In this study two plasma sources were used for an in vivo treatment of human stratum corneum. The sample preparation was realised with the Cyanoacrylat stripping method, whereby a few layers of corneocytes embedded in the lipid matrix were removed from the skin of healthy volunteers. For the plasma treatment, dielectric barrier discharges with pulse durations in the microsecond as well as in the nanosecond range were applied. A comparison of these sources with respect to their biologically active components including dissipated power, gas and electron temperature, irradiance in the ultraviolet range, ozone and nitric oxide concentration is presented. Furthermore, species generated during plasma treatment on the sample surface like hydrogen peroxide, nitride or nitrate were measured using reflectometry. In addition, safety aspects for both sources were evaluated. Resulting plasma induced changes in the sample composition were investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The main ingredients carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to minor concentrations of sulphur were considered. A significant influence of the pulse duration on plasma characteristics was shown. A more effective formation of reactive species as well as more intense UV emission for ns-plasma was observed. Based on the determined parameters, both plasma sources are suitable for therapeutic purpose. Furthermore, significant plasma induced changes in the stratum corneum composition were reported, including an increase in nitrogen and oxygen content.
In order to further understand the full vector excursional details of the geomagnetic field, a paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of four sites has been conducted at the type locality of Pringle Falls, Oregon where 827 samples were drilled and spaced along a distance of 5 km, for their detailed directional and relative paleointensity studies. The profiles have registered a high-resolution (>10 cm/kyr) paleomagnetic record of the excursion (ca. 211+/13 ka) as recorded by diatomaceous lacustrine sediments. Remanence as well as induced magnetization experiments to investigate the reproducibility of the signal throughout the profiles have been conducted. In addition, low-field susceptibility vs. temperature analysis was performed indicating that the main magnetic carrier is pure magnetite (Curie point 575?C). The magnetic grain size also has indicated Single Domain-Multi-Domain (SD-MD) magnetite. The demagnetization was done by alternating field (a.f.) experiments, and the mean directions were determined by principal component analyses. In addition, induced magnetic tests were done, such as magnetic susceptibility (χ) analyses, saturation IRM, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM70) as well as the normalization of J17.5 mT/ARM70 to attempt to obtain relative paleointensity records of these sediments in question. The results of the induced rock magnetic tests such as the normalization studies indicate a direct correlation between the decrease of the relative paleointensity variations (i.e. lows) with respect to the directional changes. The detailed behavior of the paleosignal is highly consistent, since they are rapidly deposited sediments providing a detailed representation of the paleofield. The dissected VGP paths in 3 different phases are highly internally consistent and are defined by clockwise and anticlockwise loops traveling from the high northern latitudes over eastern North America and the North Atlantic to South America and then to high southern latitudes. They then return to the high northern latitudes through the Pacific and over to Kamchatka. This VGP behavior defines the geomagnetic signature of the Pringle Falls excursion as recorded at the type locality.
Usage of methods for determination of long-term trends of the dynamics of vegetation formation on the background of climate changes becomes more and more important at modern stage of the assessment of natural systems development. This causes to researchers a series of problems from choice of conceptual base to notions and terms of the processes identified and of state of vegetation of different environments. Solution of such a task results inevitably in necessity to correct the understanding of existing processes occurring in the vegetation cover. It allows establishing a direction of their development in the system of natural factors of any territory. As a result, we have base for determination of age, site and role of current state of phytocenoses in successional systems. It is necessary for this to reveal the peculiarities of phytocenoses composition and formation due to climate dynamics and to determine a period of ecosystems homeostasis, especially for phytocenoses of contact natural conditions. Optimal values of phytocenoses diversity, like one of whole biosystems, depend on the amount of resource in the environment, on stability degree and on evolutional development of cenoses due to ecological, micro-evolutional and evolutional processes.
The present research work was carried out at Southern Wheat Research Station, Tandojam during the growing season 2013-14 in order to work out correlation and regression analysis for yield traits in wheat genotypes. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight bread wheat genotypes such as Mehran, Sarsabz, TJ-83, SKD-1, Inqlab, A. Sattar, Sehar and Sassui were used to examine correlation and regression. Seven traits, viz.; plant height, tillers plant~(?1), spike length, spikelet’s spike~(?1), grains spike~(?1), seed index and grain yield plant~(?1) were studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for plant height, tillers plant~(?1), spike length, spikelet’s spike~(?1), grains spike~(?1), seed index and grain yield plant~(?1). Based on mean performance, variety Sarsabz gave maximum plant height (95.46), produced maximum tillers plant~(?1) (4.40), gave more grain spike~(?1) (63.13), TJ-83 gave highest seed index (47.260), and was next ranker in spike length~(?1) (12.07), spikelet’s spike~(?1) (19.13), grains spike~(?1) (59.86), and grain yield plant~(?1) (9.86) among the genotypes. The phenotypic correlations revealed that tillers plant~(?1) and grains spike~(?1) were highly positively associated; hence these yield components can be used as reliable selection criteria to improve grain yield in wheat. Thus estimation of correlation and regression analysis among yield and yield components may provide effective selection criteria to improve wheat grain yield. The results from correlation and regression of plant height indicated significantly positive association with spikelet’s spike~(?1), tillers plant~(?1) and grains spike~(?1) which revealed that increase in plant height will cause corresponding increase in associated traits.
Corals and coral-reef ecosystems have been known to be extremely sensitive to environmental pollution, which effects on growth and calcification of their skeletons. Diffused phosphate dust during loading and shipment in seawater was found to cause serious impacts on corals by inhibiting calcification in their skeletons. Calcium concentrations in cultured fragments of coral Stylophora pistillata from Phosphate Terminal (PT) site in the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba were investigated and compared with fragments from the same colony cultured in the Marine Science Station (MSS) site as marine protected area. Energy Disperse X-rays (EDX) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed to determine the elemental composition of coral fragments and identify their microstructural characteristics, respectively. EDX results showed that coral samples from the Phosphate Terminal (PT) site were poorly mineralized with significantly low concentrations of calcium which were only about 12% of those from the MSS control site. Moreover, higher amounts of O and C in the elemental analysis of corals from the PT site indicated domination of organic matrix content in their skeleton which is typical for corals under phosphate pollution stress. This result was in accordance with the SEM images of the PT samples which exhibited alteration in their microstructure morphology resembling organic matrix as a major constituent, unlike the SEM images from the MSS protected area. These results strongly suggest that phosphate dust which is diffused during exportation through loading and shipping in the Gulf of Aqaba has adverse impacts on corals and marine ecosystem through decreasing calcium mineralization in their skeletons.
A relation of the Josephson current density equation is successfully derived; this is done through a new derivation of the equation of quantum by neglecting kinetic Newtonian term in the energy expression.
The bacteriological quality of swimming pool water in Port Harcourt Metropolis was investigated. Ten (10) swimming pools were examined for microbial quality. Out of the 10 swimming pools, 4 (2, 4, 7 and 9) had bacterial isolates of 40 (100%). Swimming pools 2, 4, 7 and 9 had the bacterial isolates of 10 (25%), 8 (20%), 10 (25%) and 12 (30%), respectively. Of the forty (40) bacterial isolates identified, which represented 100 percent, 22 (55%) were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, 10 (25%) Bacillus cereus, 6 (16%) Micrococcus and 2 (5%) Staphylococcus aureus. Among the four swimming pools, 2 and 9 did not have the isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus, respectively. Based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) standard for recreational waters, the absence of coliform and fecal coliform bacteria (E. coli) revealed that the ten (10) swimming pools used for this study are considered to be within the acceptable limits for certifying microbiological water quality. However, there is a need for care and continuous maintenance of the swimming pools.
Phytochemical studies and antioxidant activities were carried out on n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of the leaves of Lippia rugosa A. Chev (Verbenaceae), a medicinal plant used traditionally in the Cameroonian savannah's region to protect foodstuffs and to cure degenerative diseases. Results indicated that theses extracts contain terpenoids, phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Except the n-hexane extract, all of the obtained extracts exhibit antioxidant activities with the ethanol extract being the most effective with an inhibition percentage of 85.668% ± 1.233% and an inhibition concentration (IC_(50)) of 58 μg/ml (R~2 = 0.987, P < 0.01) at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Chromatographic separation on silica gel of the ethanol extract led to the isolation of a pure organic compound which was characterized as 7-hydroxy-5,6,4'-trimethoxyflavone by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, a flavonoid exhibiting antioxidative activity with an inhibitory percentage of 25.506% ± 0.205% and inhibition concentration (IC_(50)) of 221 μg/ml (R~2 = 0.966, P < 0.01). This is the first time that 7-hydroxy-5,6,4'-trimethoxyflavone is being isolated from L. rugosa and its antioxidant activity evaluated.
The aim of this paper was a generalization of independence property proposed by J. Kampé de Feriét and B. Forte in Information Theory without probability, called general information. Therefore, its application to fuzzy sets has been presented.
The experimental detection of the hidden periodicities in the activity of various radioactive sources which were observed by different instruments and which coincided with the period of the free oscillations of the Sun gave an impetus to the further research. The simultaneous recording of gamma rays from two radioactive sources revealed the elements of synchronism and the periods of solar oscillations as well as the phase delay for the different sources in the obtained time series. A neutrino detector has been designed and tested, the advanced schemes for neutrino detection are developed, and the impact of the neutrino source on the radioactive matter is explored. The search for the new principles for creating the emitters of neutrino beams is conducted.
The paper posits that kin sociality and eusociality are derived from the handicap-care principles based on the need-based care to the handicappers from the caregivers for the self-interest of the caregivers. In this paper, handicap is defined as the difficulty to survive and reproduce independently. Kin sociality is derived from the childhood handicap-care principle where the children are the handicapped children who receive the care from the kin caregivers in the inclusive kin group to survive. The caregiver gives care for its self-interest to reproduce its gene. The individual's gene of kin sociality contains the handicapped childhood and the caregiving adulthood. Eusociality is derived from the adulthood handicap-care principle where responsible adults are the handicapped adults who give care and receive care at the same time in the interdependent eusocial group to survive and reproduce its gene. Queen bees reproduce, but must receive care from worker bees that work but must rely on queen bees to reproduce. A caregiver gives care for its self-interest to survive and reproduce its gene. The individual's gene of eusociality contains the handicapped childhood-adulthood and the caregiving adulthood. The chronological sequence of the sociality evolution is individual sociality without handicap, kin sociality with handicapped childhood, and eusociality with handicapped adulthood. Eusociality in humans is derived from bipedalism and the mixed habitat. The chronological sequence of the eusocial human evolution is 1) the eusocial early hominins with bipedalism and the mixed habitat, 2) the eusocial early Homo species with bipedalism, the larger brain, and the open habitat, 3) the eusocial late Homo species with bipedalism, the largest brain, and the unstable habitat, and 4) extended eusocial Homo sapiens with bipedalism, the shrinking brain, omnipresent imagination, and the harsh habitat. The omnipresence of imagination in human culture converts eusociality into extended eusociality with both perception and omnipresent imagination.
A novel thiol-reactive bifunctional agent, an analogue of fluorobenzaldehyde-O-6-(2,5-dioxo-2,5- dihydro-pyrrol-1-yl)-hexyl]oxime, (FBAM) has been synthesized. The new prosthetic group, ~(18)F]- FBAMPy, replaces the 4-fluorophenyl moiety with a 2-fluoropyridinyl moiety leading to increased polarity (FBAM analytical HPLC R_f = 6.4 min; FBAMPy R_f = 4.8 min) while retaining the sulfurreactive pendant. By altering the polarity of the molecule, this new prosthetic group should have significant impact in coupling it with small peptides and other biomolecules.
Chemical bath deposition technique has been used to deposit Ni-doped Sb2S3 thin films onto glass substrate. Doping was carried out by adding 1, 3 and 5 wt% of Ni. Bath temperature was kept as 10?C and films were annealed at 250?C under vacuum. Polycrystalline nature of films with an orthorhombic phase was analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Scanning electron microscopy was used for morphological study which shows that grains are spherical. Optical measurements using transmittance data indicated that films have a direct band gap of 1.00 - 2.60 eV with an absorption coefficient of ~10~4 cm~(?1) in visible range. The average value of electrical conductivity was calculated as 1.66, 1.11 and 1.06 (Ω?cm)~(?1) for as-deposited films and 1.90, 2.08 and 1.15 (Ω?cm)~(?1) for annealed films while refractive indices were found as 2.18 - 3.38 and 1.91 - 3.74 respectively. The obtained films can be used for solar cell applications due to their good absorbing properties like higher absorption coefficient and refractive index values.
The present study was carried out during the year 2013-14 on the screening of the selected linseed genotypes for yield performance in Sindh, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out at the experimental fields of Oilseeds Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam in a three replicated randomized complete block design. Twelve linseed genotypes (L-53, C-W-2, Shikarpur 2, P?16-4, L-8, 11~(?1)06, Hala 3, L~(?1)7, Santane, Summit, L?10 and check llsi 90) were screened for their agronomic performance and correlations amongst yield and its contributing traits were calculated. The analysis of variance suggested significant (P < 0.05) variation among linseed genotypes for all the traits studied in this experiment. Most of the genotypes attained flowering and maturity earlier than the check variety; while P?16-4 surpassed Ilsi-90 for primary branches; and most of the remaining genotypes were at par with the commercial check for primary branches. Genotype L?10 surpassed the commercial check for capsules plant~(?1) and L-8 was at par with the commercial check; while none of the genotypes could surpass commercial check variety for seed index, but 11?106, Hala-3 and Summit also showed promising performance regarding the seed index. All the genotypes tested in this experiment such as L-53, C-W-2, Shikarpur 2, P?16-4, L-8, 11~(?1)06, Hala 3, L~(?1)7, Santane, Summit, L~(?1)0 surpassed the commercial check variety Ilsi-90 for seed yield plot~(?1). The correlation coefficient for yield and its contributing traits of linseed genotypes showed a positive and significant (P < 0.05) association for primary branches plant~(?1) vs seed yield plant~(?1) (r = 0.3334*), days to maturity vs spike length (r = 0.5384**), days to 75% flowering vs days to 90% maturity (r = 0.4073**), days to 75% flowering vs seed index (r = 0.4291**), days to 90% maturity vs seed index (r = 0.3973**) and seed index v/s seed yield plot~(?1) (r = 0.5160**). Negative and sig nificant (P < 0.05) association was observed for primary branches plant~(?1) vs days to maturity (r = ?0.368*), capsules plant~(?1) vs days to maturity (r = ?0.3567*), days to 90% maturity vs seed yield plant~(?1) (r = ?0.4156**) and days to 90% maturity vs seed yield plot~(?1) (r = ?0.3423*). The new genotypes possess the potential to become future varieties for general cultivation in Sindh province.
A formula for the Magnus force on a rotating and translating solid cylinder in a fluid is constructed for two different fluid models. In both cases the flow is steady and frictionless with no formation or shedding of eddies behind the cylinder. However, model one is founded on the assumption of irrotationality whereas model two is not but rather makes explicit use of the centrifugal force acting on the curving streamlines above the cylinder. Model two's Magnus force comes out to be 15% larger in magnitude which is probably more than that can be accounted for by approximations made within the models. Observations will be needed to help decide which model comes closer to the truth. In the force formula the following factors are multiplied together: constant, fluid density, translation speed, and rotation frequency. For model one constant = 2; for model two constant = 2.3.
Many oils from plants are important components of our food chain and maintaining their oxidative stability (OS) is economically and nutritionally important. OS is dependent in part on antioxidant capacity (AC) arising from the electron donating ability of endogenous compounds in the oils. Attention has focused on the contribution to AC of phenolic compounds in oils as many have bioactivities in vitro. However, the relevance of such phenolics to healthy nutrition remains unclear. In contrast, many plant-derived oils also contain tocopherol homologs, which as vitamin E are dietary- essential, lipid-soluble antioxidants. We have determined the AC of twelve “off the shelf” edible oils by assessing their ability to quench galvinoxyl, a stable free radical species. The stochiometric reactivity of vitamin E with galvinoxyl indicates that the combined dα-tocopherol and dγ-tocopherol homologs contribute between 20% (olive) and 85% (soya) to AC depending on type of oil. Tocopherols are important contributors to the AC of several vegetable oils. Breeding and photo mixotrophic programmes to enhance content in edible oil crops of this important vitamin may have a positive impact not only on oil stability during storage but also in contributing to provision of optimum dietary intakes for health.
Liver metastasis is a normal result in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EAC) infected mice. A partially purified protein with Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-like activity extracted from leaves of Raphnus sativus was tested for its ability to down regulate liver metastasis of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EAC) intraperitoneally implanted in albino mice. Sixty albino mice were divided equally into 4 groups. Group I mice (G1 control) were treated with physiologic saline solution for 7 days. Group 2 mice (G2) were injected with the partially purified protein. Group 3 mice (G3) were intraperitoneally inoculated with EAC cells and treated with the partially purified protein. Group 4 mice (G4) were inoculated EAC cells and treated with physiologic saline solution. The results showed a disturbance in liver functions. This disturbance was observed as a reduction in the values of serum albumin, hemoglobin, total counts of erythrocytes and platelets, total lipids in liver tissues, erythrocytes SOD activity, serum glucose, reduced glutathione (GSH) and the trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) contents in liver and spleen tissues as well as the elevation of serum transaminases activities, the levels of malondialdehyde in blood, DNA and RNA of liver tissues in the infected mice (G4). On the other hand, in G3, after treatment with the partial purified protein all these parameters restored their normal values and became near from the normal group (GI). Moreover, the protein showed no toxicity towards the mice as shown in G2. It could be concluded that a partially purified protein with Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-like activity extracted from leaves of Raphnus sativus as a nature source has a promised future in controlling liver metastasis.
A physical mechanism is proposed for initiation of summer’s warm surge, which is a large body of surface layer water, heated by the spring and summer sun, which moves north to mid- and high latitudes near the ocean’s center starting from the western tropical North Pacific. As the sun approaches the equator from the south during January to March, the surface layer warms and the sea level rises due to thermal expansion, creating a downward slope to the north of the sea surface. Warm surface water will therefore begin to move north assuming that there is no counterbalancing force. At some point the colder surface water to the north, being unstable, will move south and cause the warm surface layer in the south to move farther north than the sun can urge it to do. Summer’s warm surge is a transient and shallow thermal circulation that occurs every year. Measurements in the western tropics of the northward slope of the sea surface, and the northward surface flow, are needed to confirm the proposed hypothesis.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the productivity of wheat under different levels of phosphorus and method of application at Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. Experiment was laid out in a RCBD (factorial) with three replications. The treatments were four phosphorus levels (P1 = 0 Kg?ha~(?1) + Recommended Nitrogen, P_2 = 30 Kg?ha~(?1) + Recommended Nitrogen, P3 = 60 Kg?ha?1 + Recommended Nitrogen and P_4 = 90 Kg?ha~(?1) + Recommended Nitrogen) and two placement methods (A1 = Drilling method and A2 = Broadcast method). The statistical analysis of phosphorus levels and placement exhibited significant differences to the maturity days, plant height, tiller production, spike length, grains per spike, seed index, harvest index and grain yield ha?1. However, the interactions of P levels and placement in all crop characters were non-significant except the grain yield/ha~(?1). The results revealed that application of 90 kg P ha~(-1) prolonged 143 days for maturity, taller plants (100.16 cm), more tiller plant?1 (13.50), lengthy spikes (12.83 cm), more grains spike~(?1) (51.33), heavier seed index (48.16 g), better harvest index (50.82%) and satisfactory grain yield (4240.50 Kg?ha?1). The unit increase in grain yield was positively correlated with the increased values of observed crop parameters by extending the values of maturity r = 0.85, plant height r = 0.94, tillers plant r = 0.96, spike length r = 0.95, grains spik~(?1) r = 0.97, seed index r = 0.95 and harvest index r = 0.97. It was concluded that 90 kg P ha?1 was superior level of phosphorus if, applied with seed drilling for obtaining satisfactory grain yield of wheat crop.
Electroplating waste water is considered to be harmful to health of animals. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that electroplating waste water would suppress immune functions in Kunming mice. Twenty-six mice were randomly divided into the control group (n = 13) and the experimental group (n = 13), in which the latter drank electroplating waste water. We found that body mass and most organ wet masses (heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, caecum, colon, testes, epididymis, seminal vesicals) were not influenced by electroplating waste water. However, stomach with its content, small intestine, small intestine with its contents and colon with its contents were higher in the experimental group than in the control group. As expected, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) response indicative of cellular immunity was suppressed by electroplating waste water. White blood cells, thymus and spleen mass were all not response to electroplating waste water. Taken together, electroplating waste water had different effects on distinct components of immune system in Kunming mice.