On this article we approach the education for indigenous childhood at the Indigenous Reservation napalpí (Chaco, Argentina) between 1911 and 1936, where the first plan of the national state for the confinement and discipline of the subjected natives, members of the Qom, moqoit, shinpi’ peoples, was implemented in a highly conflicting scenario of military campaigns of the national state for controlling the territorial and political indigenous domains of the territory, the expansion of capitalism and the progressive proletarian condition of those populations in the regional farms. We analyze the schooling project for the indigenous childhood in the Reservation, we present some notes on its development during the first three decades of the twentieth century and the conceptions on childhood and the educating forms attributed to the indigenous populations. this work is registered on the social history of education, it deepens previous inquiries of our authorship and it integrates anthropological and regional history researches. Our corpus of data is based in state’s legislations, civil servants reports and national organizations memoirs.
This article addresses the transformations in which childhood is experienced among the Kaiowa of te’ýikue, both in everyday life and at school. the data used for this article comes from ethnographic field research and emphasizes historical information as well as native perceptions and interpretations. The Kaiowa have experienced an intensification of their relationship with other brazilians (brancos) that has brought social and cultural transformations. Due to this process, the Kaiowa have developed specific strategies in indigenous schools related to the everyday life of their families as well as the education of their children. the article discusses different key issues such as childhood, children education and cultural transformations in dialogue with native categories.
The mbyà-Guarani sound world is an important dimension of theirexistence as well as their children are, through their presence and their songs, which occupy a central place in the oguatá porã (Guarani sacred walk towards perfection). In this paper, I present ethnographic data on body processes and treatments as well as theories of visual and sound-performative practices that are part of the mbyà way of being / living. the paper is, based on an ethnomusicological research among mbyà groups in southern Brazil. From ethnographic descriptions an interpretation is built: a «cosmo-sonic» domain of ontology and epistemology of this Amerindian people, that is to say, that the construction of the mbyà person— and the construction of knowledge are closely linked with sound processes, as well as to imagery, kinetic and material performances, that strengthen the listening and the resonance of the being.
This article analyzes, from an ethnographic perspective and a sociocultural framework, the construction of silences in the interaction between students and teachers in a multilingual classroom situation in an indigenous community in méxico. the analysis reveals how the silence of the chinanteco speaking children when asked to answer certain questions in class is not always due to their failure to understand spoken and written spanish that is used in class. their silences are responses taking different meanings in specific situations. the silence of the children can be a way of resisting, a way of hiding, and, sometimes, their voices are silenced.
Supported by ethnographic documentation, by the anthropological literature and by data collected in the field, this article relates the process by which indigenous peoples in the northwest Amazon learn and teach children with the rich dialogue about the production of persons. The techniques and the meaning of «producing people» are transmitted in day to day life, in the interaction between generations, and in the narratives of specialists and family members (especially grandparents). At the same time, this process is intertwined with ritual and mythic knowledge transmission, which is, if not always explicit, always present in the indigenous groups of the region. Children also play active roles in this process of formation and self- formation; in this article, I lay out this social agency my means of a careful description of the day in the life of children in the multiethnic village of Tabocal do uneiuxi, santa Isabel do Rio negro. In this narrative, I point of the ways that children are agents in their own education and self-production, emphasizing their protagonism in the process of «producing people», as they incorporate and transform knowledge.
The article is based on field research conducted by the authorsamong Galibi-Marworno people from Uaçá region, at northern state of Amapa, Brazil. The objective is to present some aspects of their pedagogy, which is founded on the importance of freedom and autonomy for an accurate learning and the production of healthy bodies, focusing on nonverbal aspects of learning, the creativity of imitation and the children agency involved in those processes. The article presents the Galibi-Marworno’s ideas about childhood and child development and their strategies in the transmission of knowledge, contextualizing them in relation to the history and organization of the people. This description of the Galibi-Marworno’s learning processes aims to contribute to a more respectful schooling process, as required by Brazilian law.
Elementary schools continue to play a central role today in mapuche rural communities, at neuquén —Argentina—, sometimes, as the only government enclave. In the school context, thus, the hegemonic definition of identity is reinforced, as well as the school’s model of childhood. such identity relegates mapuche culture and subordinates it to the national, provincial and catholic identity. Anthropologi- cal research carried out since 2001 has been showing how some mapuche children and adolescents question school’ conceptions. This article presents a brief description of the educational system in this region, and explores the school experiences of mapuche children, examining the disputes over conceptions of childhood and mapuche identity introduced by children’ resistance practices. Considering mainly original ethnographic materials, the analysis reveals how through this controversial attitude not only they have strengthened their self recognition as mapuche but also they havebeen «succesfull» in the educational system.
In this paper we analyse migrants and indigenous ‘children identification processes in Argentina, considering the influence of special mobility and intercultural experiences of life in their sense of belonging. We consider how identifications and mobility by two ethnographic researches about formative experiences of mbyà- Guaraní children of misiones province and Bolivian migrants living in Buenos Aires. By two life stories, we analyse how children participate in communities of practice linked with social reproduction in contexts of mobility, which imply generation’s distinctive experiences referred to school, productive activities and expressive dimensions of social life. Our research shows the children are active producers of identifications where origin territories idealized images are stressed by transformation’s process, evidence of inter-generation’s dynamicsof membership’s definitions.
This study provides partial results of a 200-hour intensive training experience (called a diplomado) lasting one school year (2011-2012) for 35 indigenous teachers of Initial education who attend children 0 to 3 years old in marginalized communities of Oaxaca, mexico. Children’s spontaneous activities and those planned by teachers, presented through photographs and accompanying teacher’ narratives, are part of the written and photographic evidence submitted by the participants in their final diplomado portfolio of tasks. the purposes of the diplomado were to enrich teachers’communal knowledge and equip them with research skills to investigate and honor the communal practices, forms of governance, and the perspectives of the rural indigenous communities where they teach, in order to generate an authentic, alternative, community-based approach to initial education for babies and toddlers.