Spodoptera frugiperda Smith and Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar) are important agricultural pests of several crops. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the susceptibility of larvae of both insects to an isolate of Steinernema diaprepesi Nguyen & Duncan under laboratory conditions, as well as the capacity of the nematode to multiply on these lepidoterans. Larvae (n = 15) were exposed to 0 (control), 50, and 100 infective juveniles (Us) per Petri dish. Mortality was evaluated every 24 h during 6 d, and emerging Hs were counted. Mortality of S. frugiperda was 93% and 100% with 50 and 100 Us dosage, and 87% and 93% in H. gelotopoeon, respectively. The production of Hs was significantly different between doses (P <= 0.05) for S. frugiperda (11 329 with 50 IJs vs. 27 155 with 100 Hs) but not for H. gelotopoeon (19 830 vs. 26 361, respectively). This is the first study evaluating the susceptibility of these lepidopterans to S. diaprepesi. These results encourage the possibility of using this nematode for biological control of both pests.
Apart from others factors, carcass quality is determined by the animal's age and body weight (BW) at the end of the fattening period. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum finishing weight of young crossbred 'Polish Holstein Friesian' (PHF) x 'Limousin' (LIM) steers and bulls, based on their slaughter value. The experimental materials comprised 60 animals, including 30 bulls and 30 steers, fed farm-made feeds. At 2 or 3 wk of age, one half of calves were castrated. Bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. Calves were reared under a conventional system, and were fattened semi-intensively. Daily gains ranged from 800 to 950 g. Calves were fattened to 450, 500, 550, or 600 kg BW. Carcass value was estimated after slaughter. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography in fat extracted from samples of muscle longissimus dorsi (MLD). Bulls, compared with steers, were characterized by a higher slaughter value, including a higher carcass dressing percentage by 1.07-2.60%, higher carcass conformation, and lower carcass fatness. In steers, an increase in live BW was accompanied by a considerable increase in fat content (higher than bulls), as confirmed by a significant (p <= 0.01) interaction. The intramuscular fat of bulls was characterized by higher concentrations of fatty acids delivering health benefits, and a more desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) ratio. Fat from bulls contained higher levels of PUFAs by 2.34 g 100 g(-1) on average. Semi-intensive fattening of PHF x LIM bulls to slaughter weight of 600 kg BW is recommended due to an increase in carcass value. Steers should be fattened to slaughter weight of 500-550 kg BW to prevent excessive fat deposition.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. India is one of the largest rice-producing countries. Although more than 900 rice varieties have been released in India, many of them are no longer cultivated within a few years of release due to inconsistent performance in diverse environments; only a few varieties with stable performance continue to be under cultivation after 15 to 20 yr of their release. Development and adaptability of rice cultivars in a wide range of target environments are the eventual goals of plant breeders. An attempt has been made to estimate the level of genotype-environment interaction (GET) and eliminate as much as possible the unexplainable and extraneous variability contained in the data. Therefore, several statistical techniques have been used to describe GET and measure genotype stability. Field experiments were conducted with 12 genotypes under direct-seeded conditions (irrigated and rainfed) for three consecutive years (2009 to 2012) in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The GEI was analyzed using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI). Results of AMMI analysis indicated that the first three AMMI (AMMI1 to AMMI3) were highly significant (P < 0.05). The partitioning of TSS (total sum of squares) exhibited that the genotype effect was a predominant source of variation followed by GEI and environment, which suggests the possible existence of different environment groups. The AMMI stability value discriminated genotypes 11 and 12 as stable genotypes based on the yield stability index (YSI) and sustainability index (SI).
Rain-induced cracking before harvest is the major cause of crop loss in sweet cherry (Prunus avium [ L.] L.) In order to better understand the relationship between cherry fruit cracking and gene expression, the transcriptional patterns of six genes related to cell wall modification and cuticular wax biosynthesis were analyzed during fruit setting (FS), fruit color change (FC) and fruit ripening (FR), employing two contrasting cultivars: the cracking resistant 'Kordia' and the cracking susceptible 'Bing'. The transcription levels of AP2/EREBP-type transcription factor (PaWINB), wax synthase (WS), beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (PaKCS6), and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) showed higher levels in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing' during the FS stage, while similar values were observed in both cultivars at FR stage. In contrast to that pattern, transcription levels of expansin (PaEXP1) were higher at FR stage in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing'. Transcript profile of lipid transport protein gene (PaLTPG1) decreased during fruit development, with higher levels in 'Bing' than in 'Kordia' at FC and FR stages suggesting no relation with cracking tolerance. The expression profiles of PaWINB, WS, PaKCS6, and beta-Gal suggest that they are genes involved in conferring cracking tolerance, likely due to their function in cuticle deposition during early stages of fruit development. In addition, a greater expression level of expansin gene would allow for a faster growth rate in 'Kordia' at FR stage.
Fluorescent pseudomonads, acclaimed plant associated bacterial group, are well-known plant growth promoting-biocontrol agents in rhizosphere arena. In this study, 144 fluorescent pseudomonad isolates from rhizosphere soil samples were screened with King's medium B supplemented with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) chelator and comprehensively profiled for plant growth promotion viz., production of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, motility, phosphate solubilization, root growth promotion, and biofilm forming ability, along with two known control strains of pseudomonads. Iron and IAA regulated secondary metabolite siderophore production were investigated quantitatively. All isolates were positive for ammonia production and motility; 46% isolates were positive for hydrogen cyanide, 44% shown positivity for phosphate solubilization, and 40% isolates for siderophore production. Siderotyping showed production of hydroxamate type of siderophores which are known to be more efficient biocontrol agents. All isolates stimulated root growth to varying extent and had potentiality to form biofilms, a critical constituent for survival on different environments. Forty-two isolates of pseudomonads showed antagonistic behavior against the deleterious fungal pathogen Fusarium arysporum (MTCC1755). Based on the above observations and statistical analysis, 11 isolates were shortlisted for further scrutiny. The study of biogeographic correlation and secondary metabolite profiling in association with plant growth promotion focalizes significant assessment on the behavior and antagonistic action, which probably brings out a competent biocontrol agent in a sustainable eco-friendly dimension.
The natural additive products (propolis or essential oils), in replacing antibiotics, could be used as an alternative for feed strategies to improve animal production. This work was performed to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils on meat quality of crossbred (Aberdeen Angus vs. Nellore) bulls. Thirty bulls were kept in feedlot (individual pen) for 55 d and randomly assigned to one of three diets (n = 10): control (CON), propolis (PRO), or essential oils (OIL). CON diet consists of corn silage (45% DM) and concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, glycerin, limestone, and mineral salt, 55% DM). The PRO group received same CON diet plus 3 g animal(-1) d(-1) of propolis premix added to the concentrate. The OIL group received same CON diet and 3 g animal(-1) d(-1) of a premix (cashew Anacardium occidentale L. and castor Ricinus communis L. oils) added to the concentrate. Fat thickness (5.0 mm), pH (5.9), Longissimus muscle area 58.0 cm(2), marbling, texture, color (L* = 36.6, a* = 17.3, and b* = 5.9), lipid oxidation (0.08 malonaldehyde kg(-1) meat), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (3.3 kg) were unaffected by the diet. PRO and OIL diets had no effect neither on moisture (73.7%), ashes (1.1%), protein (23.8%), and lipids (1.7%), fatty acid composition or polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA, 0.13), and n-6/n-3 ratio (6.9) on Longissimus muscle. Addition of natural additives as propolis extract or cashew and castor oils in the diet of bulls when they are finished in a feedlot did not change meat qualities.
Effective water use should be investigated in terms of sustainable production strategy in arid and semi-arid regions. A 2 yr field study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of full root-zone wetting (H) and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation techniques with 4 (I1) and 8-d (I2) irrigation intervals and three different irrigation levels (W1, W2, W3) adjusted according to Class A pan evaporation on root, leaf, and sugar yields and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Three different plant-pan coefficients (0.70, 0.60, and 0.50) were used for adjusting the three different irrigation levels. The irrigation techniques and levels affected yields significantly. Seasonal meanly irrigation quantities were 280.4 mm in FT treatments and 162.4 mm in PRD treatments. While mean root yield of 33.80 t ha(-1) is obtained in FI treatments, it was 26.43 t ha(-1) in PRD treatments. Similarly, mean white sugar yield (WSY) for FI treatments (5 t ha(-1)) was higher than PRD treatments (3.81 t ha(-1)). There were significant polynomial relationships between irrigation quantities and root yield or WSY in both FI and PRD treatment. PRD technique increased by 34.9% IWUE compared to FI. Although the highest root yield was determined in FI-I1W1 sub treatment as 37.57 t ha(-1), the highest IWUE was determined in PRD-I1W3 sub treatment as 173.9 kg ha(-1) mm(-1) since it has the lowest irrigation water amount as 140.6 mm However, among PRD treatments for more root yield and for more white sugar yield, I1W1 and I1W2 sub treatments were the best.
Agriculture could be one of the most vulnerable economic sectors to the impacts of climate change in the coming decades, with impacts threatening agricultural production in general and food security in particular. Within this context, climate change will impose a challenge to policy makers, especially in those countries that based their development on primary sectors. In this paper we present a non-linear agricultural supply model for the analysis of the economic impacts of changes in crop yields due to climate change. The model accounts for uncertainty through the use of Monte Carlo simulations about crop yields. According to our results, climate change impacts on the Chilean agricultural sector are widespread, with considerable distributional consequences across regions, and with fruits producers being worst-off than crops producers. In general, the results reported here are consistent with those reported by previous studies showing large economic impacts on the northern zone. However, our model does not simulate remarkable economic consequences at the country level as previous studies did.
Heat stress due to high daytime temperatures is one of the main limiting factors in rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield in Colombia. Thus, the objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of three different daytime temperatures (25, 35, and 40 degrees C) on the physiological responses of three Colombian rice cultivars (F60, F733, and F473), thereby contributing to the knowledge of rice acclimation mechanisms. For 10 d, eight plants of each of the three cultivars were subjected daily to 5 h periods of 35 and 40 degrees C. The control treatment corresponded to normal growth conditions (25 degrees C). Thermal stress was assessed based on a series of physiological and biochemical parameters. The 35 degrees C treatment produced photosynthetic and respiratory differences in all three cultivars. At 40 degrees C, 'F60'. displayed the lowest photosynthetic rate and the highest respiratory rate. Although this cultivar experienced particularly strong electrolyte leakage and changes in proline when subjected to the high-temperature treatments, similar trends were observed in 'F733' and 'F473' At 40 degrees C, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in 'F473'. than in the other cultivars. These results may explain the poor agronomic performance of 'F60'. in the field under daytime heat stress. The methodologies employed in the present work may be useful in Colombian rice breeding programs, particularly for the selection of heat-tolerant breeding stocks.
Feeding systems can play an important role, not only in beef farm profitability but also in animal health and performance. Fourteen Avilena-Negra Iberica bulls, with an initial weight of 270 kg (SE 22.6 kg) and aged 223 d (SE 16.2) were used to study the effect of two feeding systems on ruminal pH and temperature and animal performance when calves were kept in loose housing conditions. Feeding systems were barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain-based concentrate plus barley straw (CONC) and maize (Zea mays L.) silage-based total mixed ration (TMR). Internal wireless boluses were used to collect pH and temperature values every 10 min throughout the measurement period (15 d). Diet did not modify (P > 0.10) average daily gain, carcass weight, dressing percentage, ruminal mucosa color, or papilla counts. Papilla width and papilla width/lamina propria thickness were significantly lower (P 0.10). Although animal performance is not affected, feeding fattening calves on a concentrate plus barley straw diet can result in better rumen conditions than using maize silage-based TMR.
Nitrate leaching (NL) is a major concern in agriculture due to its impact on human health and ecosystems. Solute movement through soil is governed by various hydraulic and physical properties that determine water flow. To study such relationships, a pedotransfer function of groundwater pollution was developed in two alluvial irrigated soils under long-term pig slurry applications. Two basins of central Chile, San Pedro (Typic Xerochrepts) and Pichidegua Xerofluvents) were selected, where maize (Zea mays L.) was grown in spring-summer, while during autumn-winter period a ryegrass-barley-oat mixed crop was established in San Pedro and a fallow management applied in Pichidegua. Soils in cultivated and control sites were characterized in physical and hydraulic terms. Nitrogen and water budgets were determined measuring periodically (biweekly) N concentration (N-NO3- and N-NH4+) and monitoring water contents in soil profiles, respectively. Dye tracer tests were performed with brilliant blue (BB) dye and the staining patterns analyzed. To contrast the effect of slurry additions over soil physical properties and over NL, t-Student tests were performed. Some accurate pollution groundwater NL pedotransfer functions were obtained calculated through least square fit models and artificial neural networks. Textural porosity, mean diameter variation, slow drainage porosity, air conductivity at 33 kPa water tension and N-NO3- concentrations were directly related to NL. In terms of preferential flow analysis, stained path width > 200 mm was inversely associated to NL. Finally, dye tracer tests provided a better understanding of the characteristics and pattern of water/solute movement through soil to groundwater.
Different episodes of mortalities of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies have been associated with the presence of honey bee pathogens. Since the Biobio Region has among the highest number of apiaries in Chile, the aim of the present study was to identify viruses in the Region affecting honey bees, evaluate their relation to other pathogens, and conduct a phylogenetic analysis. Pupae and adult bees were collected from 60 apiaries of Apis mellifera L. in the Biobio Region over 2 yr. RNA viruses were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and Acarapis woodi, Nosema spp., and Varroa destructor via PCR. Three viruses were detected: Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) in 2%, 10%, and 42% of the apiaries, respectively. No statistical correlation was observed between the presence of the different viruses, V. destructor, A. woodi, and the two Nosema species, and the bee development stages. One year after the first sampling, DWV and BQCV were detected mainly in foraging adult bee samples. Three percent of the apiaries were infected with N. apis and 18% with N. ceranae, 5% were positive for V. destructor, while A. woodi was not detected. PCR products were sequenced and compared to the Genbank database. Chilean sequences of ABPV, BQCV, and DWV showed high percentages of similarity to other isolates in South America.
This paper reviews two factors (breed and feed) affecting the carcass and meat quality of sheep. The quality of livestock products has acquired greater importance from the distinct perspectives of the different participants in the agricultural food chain. Consumers, producers and the industry give different levels of importance to the parameters of meat and carcass quality. Nevertheless, all the participants in the meat production chain must ensure quality to improve their competitiveness. The quality of the carcass and meat can be influenced by different factors such as breed and type of feed. The breed can influence weight, yields, and the conformation of the carcass, among other variables, as well as the pH level and the fatty acid composition of the meat, whereas the feed mainly affects carcass conformation and several physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of meat quality such as proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, tenderness and color. Consequently, the effects of breed and feed type should be considered to obtain a quality product that satisfies consumer demand.
The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a worldwide key pest of stored products. Usually contact insecticides or fumigants are used against it, but problems as toxic residues, human intoxications, and resistance have triggered the search for alternative control methods as the use of essential oils. The objective of this research was to assess under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav.) Tul. essential oil against S. zeamais. In contact toxicity bioassay assessed treatments were 0 (control), 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, and 40 mL essential oil kg(-1) grain and 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 mu L essential oil L-1 air in fumigant toxicity tests. The highest toxicity by contact activity was reached by concentrations higher than 10 mL essential oil kg(-1) grain (100% mortality). The same treatments totally inhibit F-1. The dose of 175 mu L essential oil L-1 air showed a significant toxicity by fumigant activity causing 72.5% of dead insects. The other treatments did not surpass 5% mortality. In offspring effect (F-1) bioassay, all treatments had an insect emergence significantly lower than the control but concentrations equal or higher than 10 mL essential oil kg(-1) grain prevented the emergence of F-1 during the 7 wk of bioassay. The residual effect of contact toxicity remained by 15 d. The treatments based on essential oil lead to a weight grain loss lower than control and germination was not affected. All assessed treatments showed repellent effect. The essential oil of L. sempervirens has promissory perspectives to maize weevil control.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rootstocks on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants in soils infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) Cucumber 'Adrian' was grown with its own roots or was grafted onto three rootstocks of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl ('Emphasis', S-1', and 'Gourd'), two interspecific hybrid rootstocks of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne x C. moschata Duchesne ('Strong Tosa' and 'RS 841 Improved') and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L. ('Romanesco Zucchini'). The experiments were conducted in commercial greenhouse, with cucumber grafted onto three rootstocks in the first season and onto six rootstocks in the second spring-summer season. The number of leaves was considerably affected by the rootstock in both seasons, and was the highest for the plants grafted onto interspecific rootstocks (28.0 in the first and 44.9 in the second season). The plants grafted onto 'Strong Tosa' had higher total number of fruits (19.9) and yield (5.38 kg) compared to other rootstocks or non-grafted plants in first season, and the same result was found for two interspecific rootstocks in the second season (6.96 kg and more than 28.9 fruits per plant). The total soluble solids, pH and electrical conductivity of the fruit were not affected by rootstock, while titratable acidity changed with the rootstock type. The grafting of cucumber plants onto different rootstocks was confirmed as an acceptable non-chemical method to compete with the limitations of soils infected with root-knot nematodes, but the effect was highly dependent on the choice of the rootstock.
Salinity is an important problem to crop production; affecting photosynthesis process which favors the production of reactive oxygen species. Plants have generated adaptation strategies to prevent oxidative damage caused by salinity. In this study we evaluated the effect of salinity on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in leaves of corn (Zea mays L.) plants 'Lluteno' (adapted to salinity) and 'Jubilee' (improved variety). 'Lluteno' is the only one corn capable to prosper in the Valley of Lluta under saline conditions (EC = 9.1 dS m(-1)) and the most widely cultivated crop in terms of area in the desert of northern Chile. Plants of 21 d old were subjected for 15 d to two saline treatments: 50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salinity caused a significant reduction in plant biomass, ca. 65% in 'Jubilee' and 20% in 'Lluteno' (P <= 0.05). The biomass reduction and oxidative damage to cell membranes caused by the generation of peroxides was significantly less in 'Lluteno'. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in 'Lluteno' was significantly greater than in 'Jubilee' in all treatments, while glutathione reductase (GR) had greater activity in 'Jubilee'. However, most enzymes studied were adversely affected by salinity compared to the control. These results indicate that tolerance to salinity exhibited by 'Lluterio' should in part due to the high activity that exhibit antioxidant enzymes compared to 'Jubilee'.
Drought at pod filling reduces growth, yield, and seed quality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Great root system can reduce yield loss under water stress. There is a lack of information on root traits for peanut genotypes and the relationship between rooting traits and peanut yield under terminal drought. The pot experiments were conducted at Khon Kaen University, Thailand, in 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. A randomized complete block design was used with two factorials set-up with four replicates. Factor A consisted of two water regimes (field capacity and 1/3 available water at 80 d after planting to harvest), and factor B comprised of 11 peanut genotypes. Data were recorded for root traits (root dry weight, root length, root surface, root diameter, and root volume), and peanut yield (pod dry weight, biomass, and harvest index) were measured at final harvest. Terminal drought significantly decrease root characteristics (0.83-1.03 g plant(-1) of root dry weight) and peanut yield (7.98-8.89 g plant(-1) of pod dry weight). Yield responses to terminal drought were not correlated with root traits except root length and root volume (r = 0.71** and 0.83**, respectively). Some genotype, root traits seem to be correlated With peanut yield under terminal drought. 'KK60-3' showed high root traits, maintained pod dry weight under terminal drought, whereas Tifton 8 maintained biomass production. ICGV98348 had high root traits, maintained pod dry weight and harvest index under drought conditions. The results suggested that peanut contained high root characters which maintained yield under terminal drought.
Olive (Olea europaea L.) oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value-added ingredients for various industrial applications. In this work, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and quality indexes of the olive-waste cake during convective dehydration (40-90 degrees C) were investigated. Results on effective moisture diffusivity, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents a well as antioxidant capacity are also reported. Most of the fatty acids increased their content with respect to control sample with a temperature increase, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids increased 48% and 43% at 70 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Total flavanol content increased with temperature (48-62 mg catechin equivalents [CTE] 100 g(-1) DM) except for 80 degrees C. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were highly correlated to antioxidant capacity (0.923 < r < 0.992), except for 70 and 80 degrees C, the rest of the samples maintained their initial antioxidant capacity by ORAC analysis. Thus, these parameters show that dried olive-waste cake has a high bioactive compounds with potential use as additives for the food or other industries.
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is the main pest of maize, besides attacking sorghum and cotton crops. The control of this pest has been accomplished mainly with the use of synthetic insecticides but, due to the growing concern about the environment and food quality, phenolic compounds have shown their potential for the biological control of this insect. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the extract of jabuticabeira, Myrciaria cauliflora [Mart.] O. Berg (Myrtaceae) fruit skin flour in the control of S. frugiperda. Skins of M. cauliflora Sabara genotype were dried at 45 C in a forced air oven. In order to obtain the extract, 1.0 g flour was mixed with 10 mL acetone: water solution (7:3 v/v). Forty-eight-hour-old S. frugiperda caterpillars were placed in glass tubes with an artificial diet containing the extract at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L-1. The extract, in which the phenolic compounds gallic acid, gallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid, and salicylic acid were identified at a concentration of 2000 mg L-1, in average, increased mortality rates by 150% in the larval stage, duration of larval stages by 60%, and pupal by 17%, and decreased amount of females by 55%. On the other hand, the extract at 1000 mg L-1 only increased duration of larval period by 24%. It was concluded that the extract is harmful to this insect, probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds.
Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize (Zea mays L.) crops in Brazil. The effects of beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, spinosad, etofenprox, triflumuron, alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) immature stages were evaluated. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), containing immature stages of the parasitoid were dipped in water solution pesticides, to evaluate their effects on emergence and sex ratio of F-1 parasitoids. For F-2 parasitoids, emergence, parasitism capacity, and sex ratio were evaluated. Beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and spinosad affected the emergence success of F-1 T. pretiosum. Insects exposed to etofenprox and alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron during the egg-larval period and to lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam during the pupal stage also suffered reduction in the emergence. Beta-cypermethrin affected the sex ratio of F-1 T. pretiosum from host eggs treated during the egg-larval period; spinosad affected it during the egg-larval period and the pupal stage, whereas chlorpyrifos did the same when applied during the pupal stage. Chlorpyrifos also affected the sex ratio of F-2 parasitoids, but only when applied during the egg-larval period, whereas chlorfenapyr reduced this trait when applied during the pre-pupal phase. Chlorpyrifos and alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron affected the parasitism capacity of F-1 females from eggs treated during the egg-larval period. Considering the overall effects, only etofenprox and triflumuron were selective on T. pretiosum when applied on parasitized A. kuehniella eggs. Further studies need to be carried out to verify the toxicity of the other pesticides under semi-field and field conditions.