for the analysis of many probes at a short time in physiological and biochemical experiments. A detailed protocol for determination of indoleaceta- mide hydrolase activity by the elaborated method is described.
Pse-in-One 2.0 is a package of web-servers evolved from Pse-in-One (Liu, B., Liu, F., Wang, X., Chen, J. Fang, L. & Chou, K.C. Nucleic Acids Research, 2015, 43:W65-W71). In order to make it more flexible and comprehensive as suggested by many users, the updated package has incorporated 23 new pseudo component modes as well as a series of new feature analysis approaches. It is available at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/Pse-in-One2.0/. Moreover, to maximize the convenience of users, provided is also the stand-alone version called "Pse-in- One-Analysis", by which users can significantly speed up the analysis of massive sequences.
The aim of this paper is to present, by axiomatic way, an idea about the general conditional information of a single, fixed fuzzy set when the conditioning fuzzy event is variable. The properties of this conditional information are translated in a system of functional equations. Some classes of solutions of this functional system have been found.
Coastal erosion may have many different causes. Wherever we came across erosion problems on the Yasawa Islands in Fiji, they had causes other than sea level rise. We present two case studies. At one site, the beach erosion was caused by the construction of a stonewall diverting the currents in a gyre that hit the shore causing local beach erosion. At another site, extensive erosion caused removal and lateral redeposition of huge quantities of sand. From the Google Earth images we can infer a date between 2005 and 2009 for this change in shore conditions. We suggest that the shallow-water sand was destabilized by the commercial harvesting of thousands of sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra). These animals, by their sheer numbers and ecological behavior, were exerting a stabilizing influence on the shallow-water sandy deposits off the beach at Yageta Village. In both cases, the erosion was caused by human action. The coasts all along the Yasawa Islands are characterized by coastal stability. The presence of extensive rock-cut platforms and notches, as well as the occurrence of corals grown into "mini-atolls" are indicative of a stable sea level throughout the islands.
Three upwelling mechanisms are compared that involve progressive surface gravity waves. In all cases water is pumped up from the depth of wave influence. Two of the methods that are not fully discussed in print before can occur in nature. During wind generation of surface waves in the open sea wave amplitudes and the Stokes drift increases in the direction of wave propagation implying that the Stokes drift is divergent and requiring, as a consequence, that mass be supplied to the surface from below the wave layer. The depth of wave influence of wind generated swell can reach below the light zone, so nutrients can be brought up into the sunlight and biological activity enhanced and global warming ameliorated. A third method for shallow water is the oscillation of a paddle hinged and fixed to the bottom and moved by surface waves passing by.
The objective of the study was to determine a prediction equation of body weight of Amazonian manatee calves in captivity using their biometry. It was conducted out with 7 calves (4 males and 3 females) of approximately 8 months of age and average body weight of 29.94 ± 0.055 kg, arranged in pools of sufficient size. Biometry and weighing were performed periodically, with the following measurements: body weight (BW), total curved length (TCL), total length (TL), circumference (CIR), fin width (FW), tail width (TW) and peduncle (PED). Data were subjected to Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression, using the statistical software IBM SPSS 24.0. The results showed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between BW and TCL, TL, FW, TW, CIR and PED. Six linear simple regression equations were generated with relation to BW, using as predictor variables those that showed positive correlation. The CIR equation independent variable had the highest correlation coefficient and less error estimate (R~2 = 0.855, R_(aj)~2 = 0.852). In addition, three linear multiple regression equations of BW were calculated using the predictor variables previously analyzed by Person correlation analysis. The equation that used all biometric measurements (TCL, TL, FW, TW, CIR and PED) had the highest coefficient of determination and the lowest estimation error to predict BW. In conclusion, the biometric measurements of TCL, TL, FW, TW, CIR and PED showed a high correlation with the BW and can be used as predictive variables of BW of manatee calves, as they are easy to be measured.
In the cruise, MR15-04 by R/V MIRAI, the samplings by the neuston net were performed in 23rd November to 14th December 2016 and three species of Halobates (H. germanus, H. micans, H. sp) were used for the temperature tolerance experiments after the collection. The neuston net was towed three times (3 × 15 min) on the starboard side of R/V MIRAI on the water surface with ship speed of 2 knot to water every 3 nights (19:00 - 20:00) at the fixed point in the south-western direction which was located at 50 km from the Sumatra island (4?03'S - 4?05'S, 101?53'E) in the Indonesia. Experiments on cool coma and heat coma were performed on the three species. Seconds for recovery from cool coma and heat coma were also examined on the Halobates in this study. Cool coma temperatures, gap temperature needed (temperature from the adapted temperature) for the cool coma and seconds for the recover from cool coma ranged 13.0?C to 25.0?C, 3.1?C to 16.1?C, 1 second to 4370 seconds, respectively. Heat coma temperature, gap temperature needed for the heat coma, seconds for the recover from heat coma ranged 29.4?C to 43.1?C, 1.9?C to 15.5?C, 2 seconds to 6420 seconds, respectively. The higher temperature of cool coma temperature during the last five days was shown when Madden-Julian Oscillation has passed over the ship, R/V MIRAI than the previous 10 days in the adults of H. germanus collected at the fixed place neat to Sumatra island (One way ANOVA: F-value = 2.314, df = 7, p = 0.028). Adults of un-described species, H. sp collected near to the Sumatra island, showed lower cool coma temperature Mean ± SD: 15.51 ± 3.76 (9)] than those of H. germanus collected in the same place 16.96 ± 2.57 (191)]. This lower cool coma temperatures shown by this un-described species might be related to that this species should be a "shore" species inhabiting shore water in which many precipitation could cause the decreased surface temperature from 30?C - 31?C into about 25?C. Most of adults which suffered from the cool coma recovered within 20 seconds, whereas adults which suffered heat coma at 38?C and 39?C needed more than 200 seconds for the recovery and many of those which did it at more than 40?C needed more than 1000 second and some ones did not recover at all. All adults who suffered at more than 43?C did not recover at all. There were significant and negative correlation between cool and heat coma temperatures shown by the adults of H. germanus. This correlation might imply a common physiological mechanism for lower and higher temperature tolerances for this species.
Based on observational evidence and the known physical characteristics of surface gravity waves, an argument is made that downwelling is not a significant feature over the life history of these waves under the usual conditions existing in the open oceans. Since it has recently been predicted that upwelling due to surface gravity waves should occur within a storm at sea, when the waves are growing in amplitude, the contrast is explained. As a result the importance of the upwelling concept due to waves in stimulating biological productivity is further emphasized, and the possibility for reducing global warming is worth repeating.
Mixed layer depths are presented for the mid-latitude North Atlantic obtained from BT (bathythermograph) measurements for a 40 degree longitude band starting at Africa and moving west along 30 N. During February, 1959, 250 BTs were made in this region and they all show a distinct mixed layer depth greater than or equal to 85 meters. By comparing this east/west vertical temperature section with two other BT sections, one along 16 N and the other along 40 N taken one year earlier, but also in the cooling season (October, November), it is proposed that there was a northward drift in the surface layer between 16 N and 40 N that was cooled from above. Such a wide poleward flow of warm water, outside the Gulf Stream, is suggested to be the analogue of the permanent wide warm current off California in the North Pacific studied in some detail earlier.
Theoretical and experimental evidence of physical reality of imaginary numbers using interpretation of Ohm's law for electrical AC circuits proposed in 1897 by Steinmetz was presented. Other pieces of evidence are mentioned as well. The use of the general scientific principle of the physical reality of imaginary numbers allowed to prove that the relativistic formulas in the existing version of the special relativity theory are wrong, as well as to deny the principle of non-exceeding the speed of light and the hypothesis of monoverse. Corrected relativistic formulas are given and on their basis a theory of hidden Multiverse is proposed, parallel universes of which are mutually invisible. Using data obtained by the spacecrafts WMAP and Planck, it is proved that the hidden Multiverse has a quaternion structure, exists in the six-dimensional space, and forms Hyperverse together with other Multiverses. It is shown that the parallel universes of the hidden Multiverse are continuously drifting in multidimensional space, touch each other in many places and are even partially immersed in each other, forming portals. It is alleged that the search for extraterrestrial life in deep space is devoid of meaning, as you can even walk to the adjacent parallel universes through portals, which are anomalous zones on Earth. Moreover, extraterrestrial super civilizations have already found us long time ago and are located on Earth. The attempts to contact these super civilizations are meaningless as well, because such contacts are possible only at their wish. Consequently, to make the contacts possible, we need to convince super civilizations that human civilization is of interest to them and that it has a sufficiently high intelligence. It is shown how the human super intelligence over can be realized.
Pacific tropics are warmer than Atlantic tropics. This can be seen immediately from a world's sea surface temperature atlas, but readings from it of the latitudinal bandwidths between 80 F isotherms in the open waters of both oceans make this result very clear. Explanations are offered by introducing what has already been proposed for the large-scale surface circulations of the Pacific and incorporating conjectures for the circulation of the upper layer of the South Atlantic.
Papua is rich in biodiversity. The indigenous Papuans utilize most of endemic plants as food, board and medicines. One of the plants used as medicine is La- portea, sp, that locally known as Daun Gatal. The plant however, has not been developed commercially; this might due to lack of scientific providence of medicine content in this plant. The aims of this research is to (1) explore the types of Laportea growing in Papua, (2) conduct bio molecular character, which observes phylogeny relationship or genetic morphology in order to obtain data on the number of species found in Manokwari and Nabire. Bio molecular analysis is performed by PCR. Genetic analysis in this study was conducted through several phases, as follow: (a) Isolation of genomic total, (b) amplification of genes that encoded Rbcl, (c) sequencing the nucleotide sequence of the gene Rbcl of Laportea,(d) phylogeny analysis. The results showed that the DNA quality was good enough to do the next analysis. Of the four samples, two obtained haplo types are Haplo Type 1 (DT.NBX.H, DT.NBX.U and DR.MKW.H) and Haplo Type 2 (DR.NBX.L). The results of the analysis of phylogeny trees showed samples at 1 in the same haplo type, clade sequences of the genus Dendrocnide spp, Discocnide,and Laportea, while the sample at 2 in the same haplotype clade with Laportea interupta, Laportea ruderalis and Urera sp.
As part of a better understanding of drying liquids within porous materials, measurements from 293 to 343 K of deionized water surface tension in air as a function of relative humidity are exposed. Experimental work was carried out using the pendant drop method coupled with image analysis within an adapted instrumented climatic chamber. Results show that surface tension linearly decreases when relative humidity increases. Although the effect of humidity is less compared to that of the temperature and even less compared to a surfactant impact, it must not be neglected and values have to be mentioned when dealing with water evaporation. Modifying surface tension also affects the pendant drop shape. The drying kinetics of the pendant drop volume and its outer shell are connected to this change of shape. Steam in the air can be assimilated to a wetting agent, hence a surfactant, and can be used in an environmental- friendly way to ease the drying stage. Indeed, the challenge is to limit the risk of cracking and damaging pieces during this crucial step in material processing.