We present, in a synthetic way, some of the main findings from ten studies that were conducted in the field of ethics in politics, using the Functional Measurement framework. These studies were about (a) Angolan and Mozambican people's views about the legitimacy of military-humanitarian interventions, (b) French people's perspectives regarding the government's responsibility for the health of consumers of illicit substances, (c) Togolese people's views about the acceptability of political amnesties in a time of political transition, (d) the perspective of victims of the genocide of the Tutsis in Rwanda regarding the attribution of guilt by association to offspring of perpetrators, (e) slave descendants' views about the acceptability of national policies on reparations for slavery, (f) Colombian people's willingness to forgive perpetrators of violence who harmed family members during the civil war, (g) the attitudes of French and Colombian people about national drug control policies, (h) Indian students' views about the appropriateness of the death penalty for murder or rape, (i) Colombian people's perspectives regarding corruption, and finally (j) Venezuelan people's conceptualization of human rights. The main findings are discussed in reference to six of the foundations of Moral Foundations Theory.
Executive Function (EF) is a higher cognitive process responsible for control and self-regulation of behavior. The aim of this study is to describe the developmental trajectory of EF in four and six-year old Colombian children, and to highlight possible differences by socio-cultural variables such as age, sex, type of school or socio-economic status. One hundred and sixty-three normotypical children were tested using psychological tests validated for a Spanish population belonging to the Weschler and Luria Initial batteries. HJ-biplot analysis showed that EF developed commensurate with age and school grade, although differences by socioeconomic status and type of school were evident.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify differences in memory processes and the role of executive functions in memory, in people with migraine and in a control group. Neuropsychological evaluation was made in one session on 63 participants distributed into interictal migraine with aura (n = 24), interictal migraine-without-aura (n = 16) and control (n = 23) groups. ANOVAs on the individual tasks revealed statistically significant differences between groups on Rey-Osterrieth direct and percentile copy strategy and recall (both p < 0.001). Differences were identified between control and migraine groups in performance on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, but not on other memory tasks, suggesting the existence of brain dysfunctions in people with migraine affecting organizational and planning abilities that are necessary for visual memory.
Social cognition impairments are frequently found in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) when structural lesions may not reveal the severity of the injury. Though instruments used to assess social behavior are thought to be sensitive, the absence of structural damage in TBI patients may lead to underscore such problems. The aim of this study was to develop a complementary diagnostic tool such as a paradigm for functional Magnetic resonance Imaging (fMRI) involving a simple task that could tell how patients understand certain complex social behavior by identifying different movements with or without social intentions where language and complex cognitive process were not required. Eleven patients with mild TBI and social cognition difficulties and twelve control subjects were matched by demographic variables. A paradigm of social fMRI was developed by using dots in movement representing human motion, human motion with social intention such as dancing or sharing, and dots moving without meaning. Patients had less activation in parietotemporal junction and bilateral middle frontal gyrus in the social perception task movement compared with control group subjects. The fMRI paradigm developed can be an additional diagnostic tool for identifying social cognition impairments in mild TBI patients. Regardless the absence of structural injury, changes in activation areas suggest a prospective use of this tool since clinical, cognitive and functional outcomes support such finding.
Neurofeedback treatments have shown successful results in anxiety disorders, The effectiveness of a betal Neurofeedback protocol was tested in a longitudinal clinical case study. A participant suffering from an anxiety syndrome underwent 10 sessions of Neurofeedback, in a protocol consisting of uptraining the betal rhythm (16-21 Hz) while downtraining the theta (4-8 Hz) band. State anxiety and salivary cortisol levels were measured during each of the 10 sessions following a pre/post design. Initial and final examinations of anxiety symptoms and sustained attention performance were also implemented. The final evaluation revealed that levels of anxiety fell within a normative range and that sustained attention had improved. A t-test for related samples disclosed a significant improvement of betal amplitude across the sessions, without modifications in untrained bands. A significant inverse correlation between betal amplitude and salivary cortisol was detected, suggesting that brain activity could be considered a marker of anxiety. The validation of the beta I Neurofeedback protocol was assessed according to independence, trainability and interpretability criteria. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a neurofeedback protocol on anxiety and sustained attention, the success of which may lie in the reestablishment of an optimal cortical arousal capable of inhibiting elevated amygdalar activity.
This study investigated how the difficulties in language in children with Rolandic Epilepsy (RE) could be related to alterations in their development of phonological awareness and/or working memory. We evaluated fourty-two children aged 6 to 13 years old. From these, twenty-one children were diagnosed with RE and formed the experimental group; and twenty-one children without RE, paired with the experimental group by sex, age, education and socioeconomic status, formed the control group. The results showed significant differences in the performances of children with RE and healthy children in the tests that evaluated working memory and phonological awareness. Also, positive and high significant correlations were found between working memory and phonological awareness in the RE clinical subgroup. Generally, the results suggest that compromises in both cognitive functions might be associated to loss of language capabilities in children with RE, and also point that the development of working memory and phonological awareness are interconnected.
This study analyzes dropout rates among Latin-American immigrants with alcohol abuse problems (AAP) participating in a batterer intervention program, and whether those perpetrators who finalize the intervention benefit the same as those participants without AAP in a number of program outcomes. The sample was 107 Latin-American immigrants convicted for intimate partner violence perpetration. Contrary to what was expected, there were not higher dropout rates among participants with AAP. Participants who finalized the intervention program, however, showed improvements in all outcomes variables explored regardless of whether they had AAP, including a reduction of alcohol abuse among participants with AAP.
Under a not experimental, analytical cross-sectional desing, this study describes the relation between the acculturation strategies introduced by Berry, integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization, with the ethnic identity. Data was collected from 431 peruvians and colombians immigrants in the city of Antofagasta, Chile, using the acculturation scale developed by Basabe, Zlobina and Paez, (2004) and the spanish version of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). The results concludes that biculturality was the most used acculturation strategy for both groups although differences were found for sex. For ethnic identity, differences were statistically significant for both groups only between nationalities. Analysing the existent relation between the variables, the tests concludes in favor for theoretical assumptions that people who choose for a "loyalty to ingroup" acculturation strategy (biculturals and separated) has a higher positive orientation to his/her own ethnic group, instead people who use a "individualistic" strategy (assimilated and marginated).
The role of a parent with a disabled child can be highly demanding. There are few publications concerning parental emotional exhaustion in Latin America. The present prevalent case-controlled study evaluated the frequency of emotional exhaustion in 103 parental couples of parents of children with Down Syndrome (DS); likewise the study explores the rate of emotionally exhausted and depressed mothers in comparison with the fathers. This outcome was measured using a modified and validated version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results showed a prevalence of emotional exhaustion of 52.64%. In the matched-pair analysis we found a higher chance of exhaustion in mothers in comparison with their partners.
The aim of this paper was to analyze the training needs and career guidance, as well as the guidance received in the adult population in the Spanish region of Castile and Leon. This work is part of the R & D project "The orientation of the vital and professional project in adulthood: Needs analysis, assessment of employment services and identification of best practices". Currently, the importance of vocational dimension in personal and social welfare is now recognized. The sample consisted of 375 subjects, mostly unemployed or in a position to improve their employment situation. Through the SPSS version 20 program, data corresponding to the descriptive statistics were obtained, as well as reliability values obtained by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the correlation analysis, and the ANOVA findings. The results showed a positive relationship between the satisfaction with the career followed and the content of training. In addition, it was found that the importance of training content fits the profile of the participants in the training process. Subjects with a lower level of studies showed significant differences in training needs in relation to subjects with higher education.
This study examined ways to improve fit and interpretive capacity of the M5-50, an IPIP-based personality instrument, using the Openness/Intellect model (O/I) given a history of poor performance of the M5-50 Openness scale (Socha, Cooper, & McCord, 2010). With participants from Amazon's MTurk (n = 305), theoretical models for the five-factor model, Openness as a 10-item single factor, and the O/I model were tested and fitted poorly. After removing one problematic item, the O/I model showed acceptable fit. Findings indicate that the O/I model improved psychometric validity and interpretive capacity for the M5-50. The flexibility and open access of IPIP-based instruments such as the M5-50 makes the IPIP an optimal choice for instrument adaptation and construction in Latin America.
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of religiosity and religious affiliation on sexual risk among young people living in poor social conditions in Brazil. In addition, we investigate if religiosity plays a protective role in young people's sexual life, with specific regard to delay of first intercourse, condom use, and contraception. This is a cross-sectional study with 7572 participants, 14-24 years old, from seven states of Brazil, who answered a self-administered questionnaire with 109 questions in the school environment. We found an association between religiosity and lower odds of sexual debut. The group that have had already initiated sexual intercourse was not different on the sexual risk behavior. Young people of low socioeconomic status in Brazil have the sexual behavior slightly influenced by religious norms.