Polyphenols are secondary metabolites in plants, investigated intensively because of their potential positive effects on human health. Their bioavailability and mechanism of positive effects have been studied, and . Lately, a high number of studies takes into account the interactions of polyphenols with compounds present in foods, like carbohydrates, proteins or lipids, because these food constituents can have significant effects on the activity of phenolic compounds. This paper reviews the interactions between phenolic compounds and lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and their impact on polyphenol activity.
Previously it was demonstrated that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are promising green solvents for the extraction of natural products. However, despite their potential, an obvious disadvantage of NADES is the high viscosity. Here we explored the dilution effect on the structures and physicochemical properties of NADES and their improvements of applications using quercetin and carthamin. The results of FT-IR and H NMR experiments demonstrated that there are intensive H-bonding interactions between the two components of NADES and dilution with water caused the interactions weaken gradually and even disappeared completely at around 50% (v/v) water addition. A small amount of water could reduce the viscosity of NADES to the range of water and increase the conductivity by up to 100 times for some NADES. This study provides the basis for modulating NADES in a controllable way for their applications in food processing, enzyme reactions, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
Phenolic acids are present in our diet in different foods, for example mushrooms. Due to their bioactive properties, phenolic acids are extensively studied and there is evidence of their role in disease prevention. Nevertheless, , these compounds are metabolized and circulate in the organism as glucuronated, sulphated and methylated metabolites, displaying higher or lower bioactivities. To clarify the importance of the metabolism of phenolic acids, knowledge about the bioactivity of metabolites is extremely important. In this review, chemical features, biosynthesis and bioavailability of phenolic acids are discussed, as well as the chemical and enzymatic synthesis of their metabolites. Finally, metabolite bioactive properties are compared with that of the corresponding parental compounds.
In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion.
Phenolic extracts from 20 Canadian lentil cultivars ( ) were evaluated for total phenolic contents and composition, antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, ORAC), and inhibitory properties against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Twenty one phenolic compounds were identified in the present study, with the majority being flavonoids, including kaempeferol glycosides, catechin/epicatechin glucosides and procyanidins. These phenolic compounds not only contributed significantly to the antioxidant activities, but they were also good inhibitors of α-glucosidase and lipase, two enzymes, respectively, associated with glucose and lipid digestion in the human intestine, thus contributing significantly to the control of blood glucose levels and obesity. More interestingly, it was the flavonols, not the flavanols, which showed the inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Our result provides supporting information for developing lentil cultivars and functional foods with improved health benefits and suggests a potential role of lentil consumption in managing weight and control of blood glucose.
Obesity is one of the most serious global health problems, which increases the risk of other different chronic diseases. The crucial role of oxidative stress in the initiation and progression of obesity leads to the hypothesis that antioxidants can be used as therapeutic agents for obesity treatment. Among antioxidants, much attention has been paid to polyphenols due to their negligible adverse effects. Among them, quercetin is one of the most common dietary antioxidants widely distributed in different plant materials, such as fruits, vegetables and cereals. Quercetin shows a wide range of biological and health-promoting effects, such as anticancer, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. Furthermore, quercetin has anti-obesity activity through mitogen-activated protein kinase and adenine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. In this study, we reviewed the available scientific reports concerning the beneficial role of quercetin against obesity with emphasis on its mechanisms of action.
Core–shell biopolymer nanoparticles were formed by electrostatic deposition of pectin onto zein nanoparticles. Curcumin was encapsulated within the nanoparticles in an amorphous form. Biopolymer core–shell nanoparticles were fabricated using a hydrophobic protein (zein) as the core and a hydrophilic polysaccharide (pectin) as the shell. Particles were prepared by coating cationic zein nanoparticles with anionic pectin molecules using electrostatic deposition (pH 4). The core–shell nanoparticles were fortified with curcumin (a hydrophobic bioactive molecule) at a high loading efficiency (>86%). The resulting nanoparticles were spherical, relatively small (diameter ≈ 250 nm), and had a narrow size distribution (polydispersity index ≈ 0.24). The encapsulated curcumin was in an amorphous (rather than crystalline form) as detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra indicated that the encapsulated curcumin interacted with zein mainly through hydrophobic interactions. The nanoparticles were converted into a powdered form that had good water-dispersibility. These core–shell biopolymer nanoparticles could be useful for incorporating curcumin into functional foods and beverages, as well as dietary supplements and pharmaceutical products.
► Identification and quantification of 50 different flavonol glycosides. ► Twenty-eight berries with quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin aglycones. ► The phenolic constituents varied among berries. ► The knowledge can provide the dietary intake of flavonols in clinical studies. ► The results can be useful for genetic improvement of berry fruit quality. Berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. More than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with HPLC–MS in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, Japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog rose, Chinese and midland hawthorn, wild and cultivated species of blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and elderberry. The phenolic constituents and contents varied considerably among the analyzed berry species. Elderberry contained the highest amount of total flavonols (450–568 mg kg FW), followed by berry species, containing more than 200 mg kg FW of total: chokeberry (267 mg kg ), eastern shadbush (261 mg kg ), wild grown blackberry (260 mg kg ), rowanberry (232 mg kg ), american cranberry (213 mg kg ) and blackcurrants (204 mg kg ). Strawberry (10.5 mg kg ) and white currants (4.5 mg kg ) contained the lowest amount of total flavonols. Quercetins represent the highest percentage (46–100%) among flavonols in most analyzed berries. In wild strawberry and gooseberry the prevailing flavonols belong to the group of isorhamnetins (50–62%) and kaempferols, which represent the major part of flavonols in currants (49–66%). Myricetin glycosides could only be detected in chokeberry, rowanberry and species from the Grossulariaceae, and Adoxaceae family and genus. Wild strawberry and blackberry contained from 3- to 5-fold higher total flavonols than the cultivated one.
Oil-in-water nanoemulsions are particularly suitable for encapsulation of lipophilic nutraceuticals because of their ability to form stable and transparent delivery systems with high oral bioavailability. In this study, the influence of system composition and preparation conditions on the particle size and stability of vitamin D nanoemulsions prepared by spontaneous emulsification (SE) was investigated. SE relies on the formation of small oil droplets when an oil/surfactant mixture is titrated into an aqueous solution. The influence of oil phase composition (vitamin D and MCT), surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), surfactant type (Tween 20, 40, 60, 80 and 85), and stirring conditions on the initial particle size of vitamin D nanoemulsions was studied. Nanoemulsions with small droplet diameters ( 80 °C). The thermal stability of the nanoemulsions could be improved by adding a cosurfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)). The spontaneous emulsification method is simple and inexpensive to carry out and therefore has great potential for forming nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for food, personal care, and pharmaceutical applications.
In traditional medicine, plants have been used since ancient times for the prevention and/or protection against infectious diseases. In recent years, the use of herbal medicines and food supplements containing botanical ingredients, as alternative therapy for infectious diseases, has been intensified due to their high content of antimicrobial agents such as polyphenols, i.e. flavonoids, tannins, and alkaloids. Plants from the genus are important medicinal herbs, which are known to contain antimicrobial agents, and are rich in different active substances such as thymol, carvacrol, -cymene and terpinene. In this review, we summarise the available literature data about the antibacterial effects of the main plants belonging to the genus . We also provide information about cultivation, chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from these plants, and their use for medicinal purposes.
This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys’ phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential.
Natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum arabic (GA), were used to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for vitamin E-acetate. Stable delivery systems could be formed when vitamin E-acetate was mixed with sufficient orange oil prior to high pressure homogenization. WPI ( = 0.11 μm, 1% emulsifier) was better than GA ( = 0.38 μm, 10% emulsifier) at producing small droplets at low emulsifier concentrations. However, WPI-stabilized nanoemulsions were unstable to flocculation near the protein isoelectric point (pH 5.0), at high ionic strength (>100 mM), and at elevated temperatures (>60 °C), whereas GA-stabilized emulsions were stable. This difference was attributed to differences in emulsifier stabilization mechanisms: WPI by electrostatic repulsion; GA by steric repulsion. These results provide useful information about the emulsifying and stabilizing capacities of natural biopolymers for forming food-grade vitamin-enriched delivery systems.
L. (sumac) is an important crop widely used in the Mediterranean basin as a food spice, and also in folk medicine, due to its health-promoting properties. Phytochemicals present in plant foods are in part responsible for these consequent health benefits. Nevertheless, detailed information on these bioactive compounds is still scarce. Therefore, the present work was aimed at investigating the phytochemical components of sumac fruit epicarp using HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS/MS in two different ionisation modes. The proposed method provided tentative identification of 211 phenolic and other phyto-constituents, most of which have not been described so far in fruits. More than 180 phytochemicals (tannins, (iso)flavonoids, terpenoids, etc.) are reported herein in sumac fruits for the first time. The obtained results highlight the importance of as a promising source of functional ingredients, and boost its potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries.
The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate ( L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements.
Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) is an enzyme of the class of transferases widely known to modify protein functional properties in food systems. The main mechanisms of action involved are polymerisations, which result in changes in the molecule’s hydrophobicity. Among the functional properties, MTGase affects solubility and hence gelation, emulsification, foaming, viscosity and water-holding capacity, which all depend on protein solubility. Although the enzyme’s benefits for protein functionality in a variety of food systems are widely reported in the literature, few studies have focussed on its mechanisms. The purpose of this review is therefore to investigate the mechanisms of action of MTGase and consider its influence on the functional properties with different protein substrates. Understanding these mechanisms is the first step in the development and application, in food production, of new and better functional properties with improved and/or innovative characteristics that can satisfy consumer expectations.
Lovastatin (LOV) is a statin, used to lower cholesterol which has been found as a hypolipidemic agent in commercial red yeast rice. In present study, a sensitive molecular imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was prepared by fabricating a self-assembling monolayer formation of allylmercaptane on QCM chip surface for selective determination of lovastatin (LOV) in red yeast rice. To prepare molecular imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) nanosensor, LOV imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate–methacryloylamidoaspartic acid) [p(HEMA–MAAsp)] nanofilm was attached on the modified gold surface of QCM chip. The non-modified and improved surfaces were characterized by using contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The imprinted QCM sensor was validated according to the ICH guideline (International Conference on Harmonisation). The linearity range was obtained as 0.10–1.25 nM. The detection limit of the prepared material was calculated as 0.030 nM. The developed QCM nanosensor was successfully used to examine red yeast rice. Furthermore, the stability and repeatability of the prepared QCM nanosensor were studied. The spectacular long-term stability and repeatability of the prepared LOV-imprinted QCM nanosensor make them intriguing for use in QCM sensors.
This study examined the potential of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for rapid prediction of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Using the spectral data and the reference values of TBARS, a partial least square regression (PLSR) model was established and yielded acceptable results with regression coefficients in prediction (R ) of 0.944 and root mean squared errors estimated by prediction (RMSEP) of 0.081. To simplify the calibration model, ten optimal wavelengths were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA). Then, a new SPA-PLSR model based on the selected wavelengths was built and showed good results with R of 0.801 and RMSEP of 0.157. Finally, an image algorithm was developed to achieve image visualization of TBARS values in some representative samples. The encouraging results of this study demonstrated that HSI is suitable for determination of TBARS values for freshness evaluation in chicken meat.
The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted.
The influence of carrier oil type on the bioaccessibility of vitamin D 3 encapsulated within oil-in-water nanoemulsions prepared using a natural surfactant (quillaja saponin) was studied using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model: mouth; stomach; small intestine. The rate of free fatty acid release during lipid digestion decreased in the following order: medium chain triglycerides (MCT) > corn oil ? fish oil > orange oil > mineral oil. Conversely, the measured bioaccessibility of vitamin D 3 decreased in the following order: corn oil ? fish oil > orange oil > mineral oil > MCT. These results show that carrier oil type has a considerable impact on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility, which was attributed to differences in the release of bioactives from lipid droplets, and their solubilization in mixed micelles. Nanoemulsions prepared using long chain triglycerides (corn or fish oil) were most effective at increasing vitamin bioaccessibility.