This work is devoted to the analysis of the performance of energy detection based spectrum sensing in the presence of enriched fading conditions which are distinct for the large number of multipath components and the lack of a dominant components. This type of fading conditions are characterized efficiently by the well known Nakagami-q or Hoyt distribution and the proposed analysis is carried out in the context of the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC). Unlike the widely used probability of detection metric, the AUC is a single metric and has been shown to be rather capable of evaluating the performance of a detector in applications relating to cognitive radio, radar systems and biomédical engineering, among others. Based on this, novel analytic expressions are derived for the average AUC and its complementary metric, average CAUC, for both integer and fractional values of the involved time-bandwidth product. The derived expressions have a tractable algebraic representation which renders them convenient to handle both analytically and numerically. Based on this, they are employed in analyzing the behavior of energy detection based spectrum sensing over enriched fading conditions for different severity scenarios, which demonstrates that the performance of energy detectors is, as expected, closely related to the value of the fading parameter q.
The paper proposes a recommender system approach to cover online judge's domains. Online judges are e-learning tools that support the automatic evaluation of programming tasks done by individual users, and for this reason they are usually used for training students in programming contest and for supporting basic programming teachings. The proposal pretends to suggest problems assuming that a user must try to solve those problems already successfully solved by similar users. With this goal, the authors adopt the traditional collaborative filtering method with a new similarity measure adapted to the current domain, and the authors propose several transformations in the user-problem matrix to incorporate specific online judge's information. The authors evaluate the effect of the matrix configurations using Precision and Recall metrics, getting better results comparing with the authors method without transformations and with a representative state-of-art approach. Finally, the authors outline possible extensions to the current work.
The authors offer an answer to the research question, To what extent and in what ways is Twitter helpful to student learning when group hashtags are created and used in collaborative educational environments? Sixty-two students in a spring 2012 graduate online Research Methodology course worked individually and in groups to create discussions on topics of interest through Twitter posts and student-created hashtags. Student participants answered nine qualitative and quantitative questions concerning the Twitter/hashtag exercise and used collaborative blog pages to reflect on their experiences. A grounded theory approach was applied to classify data generated from the nine questions and blog postings. An analysis of the study's data resulted in the discovery of the following four themes: access to information, communication, class engagement, and general feedback. Based on these themes, nine recommendations are offered for maximizing the use of Twitter in an online environment for increased student engagement and learning.
Virtual Learning Environments have been the center of attention in the last few decades and help educators tremendously with providing students with educational resources. Since artificial intelligence was used for educational proposes, learning management system developers showed much interest in making their products smarter and more intelligent. Nevertheless, the questions of what an intelligent learning management system (ILSM) is and which tools and features are needed to make such system intelligent, are not clearly answered, therefore educational institutes do not have a proper tool to decide upon the degree of intelligence they need for their LMSs. This paper proposes a prevalent, thorough definition of “Intelligent Learning Management Systems”, and the design of a fuzzy model to measure the intelligence of these systems. In order to devise a comprehensive definition of an Intelligent Learning Management System, experts from around the world were consulted. Following that, different proposed Intelligent Learning Management Systems were studied, and forty-one features and tools were found and analyzed. After the analysis, experts' opinions were taken into account to rank these features. The paper proposes thirteen most significant features and tools as criteria to be used in fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a fuzzy model to measure the intelligence of Learning Management System.
This study was designed to enrich the learning experiences of in-service and pre-service teachers in two educational technology classes by adopting e-books as the course material. Graduate students were more positive about their e-book reading experience than undergraduate students, but, surprisingly, more undergraduates (63.6%) became interested in checking out e-book readers from the school library than graduate students (51.9%). Over three-quarters of undergraduates (78.6%) responded positively about the use of e-book readers by the end of the study. Despite their appreciation of e-book features, more than half of both undergraduate and graduate students preferred print books but were willing to use e-books and e-book readers for their readings. Shortcomings of e-books were eye-strain and the limitation of e-book collections.
Evaluating and monitoring large-scale distance learning programs require different techniques, systems, and analysis methods. This work presents challenges in evaluating and monitoring digital inclusion training programs, considering the aspects inherent in large-scale distance training, and reports an approach based on network and distance learning. The paper has the following objectives: (i) apply algorithms to extract indicators from interaction networks, in a real scenario and consolidated training based on distance learning; (ii) apply algorithms to correlate interaction indicators with other indicators related to the use and participation in learning environments; and (iii) discuss the relevance of the obtained indicators to promote feedback with information critical to the success of a large-scale distance training program.
The research was carried out in 2005-2006 as a descriptive and methodological study. It aimed to obtain students' feedback and to serve as a source for future relevant studies. The setting of the study was Istanbul University Florence Nightingale Nursing College and at Istanbul University Bakirköy Health College. The sample of the study included 167 students who voluntarily consented to participate in the study. The sample was taken from the population of all students continuing their education at the two study universities. Data were collected utilizing the “Information Form 1” and the “Information Form 2” The students' general mean and standard deviation values on Information Form 2 were (117.02±8.04), and when the arithmetic mean and standard deviation values relating to the sections were examined, the results were as follows: Views about the Design of the patient education course (65.19±3.33), Views about the patient education course (24.71±2.57), Views about web-based distance learning after education (27.19±3.86). These were considered to be satisfactory findings indicating that the students had positive views about the web-based patient education course in general. The opinion of the students about the “Patient Education” lesson was generally positive. There was a significant difference with respect to the scores on the questionnaire between the students with, and students without, the ability of learning by themselves, the scores being higher in the former (p<0.05).
This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams. Students were provided with a place to discuss, share, and integrate learning activities. A questionnaire and focus group interviews were conducted for data collection. The results show that STEM-I project-based learning activities can promote the development of diverse abilities and effectively expand STEM knowledge integration and learning for female high school students as well as enhance their imagination in the project-based activities. Additionally, the STEM-I instructional model with the process of initiation, development, expression, alternative, and links (IDEAL) is confirmed. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for future studies on STEM education and imagination integrative instruction.
Redesigning a course along the lines of a hybrid format that blends face-to-face and online learning brings about changes in instructional practice. This paper introduces hybrid teaching that uses multiple web-based tools to supplement the students' face-to-face learning environment in a difficult situation in Thailand. In order to examine factors related to student learning achievement in the hybrid teaching course, data regarding learning achievement score, amount of participation, comfort with technology, and course satisfaction were collected from 182 students enrolled in an English course and analyzed by using correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The findings indicated that students had a moderate level of satisfaction with the hybrid course and comfort with technology use, and previous experience of hybrid courses did not have an effect on their satisfaction. Student learning achievement was positively correlated with how much participation students had, but was negatively correlated with students' comfort with technology. There were no correlations between student learning achievement and how satisfied they felt with the hybrid course. In addition, an analysis of benefits and drawbacks of this hybrid course allowed teachers insights into what changes were needed when adjusting the hybrid course for language teaching.
English proverb is an interested part when learner applied it in real life situation. The participants of this study were chosen from a big university in the middle area of Taiwan. The researchers selected some learners from Department of Foreign Language (DFL) and Department of Non-Foreign Language (DNFL). 40 students were from DFL, and 40 students were from DNFL. According to learner's short-term memory (STM) abilities, the researchers separated participants into four quadrants (Q1-Q4). According to visual style and verbal style of learning style, learning content representation (LCR) types are clarified into Type A, B, C. The research question is that participants with different STM abilities, how different LCR types affect the learning performance of English proverbs? The authors' results described that LCR with pictorial annotation (Type A) help participants with lower verbal ability and higher visual ability (Q2) to have better performance than other three quadrants, because type A participants feel easier to learn content presented in a visual form than in a verbal form. Providing LCR with both written and pictorial annotation (Type C) helps learners best with higher verbal ability and higher visual ability (Q1) in the recognition test. Providing redundancy learning content lead a higher cognitive load and result to irritation and lack of concentration, in accordance with the Cognitive Load theory. It implied that providing simple learning materials (only written annotation, Type B) is useful to participants with lower verbal ability and lower visual ability (Q3). The research results show that instructors should provide suitable learning materials to their learners in accordance with their STM abilities.
In the e-learning systems, a learning path is known as a sequence of learning materials linked to each others to help learners achieving their learning goals. As it is impossible to have the same learning path that suits different learners, the Curriculum Sequencing problem (CS) consists of the generation of a personalized learning path for each learner according to one's learner profile. This last one includes one's knowledge and preferences. In fact the CS problem is considered as NP hard problem, so many heuristics and meta-heuristics have been used to approximate its solutions. Therefore the results have shown their efficiency to solve such a problem. This work presents a DNA computing approach that aims to solve the CS problem.
E-books and e-Reading Devices (E-RDs) markets have been enlarged due to the rapid progress of digital technologies. What are the possible factors to increase readers' willingness to use electronic devices? To improve the predictive value of the original TAM model, this study incorporates three additional constructs to form e-Reading Device Acceptance Mode: reading self-efficacy, computer self-efficacy and perceived enjoyment. This model consists of six constructs and 11 research hypotheses. The research questionnaires were distributed in Taiwan, and the research results showed that reading self-efficacy shows positive influences on readers' intention to use the E-RDs. On the contrary, computer self-efficacy does not show positive influences on perceived usefulness or perceived enjoyment. Moreover, the perceived ease of use of E-RDs does not show significant impacts on readers' intention to use the devices. Explanations of the causes and reasons are given in this paper, and the finding of this research may provide useful references and materials for e-book publishers, e-reading device developers, and researchers for further studies.
The rapid progress of wireless communication, sensing, and mobile technologies has enabled students to learn in an environment that combines learning resources from both the real world and the digital world. It can be viewed as a new learning style which has been called context-aware ubiquitous learning. Most context-aware ubiquitous learning systems employ expensive sensing technologies, such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), to detect the real-world learning behaviors of students and to provide personalized learning guidance accordingly. In this paper, the authors use QR (Quick Response) code, a low cost technology that is available on smart phones for detecting students' real-world learning status. Moreover, Web 2.0 technology is employed to enable students to collaboratively build a learning materials database. An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationships between the system quality, personal factors, learning motivation, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use, learning attitude, and behavioral intention of the students. In addition, from the interviews, it was found that most of the students felt interested in learning with the system and considered it as a helpful learning tool.
Students engage in many learning activities outside of class but, it is not easy for them to learn on their own because they also need to identify what activities to perform, decide how long to engage in them, evaluate their progress, shift to other activities if needed and avoid distractions aside from others. This research designed and implemented a learning support tool called Sidekick, which used a retrospective approach to help students analyze and evaluate their own behavior so they can adjust it accordingly. The results showed that students benefitted from understanding their behavior more. It also showed how students' learning behavior changed over time and the differences in the type and amount of change between learning sessions according to students' level of autonomy. Less autonomous students seemed to improve less compared to highly autonomous students however, the system was able to encourage them to recall and self-evaluate which they might not have done without the system.
The class quasi-experiment was conducted to determine whether using computer simulation teaching strategy enhanced student understanding of statistics concepts for students enrolled in an introductory course. One hundred and ninety-three sophomores in hospitality management department were invited as participants in this two-year longitudinal study. Students received computer simulation intervention in experimental group and traditional teaching method in control group. In particular, learning effectiveness difference was found in two groups. The pretest scores were found to do something with the improvement rate. The preliminary results of this study indicated some evidence that these methods may improve student understanding of statistics concepts.
Eye and head movements evoked in response to obvious visual attention shifts. However, there has been little progress on the causes of absent-mindedness so far. The paper proposes an attention awareness system that captures the conditions regarding the interaction of eye gaze and head pose under various attentional switching in computer classroom. Via the algorithm of complexion area detection, eye location and eye tracking, the system detects the shifts of the subject's attention, records it and sends a notification to the class teacher. In five variant experiments of attentional shift, the authors find the cues of subjects when turning to other directions, moving forwards or backwards, and closing eyes. It applies even if the students wear glasses or have hair fringe. The findings of absent-mindedness are very important for psychologists or educators conducting post-hoc analysis. These experimental results show eye tracking are useful for detecting shift of attention.
In Taiwan, courses in the current online learning environment enroll at least 40-100 students, and it is difficult for teachers to manage the learning situation of each student. The proposed system treats learning portfolio, knowledge structure, and ability indicator of students as the key points of learning situations. The system integrates the information into the same framework and interface to acquire overall information of students. The learning activities in the proposed system include three stages: self-learning stage, mutual learning stage and guidance stage. This study adopted Multi-Phase Guided Remedial Learning Strategy in a learning evaluation. The learning evaluation yields positive experimental results. The evaluation shows that the proposed learning activities are effective for students learning.
This artifact identifies the main challenges experienced by the authors, both nurse educators, in the delivery of a module on evidence based practice exclusively through the use of an e-learning platform. The module has been running for the past four years as part of an entirely online post registration programme for qualified health professionals seeking a baccalaureate qualification, and makes use of asynchronous online discussions coupled with traditional written assignments as assessment methods. The authors' efforts to address the identified challenges are discussed, in view of flagging the measures which may need to be put in place by educators embarking on similar teaching initiatives.