Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the validity of the BodyMedia's SenseWear (TM) Armband (BSA) device in estimating total sleep time (TST) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Simultaneous overnight recordings of in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) and BSA were performed on (1) 107 OSA patients (mean age of 45.2 +/- 14.3 years, mean apnea hypopnea index of 43 +/- 35.7/hr and (2) 30 controls matched with OSA patients for age and body mass index. An agreement analysis between the PSG and BSA scoring results was performed using the Bland and Altman method. Results: There was no significant difference in OSA patients between BSA and PSG with regard to TST, total wake time, and sleep efficiency. There was also no significant difference in the controls between BSA and PSG with regard to TST, total wake time, and sleep efficiency. Bland Altman plots showed strong agreement between TST, wake time, and sleep efficiency for both OSA and the controls. The intraclass correlation coefficients revealed perfect agreement between BSA and PSG in different levels of OSA severity and both genders. Conclusion: The current data suggest that BSA is a reliable method for determining sleep in patients with OSA when compared against the gold standard test (PSG). BSA can be a useful tool in determining sleep in patients with OSA and can be combined with portable sleep studies to determine TST.
CONTEXT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases characterized by a mixture of inflammation and fibrosis, leading to lung destruction and finally death. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare different pathophysiological mechanisms, such as angiogenesis, coagulation, fibrosis, tissue repair, inflammation, epithelial damage, oxidative stress, and matrix remodeling, in both disorders using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). METHODS: At diagnosis, patients underwent bronchoscopy with BAL and were divided into three groups: Control (n = 10), HP (n = 11), and IPF (n = 11), based on multidisciplinary approach (clinical examination, radiology, and histology): Multiplex searchlight technology was used to analyze 25 proteins representative for different pathophysiological processes: Eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb), fibronectin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), interleukine (IL)-8, IL-12p40, IL-17, IL-23, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), myeloperoxidase (MPO), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, active plasminogen activating inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), pulmonary activation regulated chemokine (PARC), placental growth factor (PlGF), protein-C, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES), surfactant protein-C (SP-C), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), tissue factor, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). RESULTS: All patients suffered from decreased pulmonary function and abnormal BAL cell differential compared with control. Protein levels were increased in both IPF and HP for MMP-8 (P = 0.022), MMP-9 (P = 0.0020), MCP-1 (P = 0.0006), MDC (P = 0.0048), IL-8 (P = 0.013), MPO (P = 0.019), and protein-C (P = 0.0087), whereas VEGF was decreased (P = 0.0003) compared with control. HGF was upregulated in HP (P = 0.0089) and active PAI-1 was upregulated (P = 0.019) in IPF compared with control. Differences in expression between IPF and HP were observed for IL-12p40 (P = 0.0093) and TGF-beta 1 (P = 0.0045). CONCLUSIONS: Using BAL, we demonstrated not only expected similarities but also important differences in both disorders, many related to the innate immunity. These findings provide new clues for further research in both disorders.
BACKGROUND: Targeting epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) is an innovative approach to managing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which harbors EGFR mutation. However, the efficacy of these agents like erlotinib in patients without the mutation is not known. METHODS: This systematic review included Phase III randomized clinical trials that compared single agent erlotinib to other management options in the setting of NSCLC with reported outcome data on patients with EGFR wild type (EGFRWT) tumors. Outcome data include overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR). Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes across studies. RESULTS: Three studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies included a total of 2044 patients with outcome data on 674 patients with EGFRWT tumors (33%). Meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant improvement in OS with erlotinib (hazard ratio of 0.780; 95% confidence interval: 0.654-0.930, P = 0.006). Data were not available to perform PFS or RR analysis. The quality of this evidence is considered to be moderate to high. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a significant benefit of erlotinib in patient with EGFRWT tumors compared with other approaches. These findings add another therapeutic option to patients generally considered difficult to treat.
BACKGROUND: Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (EMN) is a novel technology which allows localizing peripheral lung lesions and mediastinal lymph nodes for sampling and thus increasing diagnostic yield of Flexible Bronchoscopy. OBJECTIVES: A prospective study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic yield of EMN with lower average fiducial target registration error (AFTRE) and rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). METHODS: Consecutive patients with peripheral lung lesion (PL) or enlarged mediastinal lymph node (MLN) which could not be diagnosed by conventional techniques and/or if the patients were not suitable for such interventions were included. The navigation procedure was continued once registration error was reached below/equal to the absolute value of 5 mm. ROSE was performed by an expert cytopathologist. RESULTS: A total of 76 patients; 22 having only PLs, 41 having only MLNs, and 13 having both PLs and MLNs together were enrolled. Thirty-two of 35 PLs (91.4%) and 85 of 102 MLNs (83.3%) were successfully sampled. Overall diagnostic yield was 89.5%. PLs and MLNs were further grouped according to their size (PLs: = 20 mm, MLNs: = 15 mm). The sampling yield was independent of size for both PL and MLN (P = 1.00, P = 0.38). In diagnostic EMN cases, mean AFTRE was 4.33 +/- 0.71 mm, whereas it was 5.16 +/- 0.05 mm (P = 0.008) in nondiagnostics. The total duration of procedure was 36.17 +/- 9.13 min. Pneumothorax was observed in three patients (3.9%). CONCLUSION: EMN with low AFTRE in combination with ROSE is a reliable method with high sampling and/or diagnostic rate in PLs and MLNs.
Objective: To evaluate tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and trends over a period of 20 years (1991-2010) and assess the impact of the National TB Control Program (NTP) on incidence trends. Methods: This is a retrospective study of TB surveillance data reported by the Ministry of Health. We evaluated TB incidence data by nationality, age, and region of the country and assessed incidence trends over 20 years of study. Chi-squared test was used to assess trend change and its significance. Results: There were a total of 64,345 reported TB cases over the study period. Of these 48% were Non-Saudis. TB annual incidence rate ranged between 14 and 17/100,000. For Saudis, the rate ranged between 8.6 and 12.2/100,000. Non-Saudis had 2-3 times higher incidence. Disease trend was rising over the first 10 years of the study period then it started to fall slightly. The incidence increased with age, but only people older than 45 years showed a declining trend. Regional variations were observed. Makkah and Jazan regions had the highest incidence rates. Disease trends were rising over the last 10 years in Makkah and Central regions. Conclusion: TB control seems to be facing some challenges in several regions of the Kingdom. NTP needs to evaluate and improve TB control strategies in order to reduce disease incidence to elimination levels.
CONTEXT: Hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) may be managed by either respiratory specialists (RS) or general medicine physicians (GMP). While previous studies have audited the hospital AECOPD management of RS, only a small number of studies have evaluated the management of GMP. AIMS: The aims of this study were to firstly examine the differences in AECOPD management of GMP and RS and secondly compare their care to national COPD guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of consecutive AECOPD patients admitted to two hospitals (one hospital where all AECOPD patients were managed by RS and another where all AECOPD patients were managed by GMP) over a 3-month period. Electronic medical records, medical case notes, pathology and radiology data for the admission were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 201 COPD exacerbations in 169 patients (49.7% male, mean age 72.3). GMP managed 84 (41.7%) exacerbations. In comparison to RS, GMP performed fewer spirometry tests, blood gas analysis and less frequently treated patients with guideline-recommended medications. Referral to pulmonary rehabilitation was poor for both groups of clinicians. Median length of stay was shorter in GMP patients versus RS patients (3 days vs. 5 days, P = 0.001). There were no differences in the 12-month re-admission (41.7% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.664) and mortality rates (10.7% vs. 6%, P = 0.292) between both groups of patients. CONCLUSION: Our study found differences in the hospital AECOPD management of GMP and RS, but these did not translate into different clinical outcomes between their patients. We also found suboptimal adherence to national COPD guidelines, suggesting that there is scope for improvement in the AECOPD management of both groups of clinicians.
Introduction: Fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FOB) with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a common procedure performed in immunocompromised patients with undiagnosed pulmonary pathology. Identifying patients with the highest potential diagnostic yield may help to avoid morbidity in patients unlikely to benefit from the procedure. We sought to determine which patient factors, specifically chest computed tomography (CT) findings, affected diagnostic yield of BAL. Methods: Retrospective chart review of immunocompromised patients who underwent FOB with BAL from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2011 at an academic medical center was performed. The lung lobe lavaged, characteristics of pulmonary infiltrate on radiograph, patient symptoms, and diagnostic yield were collected. A positive diagnostic yield was defined as a positive microbiological culture, finding on cytopathologic staining, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, alveolar eosinophilia or a positive immunologic or nucleic acid assay. Results: The overall diagnostic yield was 52.6%. Infiltrates that were predominantly reticular or nodular by CT had a lower diagnostic yield than predominantly consolidated, ground-glass, or tree-in-bud infiltrates (36.5% vs. 61.2%, P = 0.0058). The diagnostic yield was significantly improved in patients with both fever and chest symptoms compared to patients without symptoms (61.3% vs. 29.6%, P = 0.0066). Conclusion: CT findings of reticular and nodular infiltrates portend a worse diagnostic yield from BAL than those that are alveolar in nature. Symptomatic patients are more likely to have diagnostic FOB with BAL than asymptomatic patients.
BACKGROUND: There are relatively few epidemiological studies on interstitial lung disease (ILD) worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To report the incident cases of ILD and compare our data with reports from other populations. METHODS: Newly diagnosed ILDs were prospectively collected at a single tertiary care hospital from January 2008 to December 2011. Detailed demographic and clinical data were collected at the time of diagnosis, along with the results from diagnostic procedures, including high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), serological tests, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), transbronchial lung biopsy, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and surgical lung biopsy. RESULTS: A total of 330 cases were included. The mean age was 55.4 +/- 14.9 years. There was a slight predominance of females (202; 61.2%), and the male-to-female ratio was 1:1.37. The most frequent disease was connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated ILD (34.8%), followed by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (23.3%), sarcoidosis (20%), and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (6.3%). Non-classifiable ILD was present in 1.8% of the total ILD cases. HRCT was performed in 97.3% of the cases, BAL in 17.5%, transbronchial lung biopsy in 21.8%, EBUS-TBNA in 4.5%, and surgical lung biopsy in 22.7% (38.6% of which were performed among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia cases). CONCLUSIONS: CTD-ILD and IPF were the most frequently observed ILDs in this Saudi Arabian population. Similarities and differences were found with respect to the previous reports from other countries.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Physicians may experience periods of acute sleep deprivation while on-call, in addition to baseline chronic sleep deprivation which may affect physicians' performance and patients' safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute sleep deprivation due to working long on-call shifts on mood and alertness, both of which may impair physicians' performance. METHODS: Eighty-eight junior physicians working in one university hospital completed a questionnaire, before and after completion of a shift, that collected data regarding socio-demographic factors, patterns of work and sleep, Profile of Mood States (POMS), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Based on duration of sleep the physicians had during on-call in comparison to their usual average sleep, the participants were categorized into group 1 (those who slept many fewer hours), group 2 (those who slept fewer hours), or group 3 (those who slept the same number of hours). RESULTS: More than 87% of the participant slept 5 or fewer hours while working an on-call shift. Among all participants, the percentage of physicians who were alert post-on-call was significantly reduced compared to the percentage pre-on-call (P = 0.001). The post-on-call total POMS scores of groups 1 and 2 were significantly worse than their pre-on-call scores (P = 0.001 and 0.038, respectively), while there was no significant difference between the pre- and post-on-call POMS scores of group 3 (P = 0.165). CONCLUSION: Acute sleep loss due to working long on-call shifts significantly decreases daytime alertness and negatively affects the mood state of junior physicians.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic interstitial pneumonia with a median survival of 3 years after diagnosis. Acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) is now identified as a life-threatening complication. It presents as worsening dyspnea with new ground glass opacities superimposed upon a radiographic usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis of AE-IPF is poor and treatment strategies lack standardization. In order to rule out any reversible etiology for an acute decompensation of a previously stable IPF patient diagnostic modalities include computerized tomographic angiogram (CTA) coupled with high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) imaging of the chest, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and echocardiogram with bubble study. Avoiding risk factors, identifying underlying causes and supportive care are the mainstays of treatment. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant medications have not shown to improve survival in AE-IPF. Most of the patients are managed in a critical care setting with mechanical ventilation. Lung transplantation is a promising option but most institutions are not equipped and not every patient is a candidate.
The morbidity and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome remain to be high. Over the last 50 years, the clinical management of these patients has undergone vast changes. Significant improvement in the care of these patients involves the development of mechanical ventilation strategies, but the benefits of these strategies remain controversial. With a growing trend of extracorporeal support for critically ill patients, we provide a historical review of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) including its failures and successes as well as discussing extracorporeal devices now available or nearly accessible while examining current clinical indications and trends of ECMO in respiratory failure.
BACKGROUND: The search for the most efficient bronchoscopic imaging tool in detection of early lung cancer is still active. The major aim of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of each bronchoscopic technique and their combination in detection of premalignant bronchial lesions. METHODS: This was a prospective trial that enrolled 96 patients with indication for bronchoscopy. Lesions were classified as visually positive if pathological fluorescence was observed under autofluorescence imaging (AFI) videobronchoscopy or dotted, tortuous, and abrupt-ending blood vessels were identified under narrow band imaging (NBI) videobronchoscopy. Squamous metaplasia, mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ (CIS) were regarded as histologically positive lesions. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of white light videobronchoscopy (WLB) in detection of premalignant lesions were 26.5%, 63.9%, 34.4%, and 54.9%, respectively; the corresponding values for AFI were 52%, 79.6%, 64.6%, and 69.9% respectively, for NBI were 66%, 84.6%, 75.4%, 77.7%, respectively, while the values for combination of NBI and AFI were 86.1%, 86.6%, 84.6%, and 88%, respectively. Combination of NBI and AFI significantly improves sensitivity when compared to each individual technique (P < 0.001). When specificity is of concern, combination of techniques improves specificity of WLB (P < 0.001) and specificity of AFI (P = 0.03), but it does not have significant influence on specificity of NBI (P = 0.53). CONCLUSION: Combination of NBI and AFI in detection of premalignant bronchial lesions increases both sensitivity and specificity of each technique. However, it seems that NBI is most sufficient and effective in detection of these lesions.
CONTEXT: Several international studies have described the epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, information about the incidence and prevalence of PH in Saudi Arabia is unknown. AIMS: To report cases of PH and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of PH due to various causes in a Saudi population. METHODS: Newly diagnosed cases of PH [defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure >= 25 mmHg at right heart cauterization (RHC)] were prospectively collected at a single tertiary care hospital from January 2009 and June 2012. Detailed demographic and clinical data were collected at the time of diagnosis, along with hemodynamic parameters. RESULTS: Of the total 264 patients who underwent RHC, 112 were identified as having PH. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.8 +/- 15.8 years, and there was a female preponderance of 72.3%. About 88 (78.6%) of the PH patients were native Saudis and 24 (21.4%) had other origins. Twelve PH patients (10.7%) were classified in group 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 7 (6.2%) in group 2 (PH due to left heart disease), 73 (65.2%) in group 3 (PH due to lung disease), 4 (3.6%) in group 4 (chronic thromboembolic PH), and 16 (14.3%) in group 5 (PH due to multifactorial mechanisms). PH associated with diastolic dysfunction was noted in 28.6% of group 2 patients, 31.5% of group 3 patients, and 25% of group 5 patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results offer the first report of incident cases of PH across five groups in Saudi Arabia.
INTRODUCTION: The management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was investigated with the use of heliox in an experimental model. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether heliox can be considered a new therapeutic approach in ARDS. METHODS: ARDS was designed in Wistar albino male rats, 250-300 g in weight, by intratracheal instillation of physiological saline solution. Anesthezied and tracheotomized rats with ARDS were pressure-controlled ventilated. At the end of 210 min, helium gas was tried. All rats were assigned to two groups: Group 1 (n = 10) was the control group, and was given no treatment; group 2 (n = 7) was given heliox (He: O-2 = 50: 50). The heliox group received heliox for 1 h continously. Rats were continued to be kept on a ventilator through the experiment. Two hours after the last inhalation, both lungs of the rats were excised for both histopathological examination and immunohistochemical evaluation. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Histopathological grading were expressed as median interquartile range. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to assess the relationships between the variables. RESULTS: The infiltation of neutrophils were decreased in rats treated with heliox. Edema in the interstitial and intraalveolar areas was less than that of the control rats. Also, the diminishing of perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage was apperant. Hyaline membrane (HM) formation decreased in the heliox group compared with the control group. Decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was shown via immunohistochemical examination in the heliox group. CONCLUSION: The present study histopathologically indicated the effectiveness of heliox in the decreasing of neutrophil infiltation, interstitial/intraalveolar edema, perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage and HM formation in ARDS. Besides the known effect of heliox in obstructive lung disease, inhaled heliox therapy could be associated with the improvement of inflamation in ARDS.
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is still a problem especially at emergency units. The purpose of study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) in patients with PE. METHODS: In this prospective study, 50 patients with suspected PE were evaluated in Department of Pulmonary Diseases of a Training and Reasearch Hospital between January 2010 and July 2011. At the begining, TUS was performed by a chest physician, subsequently for definitive diagnosis computed tomography pulmonary angiography were performed in all cases as a reference method. Other diagnostic procedures were examination of serum d-dimer levels, echocardiography, and venous doppler ultrasonography of the legs. Both chest physician and radiologist were blinded to the results of other diagnostic method. Diagnosis of PE was suggested if at least one typical pleural-based/subpleural wedge-shaped or round hypoechoic lesion with or without pleural effusion was reported by TUS. Presence of pure pleural effusion or normal sonographic findings were accepted as negative TUS for PE. RESULTS: PE was diagnosed in 30 patients. It was shown that TUS was true positive in 27 patients and false positive in eight and true negative in 12 and false negative in three. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of TUS in diagnosis of PE for clinically suspected patients were 90%, 60%, 77.1%, 80%, and 78%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: TUS with a high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy, is a noninvasive, widely available, cost-effective method which can be rapidly performed. A negative TUS study cannot rule out PE with certainty, but positive TUS findings with moderate/high suspicion for PE may prove a valuable tool in diagnosis of PE at bedside especially at emergency setting, for critically ill and immobile patients, facilitating immediate treatment decision.
AIMS: The direct involvement of clinical pharmacists in patient care is an ever-evolving role in the pharmacy profession. Studies have demonstrated that discharge counseling performed by a clinical pharmacist improves patients' knowledge of their medications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of patients' educational level and previous counseling on medication knowledge among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care center. METHODS: The effect of the education level and previous counseling on medication knowledge was assessed in 90 patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings at King Abdul Aziz Medical City during a 5-week period using a questionnaire that contains items to assess patients' medication knowledge and the pharmacists' performance during counseling. RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 52.9 +/- 17.6 years. The participants' education level was not significantly associated with gender; however, it was significantly associated with age, P < 0.05. A higher educational level was found to positively affect the aspects of medication knowledge that were assessed in this study (P < 0.05): 35.8-56.9% of the non-educated patients showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 76.2-90.5% for the more educated participants. Furthermore, 13.6%, 38.1%, and 70.0% of the non-educated group, the below high school group and high school education or above group, respectively, demonstrated good to excellent knowledge of their medications' side effects. Previous counseling was also positively linked to medication knowledge (P < 0.05). Here, 87.8-97.6% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and better knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 37.2-43.2% for those who did not. Finally, 52.9% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent knowledge of medication side effects compared to only 12.5% for those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications' side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.
AIMS: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has shown excellent diagnostic capabilities for mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. However, its value in thoracic non-lymph node lesions is less clear. This study was designed to assess the value of EBUS-TBNA in distinguishing malignant from benign thoracic non-lymph node lesions. METHODS: From October 2009 to August 2011, 552 patients underwent EBUS-TBNA under local anesthesia and with conscious sedation. We retrospectively reviewed 81 of these patients who had tracheobronchial wall-adjacent intrapulmonary or isolated mediastinal non-lymph node lesions. On-site cytological evaluation was not used. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to distinguish the origin or type of malignancy when necessary. RESULTS: EBUS-TBNA was performed in 68 tracheobronchial wall-adjacent intrapulmonary and 13 isolated mediastinal non-lymph node lesions. Of the 81 patients, 77 (95.1%, 60 malignancies and 17 benignancies) were diagnosed through EBUS-TBNA, including 57 primary lung cancers, 2 mediastinal tumors, 1 pulmonary metastatic adenocarcinoma, 7 inflammation, 5 tuberculosis, 3 mediastinal cysts, 1 esophageal schwannoma, and 1 focal fibrosis. There were four false-negative cases (4.9%). Of the 60 malignancies, there were 9 (15.0%) which originally had no definite histologic origin or type. Thus, IHC was performed, with 7 (77.8%) being subsequently confirmed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in distinguishing malignant from benign lesions were 93.4% (60/64), 100% (17/17), 100% (60/60), 81.0% (17/21), and 95.1% (77/81), respectively. CONCLUSION: EBUS-TBNA is a safe procedure with a high sensitivity for distinguishing malignant from benign thoracic non-lymph node lesions within the reach of EBUS-TBNA, with IHC usually providing a more definitive diagnosis.
Purpose: There are reports of greater survival rates in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients of female gender. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of gender in survival of NSCLC patients treated surgically with curative intent (stage I/II). Methods: In a retrospective cohort design, we screened 498 NSCLC patients submitted to thoracotomies at the hospital So Lucas, in Porto Alegre, Brazil from 1990 to 2009. After exclusion of patients that did not fit to all the inclusion criteria, we analyzed survival rates of 385 subjects. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model was used to evaluate potential confounding factors. Results: Survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 65.3% and 49.5% for women and 46.5% and 33.2% for men, respectively ( P = 0.006). Considering only stage I patients, the survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 76.2% and 55.1% for women and 50.7% and 35.4% for men, respectively ( P = 0.011). No significant differences in survival rates were found among stage II patients. Conclusions: Our results show female gender as a possible protective factor for better survival of stage I NSCLC patients, but not among stage II patients. This study adds data to the knowledge that combined both genders survival rates for NSCLC is not an adequate prognosis.
Gastrobronchial fistula is a rare but serious complication of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with significant morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 30-year-old man who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity and presented later with a history of chronic productive cough. Upper gastrointestinal series showed the presence of a communicating fistula between the stomach and the left lung bronchial tree.
Ewing's sarcomas and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNETs) are high grade malignant neoplasms. These malignancies are characterized by a chromosome 22 rearrangement, arise from bone or soft tissue, predominantly affect children and young adults, and are grouped in the Ewing family of tumors. Multimodality treatment programs are the treatment of choice. Primary localization of ES/PNET in the mediastinum is extremely rare. We describe a case of ES/PNET presenting as a mediastinal mass with tracheal compression and initial signs of superior vena cava in a 66-year-old woman.