The field of cavity optomechanics is reviewed. This field explores the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and nanomechanical or micromechanical motion. This review covers the basics of optical cavities and mechanical resonators, their mutual optomechanical interaction mediated by the radiation-pressure force, the large variety of experimental systems which exhibit this interaction, optical measurements of mechanical motion, dynamical backaction amplification and cooling, nonlinear dynamics, multimode optomechanics, and proposals for future cavity-quantum-optomechanics experiments. In addition, the perspectives for fundamental quantum physics and for possible applications of optomechanical devices are described.
In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and sociotechnical systems. The complex properties of real-world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in various systems, and the study of epidemic spreading is central to our understanding of the unfolding of dynamical processes in complex networks. The theoretical analysis of epidemic spreading in heterogeneous networks requires the development of novel analytical frameworks, and it has produced results of conceptual and practical relevance. A coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes is presented, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. Physicists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, computer, and social scientists share a common interest in studying epidemic spreading and rely on similar models for the description of the diffusion of pathogens, knowledge, and innovation. For this reason, while focusing on the main results and the paradigmatic models in infectious disease modeling, the major results concerning generalized social contagion processes are also presented. Finally, the research activity at the forefront in the study of epidemic spreading in coevolving, coupled, and time-varying networks is reported.
Point defects and impurities strongly affect the physical properties of materials and have a decisive impact on their performance in applications. First-principles calculations have emerged as a powerful approach that complements experiments and can serve as a predictive tool in the identification and characterization of defects. The theoretical modeling of point defects in crystalline materials by means of electronic-structure calculations, with an emphasis on approaches based on density functional theory (DFT), is reviewed. A general thermodynamic formalism is laid down to investigate the physical properties of point defects independent of the materials class (semiconductors, insulators, and metals), indicating how the relevant thermodynamic quantities, such as formation energy, entropy, and excess volume, can be obtained from electronic structure calculations. Practical aspects such as the supercell approach and efficient strategies to extrapolate to the isolated-defect or dilute limit are discussed. Recent advances in tractable approximations to the exchange-correlation functional (DFT + U, hybrid functionals) and approaches beyond DFT are highlighted. These advances have largely removed the long-standing uncertainty of defect formation energies in semiconductors and insulators due to the failure of standard DFT to reproduce band gaps. Two case studies illustrate how such calculations provide new insight into the physics and role of point defects in real materials.
Bell's 1964 theorem, which states that the predictions of quantum theory cannot be accounted for by any local theory, represents one of the most profound developments in the foundations of physics. In the last two decades, Bell's theorem has been a central theme of research from a variety of perspectives, mainly motivated by quantum information science, where the nonlocality of quantum theory underpins many of the advantages afforded by a quantum processing of information. The focus of this review is to a large extent oriented by these later developments. The main concepts and tools which have been developed to describe and study the nonlocality of quantum theory and which have raised this topic to the status of a full subfield of quantum information science are reviewed.
Simulating quantum mechanics is known to be a difficult computational problem, especially when dealing with large systems. However, this difficulty may be overcome by using some controllable quantum system to study another less controllable or accessible quantum system, i.e., quantum simulation. Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems in, e.g., condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, atomic physics, quantum chemistry, and cosmology. Quantum simulation could be implemented using quantum computers, but also with simpler, analog devices that would require less control, and therefore, would be easier to construct. A number of quantum systems such as neutral atoms, ions, polar molecules, electrons in semiconductors, superconducting circuits, nuclear spins, and photons have been proposed as quantum simulators. This review outlines the main theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum simulation and emphasizes some of the challenges and promises of this fast-growing field.
This review compiles results of experimental and theoretical studies on thin films and quantum structures of semiconductors with randomly distributed Mn ions, which exhibit spintronic functionalities associated with collective ferromagnetic spin ordering. Properties of p-type Mn-containing III-V as well as II-VI, IV-VI, V-2 -VI3, I-II-V, and elemental group IV semiconductors are described, paying particular attention to the most thoroughly investigated system (Ga, Mn)As that supports the hole-mediated ferromagnetic order up to 190 K for the net concentration of Mn spins below 10%. Multilayer structures showing efficient spin injection and spin-related magnetotransport properties as well as enabling magnetization manipulation by strain, light, electric fields, and spin currents are presented together with their impact on metal spintronics. The challenging interplay between magnetic and electronic properties in topologically trivial and nontrivial systems is described, emphasizing the entangled roles of disorder and correlation at the carrier localization boundary. Finally, the case of dilute magnetic insulators is considered, such as (Ga, Mn)N, where low-temperature spin ordering is driven by short-ranged superexchange that is ferromagnetic for certain charge states of magnetic impurities.
Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own antiparticle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1/2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their antiparticles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can exist only if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence does not stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid-state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This Colloquium first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own antiparticle in nuclear, particle, and solid-state physics.
Distributed quantum networks will allow users to perform tasks and to interact in ways which are not possible with present-day technology. Their implementation is a key challenge for quantum science and requires the development of stationary quantum nodes that can send and receive as well as store and process quantum information locally. The nodes are connected by quantum channels for flying information carriers, i.e., photons. These channels serve both to directly exchange quantum information between nodes and to distribute entanglement over the whole network. In order to scale such networks to many particles and long distances, an efficient interface between the nodes and the channels is required. This article describes the cavity-based approach to this goal, with an emphasis on experimental systems in which single atoms are trapped in and coupled to optical resonators. Besides being conceptually appealing, this approach is promising for quantum networks on larger scales, as it gives access to long qubit coherence times and high light-matter coupling efficiencies. Thus, it allows one to generate entangled photons on the push of a button, to reversibly map the quantum state of a photon onto an atom, to transfer and teleport quantum states between remote atoms, to entangle distant atoms, to detect optical photons nondestructively, to perform entangling quantum gates between an atom and one or several photons, and even provides a route toward efficient heralded quantum memories for future repeaters. The presented general protocols and the identification of key parameters are applicable to other experimental systems.
The study of nonequilibrium phenomena in correlated lattice systems has developed into one of the most active and exciting branches of condensed matter physics. This research field provides rich new insights that could not be obtained from the study of equilibrium situations, and the theoretical understanding of the physics often requires the development of new concepts and methods. On the experimental side, ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopies enable studies of excitation and relaxation phenomena in correlated electron systems, while ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a new way to control and measure the time evolution of interacting lattice systems with a vastly different characteristic time scale compared to electron systems. A theoretical description of these phenomena is challenging because, first, the quantum-mechanical time evolution of many-body systems out of equilibrium must be computed and second, strong-correlation effects which can be of a nonperturbative nature must be addressed. This review discusses the nonequilibrium extension of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), which treats quantum fluctuations in the time domain and works directly in the thermodynamic limit. The method reduces the complexity of the calculation via a mapping to a self-consistent impurity problem, which becomes exact in infinite dimensions. Particular emphasis is placed on a detailed derivation of the formalism, and on a discussion of numerical techniques, which enable solutions of the effective nonequilibrium DMFT impurity problem. Insights gained into the properties of the infinite-dimensional Hubbard model under strong nonequilibrium conditions are summarized. These examples illustrate the current ability of the theoretical framework to reproduce and understand fundamental nonequilibrium phenomena, such as the dielectric breakdown of Mott insulators, photodoping, and collapse-and-revival oscillations in quenched systems. Furthermore, remarkable novel phenomena have been predicted by the nonequilibrium DMFT simulations of correlated lattice systems, including dynamical phase transitions and field-induced repulsion-to-attraction conversions.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.
Since its introduction 25 years ago, the quantum weak value has gradually transitioned from a theoretical curiosity to a practical laboratory tool. While its utility is apparent in the recent explosion of weak value experiments, its interpretation has historically been a subject of confusion. Here a pragmatic introduction to the weak value in terms of measurable quantities is presented, along with an explanation for how it can be determined in the laboratory. Further, its application to three distinct experimental techniques is reviewed. First, as a large interaction parameter it can amplify small signals above technical background noise. Second, as a measurable complex value it enables novel techniques for direct quantum state and geometric phase determination. Third, as a conditioned average of generalized observable eigenvalues it provides a measurable window into nonclassical features of quantum mechanics. In this selective review, a single experimental configuration to discuss and clarify each of these applications is used.
In this review the main advances in heavy-ion fusion research that have taken place over the last decade are addressed. During this period, experimental studies have been extended to deep sub-barrier energies to reveal the unexpected phenomenon of fusion hindrance. The coupled-channels descriptions have been refined to include the effects of nucleon transfer and to account for the fusion hindrance in terms of the ion-ion potential in the strongly overlapping region. Substantial progress has been made in time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory to the point that this approach now can make parameter-free predictions of heavy-ion fusion excitation functions. As several heavy-ion fusion reactions are of crucial importance in late-stage giant-star evolution, these reactions continue to be studied with better experimental and theoretical tools in order to provide improved input to astrophysical models. The effects of loosely bound valence nucleons on the fusion cross sections are the focus of a number of experimental studies involving radioactive beams, which have only recently become available. And finally, as the active field of synthesizing superheavy elements relies on heavy-ion fusion to reach the nuclei of interest, it is important to understand the fusion dynamics that plays a crucial role in both the "cold-fusion"and "hot-fusion"approaches to the superheavy island of stability. Also this area has seen significant progress in several different approaches to the problem of predicting the cross sections for formation and survival of these rare nuclei.
This Colloquium presents an overview of the research on nonlinear electromagnetic metamaterials. The developed theoretical approaches and experimental designs are summarized, along with a systematic description of various phenomena available with nonlinear metamaterials.
Stationary nonequilibrium states describe steady flows through macroscopic systems. Although they represent the simplest generalization of equilibrium states, they exhibit a variety of new phenomena. Within a statistical mechanics approach, these states have been the subject of several theoretical investigations, both analytic and numerical. The macroscopic fluctuation theory, based on a formula for the probability of joint space-time fluctuations of thermodynamic variables and currents, provides a unified macroscopic treatment of such states for driven diffusive systems. A detailed review of this theory including its main predictions and most relevant applications is given.
Type-I clathrate compounds have attracted a great deal of interest in connection with the search for efficient thermoelectric materials. These compounds constitute networked cages consisting of nanoscale tetrakaidecahedrons (14-hedrons) and dodecahedrons (12-hedrons), in which the group-1 or -2 elements in the periodic table are encaged as so-called "rattling" guest atoms. It is remarkable that, although these compounds have a crystalline cubic structure, they exhibit glasslike phonon thermal conductivity over the whole temperature range depending on the states of rattling guest atoms in the tetrakaidecahedron. In addition, these compounds show unusual glasslike specific heats and terahertz-frequency phonon dynamics, providing a remarkable broad peak almost identical to those observed in amorphous materials or structural glasses, the so-called boson peak. An efficient thermoelectric effect is realized in compounds showing these glasslike characteristics. In this decade, a number of experimental works dealing with type-I clathrate compounds have been published. These are diffraction, thermal, and spectroscopic experiments in addition to those based on heat and electronic transport. These form the raw materials for this review based on advances from this decade. The subject of this review involves interesting phenomena from the viewpoint not only of physics but also of the practical problem of elaborating efficient thermoelectric materials. This review presents a survey of a wide range of experimental investigations of type-I clathrate compounds, together with a review of theoretical interpretations of the peculiar thermal and dynamic properties observed in these materials.
The efficiency of the future devices for quantum information processing is limited mostly by the finite decoherence rates of the individual qubits and quantum gates. Recently, substantial progress was achieved in enhancing the time within which a solid-state qubit demonstrates coherent dynamics. This progress is based mostly on a successful isolation of the qubits from external decoherence sources obtained by engineering. Under these conditions, the material-inherent sources of noise start to play a crucial role. In most cases, quantum devices are affected by noise decreasing with frequency f approximately as 1/f. According to the present point of view, such noise is due to material-and device-specific microscopic degrees of freedom interacting with quantum variables of the nanodevice. The simplest picture is that the environment that destroys the phase coherence of the device can be thought of as a system of two-state fluctuators, which experience random hops between their states. If the hopping times are distributed in an exponentially broad domain, the resulting fluctuations have a spectrum close to 1/f in a large frequency range. This paper reviews the current state of the theory of decoherence due to degrees of freedom producing 1/f noise. Basic mechanisms of such noises in various nanodevices are discussed and several models describing the interaction of the noise sources with quantum devices are reviewed. The main focus of the review is to analyze how the 1/f noise destroys their coherent operation. The start is from individual qubits concentrating mostly on the devices based on superconductor circuits and then some special issues related to more complicated architectures are discussed. Finally, several strategies for minimizing the noise-induced decoherence are considered.
Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike in conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and valley freedom. The interplay between the two is the focus of this review. The energy levels associated with each degree of freedom, and the spin-orbit coupling between them, are explained, together with their consequences for transport measurements through nanotube quantum dots. In double quantum dots, the combination of quantum numbers modifies the selection rules of Pauli blockade. This can be exploited to read out spin and valley qubits and to measure the decay of these states through coupling to nuclear spins and phonons. A second unique property of carbon nanotubes is that the combination of valley freedom and electron-electron interactions in one dimension strongly modifies their transport behavior. Interaction between electrons inside and outside a quantum dot is manifested in SU(4) Kondo behavior and level renormalization. Interaction within a dot leads to Wigner molecules and more complex correlated states. This review takes an experimental perspective informed by recent advances in theory. As well as the well-understood overall picture, open questions for the field are also clearly stated. These advances position nanotubes as a leading system for the study of spin and valley physics in one dimension where electronic disorder and hyperfine interaction can both be reduced to a low level.
Finding new collective electronic states in materials is one of the fundamental goals of condensed matter physics. Atomic-scale superlattices formed from transition metal oxides are a particularly appealing hunting ground for new physics. In bulk form, transition metal oxides exhibit a remarkable range of magnetic, superconducting, and multiferroic phases that are of great scientific interest and are potentially capable of providing innovative energy, security, electronics, and medical technology platforms. In superlattices new states may emerge at the interfaces where dissimilar materials meet. This Colloquium illustrates the essential features that make transition metal oxide-based heterostructures an appealing discovery platform for emergent properties with a few selected examples, showing how charge redistributes, magnetism and orbital polarization arises, and ferroelectric order emerges from heterostructures comprised of oxide components with nominally contradictory behavior with the aim providing insight into the creation and control of novel behavior at oxide interfaces by suitable mechanical, electrical, or optical boundary conditions and excitations.
Spectroscopic studies of electronic phenomena in graphene are reviewed. A variety of methods and techniques are surveyed, from quasiparticle spectroscopies (tunneling, photoemission) to methods probing density and current response (infrared optics, Raman) to scanning probe nanoscopy and ultrafast pump-probe experiments. Vast complimentary information derived from these investigations is shown to highlight unusual properties of Dirac quasiparticles and many-body interaction effects in the physics of graphene.