Recent technological advancements have led to a deluge of data from distinctive domains (e.g., health care and scientific sensors, user-generated data, Internet and financial companies, and supply chain systems) over the past two decades. The term big data was coined to capture the meaning of this emerging trend. In addition to its sheer volume, big data also exhibits other unique characteristics as compared with traditional data. For instance, big data is commonly unstructured and require more real-time analysis. This development calls for new system architectures for data acquisition, transmission, storage, and large-scale data processing mechanisms. In this paper, we present a literature survey and system tutorial for big data analytics platforms, aiming to provide an overall picture for nonexpert readers and instill a do-it-yourself spirit for advanced audiences to customize their own big-data solutions. First, we present the definition of big data and discuss big data challenges. Next, we present a systematic framework to decompose big data systems into four sequential modules, namely data generation, data acquisition, data storage, and data analytics. These four modules form a big data value chain. Following that, we present a detailed survey of numerous approaches and mechanisms from research and industry communities. In addition, we present the prevalent Hadoop framework for addressing big data challenges. Finally, we outline several evaluation benchmarks and potential research directions for big data systems.
Deep learning is currently an extremely active research area in machine learning and pattern recognition society. It has gained huge successes in a broad area of applications such as speech recognition, computer vision, and natural language processing. With the sheer size of data available today, big data brings big opportunities and transformative potential for various sectors; on the other hand, it also presents unprecedented challenges to harnessing data and information. As the data keeps getting bigger, deep learning is coming to play a key role in providing big data predictive analytics solutions. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of deep learning, and highlight current research efforts and the challenges to big data, as well as the future trends.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a dynamic global information network consisting of Internet-connected objects, such as radio frequency identifications, sensors, and actuators, as well as other instruments and smart appliances that are becoming an integral component of the Internet. Over the last few years, we have seen a plethora of IoT solutions making their way into the industry marketplace. Context-aware communications and computing have played a critical role throughout the last few years of ubiquitous computing and are expected to play a significant role in the IoT paradigm as well. In this paper, we examine a variety of popular and innovative IoT solutions in terms of context-aware technology perspectives. More importantly, we evaluate these IoT solutions using a framework that we built around well-known context-aware computing theories. This survey is intended to serve as a guideline and a conceptual framework for context-aware product development and research in the IoT paradigm. It also provides a systematic exploration of existing IoT products in the marketplace and highlights a number of potentially significant research directions and trends.
In new product development, time to market (TTM) is critical for the success and profitability of next generation products. When these products include sophisticated electronics encased in 3D packaging with complex geometries and intricate detail, TTM can be compromised - resulting in lost opportunity. The use of advanced 3D printing technology enhanced with component placement and electrical interconnect deposition can provide electronic prototypes that now can be rapidly fabricated in comparable time frames as traditional 2D bread-boarded prototypes; however, these 3D prototypes include the advantage of being embedded within more appropriate shapes in order to authentically prototype products earlier in the development cycle. The fabrication freedom offered by 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography and fused deposition modeling have recently been explored in the context of 3D electronics integration - referred to as 3D structural electronics or 3D printed electronics. Enhanced 3D printing may eventually be employed to manufacture end-use parts and thus offer unit-level customization with local manufacturing; however, until the materials and dimensional accuracies improve (an eventuality), 3D printing technologies can be employed to reduce development times by providing advanced geometrically appropriate electronic prototypes. This paper describes the development process used to design a novelty six-sided gaming die. The die includes a microprocessor and accelerometer, which together detect motion and upon halting, identify the top surface through gravity and illuminate light-emitting diodes for a striking effect. By applying 3D printing of structural electronics to expedite prototyping, the development cycle was reduced from weeks to hours.
This paper considers a downlink cloud radio access network (C-RAN) in which all the base-stations (BSs) are connected to a central computing cloud via digital backhaul links with finite capacities. Each user is associated with a user-centric cluster of BSs; the central processor shares the user's data with the BSs in the cluster, which then cooperatively serve the user through joint beamforming. Under this setup, this paper investigates the user scheduling, BS clustering, and beamforming design problem from a network utility maximization perspective. Differing from previous works, this paper explicitly considers the per-BS backhaul capacity constraints. We formulate the network utility maximization problem for the downlink C-RAN under two different models depending on whether the BS clustering for each user is dynamic or static over different user scheduling time slots. In the former case, the user-centric BS cluster is dynamically optimized for each scheduled user along with the beamforming vector in each time-frequency slot, whereas in the latter case, the user-centric BS cluster is fixed for each user and we jointly optimize the user scheduling and the beamforming vector to account for the backhaul constraints. In both cases, the nonconvex per-BS backhaul constraints are approximated using the reweighted ℓ 1 -norm technique. This approximation allows us to reformulate the per-BS backhaul constraints into weighted per-BS power constraints and solve the weighted sum rate maximization problem through a generalized weighted minimum mean square error approach. This paper shows that the proposed dynamic clustering algorithm can achieve significant performance gain over existing naive clustering schemes. This paper also proposes two heuristic static clustering schemes that can already achieve a substantial portion of the gain.
The growing popularity and development of data mining technologies bring serious threat to the security of individual,'s sensitive information. An emerging research topic in data mining, known as privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM), has been extensively studied in recent years. The basic idea of PPDM is to modify the data in such a way so as to perform data mining algorithms effectively without compromising the security of sensitive information contained in the data. Current studies of PPDM mainly focus on how to reduce the privacy risk brought by data mining operations, while in fact, unwanted disclosure of sensitive information may also happen in the process of data collecting, data publishing, and information (i.e., the data mining results) delivering. In this paper, we view the privacy issues related to data mining from a wider perspective and investigate various approaches that can help to protect sensitive information. In particular, we identify four different types of users involved in data mining applications, namely, data provider, data collector, data miner, and decision maker. For each type of user, we discuss his privacy concerns and the methods that can be adopted to protect sensitive information. We briefly introduce the basics of related research topics, review state-of-the-art approaches, and present some preliminary thoughts on future research directions. Besides exploring the privacy-preserving approaches for each type of user, we also review the game theoretical approaches, which are proposed for analyzing the interactions among different users in a data mining scenario, each of whom has his own valuation on the sensitive information. By differentiating the responsibilities of different users with respect to security of sensitive information, we would like to provide some useful insights into the study of PPDM.
This paper presents the latest progress on cloud RAN (C-RAN) in the areas of centralization and virtualization. A C-RAN system centralizes the baseband processing resources into a pool and virtualizes soft base-band units on demand. The major challenges for C-RAN including front-haul and virtualization are analyzed with potential solutions proposed. Extensive field trials verify the viability of various front-haul solutions, including common public radio interface compression, single fiber bidirection and wavelength-division multiplexing. In addition, C-RANs facilitation of coordinated multipoint (CoMP) implementation is demonstrated with 50%-100% uplink CoMP gain observed in field trials. Finally, a test bed is established based on general purpose platform with assisted accelerators. It is demonstrated that this test bed can support multi-RAT, i.e., Time-Division Duplexing Long Term Evolution, Frequency-Division Duplexing Long Term Evolution, and Global System for Mobile Communications efficiently and presents similar performance to traditional systems.
Motion planning is a fundamental research area in robotics. Sampling-based methods offer an efficient solution for what is otherwise a rather challenging dilemma of path planning. Consequently, these methods have been extended further away from basic robot planning into further difficult scenarios and diverse applications. A comprehensive survey of the growing body of work in sampling-based planning is given here. Simulations are executed to evaluate some of the proposed planners and highlight some of the implementation details that are often left unspecified. An emphasis is placed on contemporary research directions in this field. We address planners that tackle current issues in robotics. For instance, real-life kinodynamic planning, optimal planning, replanning in dynamic environments, and planning under uncertainty are discussed. The aim of this paper is to survey the state of the art in motion planning and to assess selected planners, examine implementation details and above all shed a light on the current challenges in motion planning and the promising approaches that will potentially overcome those problems.
In recent decades, we have witnessed the evolution of biometric technology from the first pioneering works in face and voice recognition to the current state of development wherein a wide spectrum of highly accurate systems may be found, ranging from largely deployed modalities, such as fingerprint, face, or iris, to more marginal ones, such as signature or hand. This path of technological evolution has naturally led to a critical issue that has only started to be addressed recently: the resistance of this rapidly emerging technology to external attacks and, in particular, to spoofing. Spoofing, referred to by the term presentation attack in current standards, is a purely biometric vulnerability that is not shared with other IT security solutions. It refers to the ability to fool a biometric system into recognizing an illegitimate user as a genuine one by means of presenting a synthetic forged version of the original biometric trait to the sensor. The entire biometric community, including researchers, developers, standardizing bodies, and vendors, has thrown itself into the challenging task of proposing and developing efficient protection methods against this threat. The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on the work that has been carried out over the last decade in the emerging field of antispoofing, with special attention to the mature and largely deployed face modality. The work covers theories, methodologies, state-of-the-art techniques, and evaluation databases and also aims at providing an outlook into the future of this very active field of research.
Phasor measurement units (PMUs) are rapidly being deployed in electric power networks across the globe. Wide-area measurement system (WAMS), which builds upon PMUs and fast communication links, is consequently emerging as an advanced monitoring and control infrastructure. Rapid adaptation of such devices and technologies has led the researchers to investigate multitude of challenges and pursue opportunities in synchrophasor measurement technology, PMU structural design, PMU placement, miscellaneous applications of PMU from local perspectives, and various WAMS functionalities from the system perspective. Relevant research articles appeared in the IEEE and IET publications from 1983 through 2014 are rigorously surveyed in this paper to represent a panorama of research progress lines. This bibliography will aid academic researchers and practicing engineers in adopting appropriate topics and will stimulate utilities toward development and implementation of software packages.
As it becomes increasingly apparent that 4G will not be able to meet the emerging demands of future mobile communication systems, the question what could make up a 5G system, what are the crucial challenges, and what are the key drivers is part of intensive, ongoing discussions. Partly due to the advent of compressive sensing, methods that can optimally exploit sparsity in signals have received tremendous attention in recent years. In this paper, we will describe a variety of scenarios in which signal sparsity arises naturally in 5G wireless systems. Signal sparsity and the associated rich collection of tools and algorithms will thus be a viable source for innovation in 5G wireless system design. We will also describe applications of this sparse signal processing paradigm in Multiple Input Multiple Output random access, cloud radio access networks, compressive channel-source network coding, and embedded security. We will also emphasize an important open problem that may arise in 5G system design, for which sparsity will potentially play a key role in their solution.
This paper presents an overview of the cloud radio access network (C-RAN), which is a key enabler for future mobile networks in order to meet the explosive capacity demand of mobile traffic, and reduce the capital and operating expenditure burden faced by operators. We start by reviewing the requirements of future mobile networks, called 5G, followed by a discussion on emerging network concepts for 5G network architecture. Then, an overview of C-RAN and related works are presented. As a significant scenario of a 5G system, the ultra dense network deployment based on C-RAN is discussed with focuses on flexible backhauling, automated network organization, and advanced mobility management. Another import feature of a 5G system is the long-term coexistence of multiple radio access technologies (multi-RATs). Therefore, we present some directions and preliminary thoughts for future C-RAN-supporting Multi-RATs, including joint resource allocation, mobility management, as well as traffic steering and service mapping.
Device-to-device (D2D) communications have been proposed as an underlay to long-term evolution (LTE) networks as a means of harvesting the proximity, reuse, and hop gains. However, D2D communications can also serve as a technology component for providing public protection and disaster relief (PPDR) and national security and public safety (NSPS) services. In the United States, for example, spectrum has been reserved in the 700-MHz band for an LTE-based public safety network. The key requirement for the evolving broadband PPDR and NSPS services capable systems is to provide access to cellular services when the infrastructure is available and to efficiently support local services even if a subset or all of the network nodes become dysfunctional due to public disaster or emergency situations. This paper reviews some of the key requirements, technology challenges, and solution approaches that must be in place in order to enable LTE networks and, in particular, D2D communications, to meet PPDR and NSPS-related requirements. In particular, we propose a clustering-procedure-based approach to the design of a system that integrates cellular and ad hoc operation modes depending on the availability of infrastructure nodes. System simulations demonstrate the viability of the proposed design. The proposed scheme is currently considered as a technology component of the evolving 5G concept developed by the European 5G research project METIS.
In an aircraft electric power system, one or more supervisory control units actuate a set of electromechanical switches to dynamically distribute power from generators to loads, while satisfying safety, reliability, and real-time performance requirements. To reduce expensive redesign steps, this control problem is generally addressed by minor incremental changes on top of consolidated solutions. A more systematic approach is hindered by a lack of rigorous design methodologies that allow estimating the impact of earlier design decisions on the final implementation. To achieve an optimal implementation that satisfies a set of requirements, we propose a platform-based methodology for electric power system design, which enables independent implementation of system topology (i.e., interconnection among elements) and control protocol by using a compositional approach. In our flow, design space exploration is carried out as a sequence of refinement steps from the initial specification toward a final implementation by mapping higher level behavioral and performance models into a set of either existing or virtual library components at the lower level of abstraction. Specifications are first expressed using the formalisms of linear temporal logic, signal temporal logic, and arithmetic constraints on Boolean variables. To reason about different requirements, we use specialized analysis and synthesis frameworks and formulate assume guarantee contracts at the articulation points in the design flow. We show the effectiveness of our approach on a proof-of-concept electric power system design.
The massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system has drawn increasing attention recently as it is expected to boost the system throughput and result in lower costs. Previous studies mainly focus on time division duplexing (TDD) systems, which are more amenable to practical implementations due to channel reciprocity. However, there are many frequency division duplexing (FDD) systems deployed worldwide. Consequently, it is of great importance to investigate the design and performance of FDD massive MIMO systems. To reduce the overhead of channel estimation in FDD systems, a two-stage precoding scheme was recently proposed to decompose the precoding procedure into intergroup precoding and intragroup precoding. The problem of user grouping and scheduling thus arises. In this paper, we first propose three novel similarity measures for user grouping based on weighted likelihood, subspace projection, and Fubini-Study, respectively, as well as two novel clustering methods, including hierarchical and K-medoids clustering. We then propose a dynamic user scheduling scheme to further enhance the system throughput once the user groups are formed. The load balancing problem is considered when few users are active and solved with an effective algorithm. The efficacy of the proposed schemes are validated with theoretical analysis and simulations.
Pervasive computing and Internet of Things (IoTs) paradigms have created a huge potential for new business. To fully realize this potential, there is a need for a common way to abstract the heterogeneity of devices so that their functionality can be represented as a virtual computing platform. To this end, we present novel semantic level interoperability architecture for pervasive computing and IoTs. There are two main principles in the proposed architecture. First, information and capabilities of devices are represented with semantic web knowledge representation technologies and interaction with devices and the physical world is achieved by accessing and modifying their virtual representations. Second, global IoT is divided into numerous local smart spaces managed by a semantic information broker (SIB) that provides a means to monitor and update the virtual representation of the physical world. An integral part of the architecture is a resolution infrastructure that provides a means to resolve the network address of a SIB either using a physical object identifier as a pointer to information or by searching SIBs matching a specification represented with SPARQL. We present several reference implementations and applications that we have developed to evaluate the architecture in practice. The evaluation also includes performance studies that, together with the applications, demonstrate the suitability of the architecture to real-life IoT scenarios. In addition, to validate that the proposed architecture conforms to the common IoT-A architecture reference model (ARM), we map the central components of the architecture to the IoT-ARM.
Wireless networks have evolved from 1G to 4G networks, allowing smart devices to become important tools in daily life. The 5G network is a revolutionary technology that can change consumers' Internet use habits, as it creates a truly wireless environment. It is faster, with better quality, and is more secure. Most importantly, users can truly use network services anytime, anywhere. With increasing demand, the use of bandwidth and frequency spectrum resources is beyond expectations. This paper found that the frequency spectrum and network information have considerable relevance; thus, spectrum utilization and channel flow interactions should be simultaneously considered. We considered that software defined radio (SDR) and software defined networks (SDNs) are the best solution. We propose a cross-layer architecture combining SDR and SDN characteristics. As the simulation evaluation results suggest, the proposed architecture can effectively use the frequency spectrum and considerably enhance network performance. Based on the results, suggestions are proposed for follow-up studies on the proposed architecture.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been proliferating due to their wide applications in both military and commercial use. However, one critical challenge to WSNs implementation is source location privacy. In this paper, we propose a novel tree-based diversionary routing scheme for preserving source location privacy using hide and seek strategy to create diversionary or decoy routes along the path to the sink from the real source, where the end of each diversionary route is a decoy (fake source node), which periodically emits fake events. Meanwhile, the proposed scheme is able to maximize the network lifetime of WSNs. The main idea is that the lifetime of WSNs depends on the nodes with high energy consumption or hotspot, and then the proposed scheme minimizes energy consumption in hotspot and creates redundancy diversionary routes in nonhotspot regions with abundant energy. Hence, it achieves not only privacy preservation, but also network lifetime maximization. Furthermore, we systematically analyze the energy consumption in WSNs, and provide guidance on the number of diversionary routes, which can be created in different regions away from the sink. In addition, we identify a novel attack against phantom routing, which is widely used for source location privacy preservation, namely, direction-oriented attack. We also perform a comprehensive analysis on how the direction-oriented attack can be defeated by the proposed scheme. Theoretical and experimental results show that our scheme is very effective to improve the privacy protection while maximizing the network lifetime.
A number of impedance-based fault location algorithms have been developed for estimating the distance to faults in a transmission network. Each algorithm has specific input data requirements and makes certain assumptions that may or may not hold true in a particular fault location scenario. Without a detailed understanding of the principle of each fault-locating method, choosing the most suitable fault location algorithm can be a challenging task. This paper, therefore, presents the theory of one-ended (simple reactance, Takagi, modified Takagi, Eriksson, and Novosel et al.) and two-ended (synchronized, unsynchronized, and current-only) impedance-based fault location algorithms and demonstrates their application in locating real-world faults. The theory details the formulation and input data requirement of each fault-locating algorithm and evaluates the sensitivity of each to the following error sources: 1) load; 2) remote infeed; 3) fault resistance; 4) mutual coupling; 5) inaccurate line impedances; 6) DC offset and CT saturation; 7) three-terminal lines; and 8) tapped radial lines. From the theoretical analysis and field data testing, the following criteria are recommended for choosing the most suitable fault-locating algorithm: 1) data availability and 2) fault location application scenario. Another objective of this paper is to assess what additional information can be gleaned from waveforms recorded by intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) during a fault. Actual fault event data captured in utility networks is exploited to gain valuable feedback about the transmission network upstream from the IED device, and estimate the value of fault resistance.
This paper focuses on energy efficiency aspects and related benefits of radio-access-network-as-a-service (RANaaS) implementation (using commodity hardware) as architectural evolution of LTE-advanced networks toward 5G infrastructure. RANaaS is a novel concept introduced recently, which enables the partial centralization of RAN functionalities depending on the actual needs as well as on network characteristics. In the view of future definition of 5G systems, this cloud-based design is an important solution in terms of efficient usage of network resources. The aim of this paper is to give a vision of the advantages of the RANaaS, to present its benefits in terms of energy efficiency and to propose a consistent system-level power model as a reference for assessing innovative functionalities toward 5G systems. The incremental benefits through the years are also discussed in perspective, by considering technological evolution of IT platforms and the increasing matching between their capabilities and the need for progressive virtualization of RAN functionalities. The description is complemented by an exemplary evaluation in terms of energy efficiency, analyzing the achievable gains associated with the RANaaS paradigm.