► Kaempferol reduces the risk of chronic diseases, especially cancer. ► Kaempferol augments human body’s antioxidant defence against free radicals. ► Kaempferol modulates apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. ► Nanotechnology can improve the bioavailability of kaempferol. Kaempferol is a polyphenol antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Many studies have described the beneficial effects of dietary kaempferol in reducing the risk of chronic diseases, especially cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between kaempferol intake and cancer. Kaempferol may help by augmenting the body’s antioxidant defence against free radicals, which promote the development of cancer. At the molecular level, kaempferol has been reported to modulate a number of key elements in cellular signal transduction pathways linked to apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Significantly, kaempferol inhibits cancer cell growth and angiogenesis and induces cancer cell apoptosis, but on the other hand, kaempferol appears to preserve normal cell viability, in some cases exerting a protective effect. The aim of this review is to synthesize information concerning the extraction of kaempferol, as well as to provide insights into the molecular basis of its potential chemo-preventative activities, with an emphasis on its ability to control intracellular signaling cascades that regulate the aforementioned processes. Chemoprevention using nanotechnology to improve the bioavailability of kaempferol is also discussed.
The interest in incorporating carotenoids, such as β-carotene, into foods and beverages is growing due to their potential health benefits. However, the poor water-solubility and low bioavailability of carotenoids is currently a challenge to their incorporation into many foods. The aim of this work was to study the influence of particle size on lipid digestion and β-carotene bioaccessibility using corn oil-in-water emulsions with different initial droplet diameters: large ( ≈ 23 μm); medium ( ≈ 0.4 μm); and small ( ≈ 0.2 μm). There was a progressive increase in the mean particle size of all the emulsions as they passed through a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consisting of mouth, stomach, and small intestine phases, which was attributed to droplet coalescence, flocculation, and digestion. The electrical charge on all the lipid particles became highly negative after passage through the GIT due to accumulation of anionic bile salts, phospholipids, and free fatty acids at their surfaces. The rate and extent of lipid digestion increased with decreasing mean droplet diameter (small ≈ medium ≫ large), which was attributed to the increase in lipid surface area exposed to pancreatic lipase with decreasing droplet size. There was also an appreciable increase in β-carotene bioaccessibility with decreasing droplet diameter (small > medium > large). These results provide useful information for designing emulsion-based delivery systems for carotenoids for food and pharmaceutical uses.
Proteins are of great interest due to their amphiphilic nature, which allows them to reduce the interfacial tension at the oil–water interface. The incorporation of proteins at the oil–water interface has allowed scientists to utilise them to form emulsions (O/W or W/O), which may be used in food formulations, drug and nutrient delivery. The systematic study of the proteins at the interface and the factors that affect their stability ( ., conformation, pH, solvent conditions, and thermal treatment) has allowed for a broader use of these emulsions tailored for various applications. In this review, the factors affecting the stability of emulsions using food proteins will be discussed. The use of polysaccharides to complex with proteins will also be explored in relation to enhancing emulsion stability.
In this work, a simple and high sensitivity electrochemical sensor was developed to determine Sudan I based on Pt/CNTs nanocomposite ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (Pt/CNTs/ILCPE) using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) methods. The novel sensor exhibited an obviously catalytic activity towards the oxidation of Sudan I, which can be confirmed by the increased oxidation peak current and the decreased oxidation peak potential when compared with the bare carbon paste electrode (CPE). The electron transfer coefficient ( ), diffusion coefficient ( ), and charge transfer resistance ( ) of Sudan I at the modified electrode were calculated. The linear response range and detection limit were found to be 0.008–600 μmol L and 0.003 μmol L , respectively. Other species did not interfere with the determination of Sudan I at a surface of propose sensor in the optimum condition. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in food samples with satisfactory results.
► FTIR and DSC analyses were demonstrated the good miscibility of the two polymers. ► Blend films containing around 60 wt.% gelatin displayed excellent mechanical and physical properties. ► Water vapour permeability and water solubility of films decreased as the chitosan content increased. ► Blending gelatin and chitosan may be a method for improving the physical properties of films. With the goal of improving the physico-chemical performance of fish gelatin-based films, composite films were prepared with increasing concentrations of chitosan (Ch) (100G:0Ch, 80G:20Ch, 70G:30Ch, 60G:40Ch and 0G:100Ch, gelatin:Ch), and some of their main physical and functional properties were characterised. The results indicated that the addition of Ch caused significant increase ( < 0.05) in the tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus, leading to stronger films as compared with gelatin film, but significantly ( < 0.05) decreased the elongation at break. Ch drastically reduced the water vapour permeability (WVP) and solubility of gelatin films, as this decline for the blend film with a 60:40 ratio has been of about 50% ( < 0.05). The light barrier measurements present low values of transparency at 600 nm of the gelatin–chitosan films, indicating that films are very transparent while they have excellent barrier properties against UV light. The structural properties investigated by FTIR and DSC showed a clear interaction between fish gelatin and Ch, forming a new material with enhanced mechanical properties.
► The major bioactive components in brown algae are concisely summarized. ► The chemical tests for antioxidant activity applied to brown algae are compiled and comparatively presented. ► The components exclusively present in brown algae are emphasized. ► The potential to protect from oxidation in model and real oily systems is explained. Research on the bioactives from seaweeds has increased in recent years. Antioxidant activity is one of the most studied, due to the interest of these compounds both as preservatives and protectors against oxidation in food and cosmetics and also due to their health implications, mainly in relation to their potential as functional ingredients. Brown algae present higher antioxidant potential in comparison with red and green families and contain compounds not found in terrestrial sources. antioxidant chemical methods, used as a first approach to evaluate potential agents to protect from lipid oxidation in foods, confirmed that the brown algae crude extracts, fractions and pure components are comparatively similar or superior to synthetic antioxidants. Particular emphasis on the fucoidan and phlorotannin polymeric fractions is given, considering variations associated with the species, collection area, season, and extraction and purification technologies.
To date, numerous studies have reported on the antidiabetic properties of various plant extracts through inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes. The objective of this research was to evaluate extracts of seaweeds for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Cold water and ethanol extracts of 15 seaweeds were initially screened and from this, five brown seaweed species were chosen. The cold water and ethanol extracts of had the strongest α-amylase inhibitory effect with IC values of 53.6 and 44.7 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extracts of Linnaeus were found to be potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase with IC values of 0.32 and 0.49 μg/ml. The observed effects were associated with the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts, and the concentrations used were below cytotoxic levels. Overall, our findings suggest that brown seaweed extracts may limit the release of simple sugars from the gut and thereby alleviate postprandial hyperglycaemia.
► We predict pork chemical composition by using NIR hyperspectral imaging technique. ► Good prediction was achieved for protein, moisture and fat contents in pork. ► Selected wavelengths were used for spatial visualisation of chemical components. In this study a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique was investigated for non-destructive determination of chemical composition of intact and minced pork. Hyperspectral images (900–1700 nm) were acquired for both intact and minced pork samples and the mean spectra were extracted by automatic segmentation. Protein, moisture and fat contents were determined by traditional methods and then related with the spectral information by partial least-squares (PLS) regression models. The coefficient of determination obtained by cross-validated PLS models indicated that the NIR spectral range had an excellent ability to predict the content of protein ( = 0.88), moisture ( = 0.87) and fat ( = 0.95) in pork. Regression models using a few selected feature-related wavelengths showed that chemical composition could be predicted with coefficients of determination of 0.92, 0.87 and 0.95 for protein, moisture and fat, respectively. Prediction of chemical contents in each pixel of the hyperspectral image using these prediction models yielded spatially distributed visualisations of the sample composition.
► Gallic acid was successfully incorporated into zein ultra-fine fibres at different loading amount using electrospinning. ► Changes on the physical and thermal properties of gallic acid were observed in gallic acid loaded zein electrospun fibres. ► ATR-FTIR results indicated that interactions occurred between gallic acid and zein at the molecular level. ► Gallic acid loaded zein electrospun fibres had exhibited potent antioxidant activities. Gallic acid was successfully incorporated into zein ultra-fine fibres at different loading amount (5%, 10% and 20%) in order to develop an encapsulating technology for functional ingredient delivery using electrospinning. The produced fibres exhibit diameters ranging from 327 to 387 nm. The physical and thermal properties of encapsulated gallic acid were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); and the interaction between gallic acid and zein was attested by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated a different thermal stability of the fabricated complex before and after the gallic acid incorporation. Lastly, the 1,1′-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that the gallic acid had retained its antioxidant activity after incorporation in zein electrospun fibres. Overall, electrospinning technique had shown promising results as an efficient and effective method for the preparation of sub-micron structured encapsulated functional ingredient that may find uses in food industry.
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a hyperspectral imaging system (900–1700 nm) to predict instrumental and sensory tenderness of lamb meat. Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values and sensory scores by trained panellists were collected as the indicator of instrumental and sensory tenderness, respectively. Partial least squares regression models were developed for predicting instrumental and sensory tenderness with reasonable accuracy ( = 0.84 for WBSF and 0.69 for sensory tenderness). Overall, the results confirmed that the spectral data could become an interesting screening tool to quickly categorise lamb steaks in good (i.e. tender) and bad (i.e. tough) based on WBSF values and sensory scores with overall accuracy of about 94.51% and 91%, respectively. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to select the most important wavelengths for WBSF prediction. Additionally, textural features from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) were extracted to determine the correlation between textural features and WBSF values.
► HSI is powerful in precise and direct estimation of Enterobacteriaceae loads on meat. ► Second derivative spectra were useful for selecting important wavelengths. ► Wavelengths selected from regression coefficients were more effective for detection. ► Full wavelength and simplified models were both accurate for tests. ► Microbial loads were successfully visualised in prediction maps. Bacterial pathogens are the main culprits for outbreaks of food-borne illnesses. This study aimed to use the hyperspectral imaging technique as a non-destructive tool for quantitative and direct determination of Enterobacteriaceae loads on chicken fillets. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were established and the best model using full wavelengths was obtained in the spectral range 930–1450 nm with coefficients of determination ⩾ 0.82 and root mean squared errors (RMSEs) ⩽0.47 log CFU g . In further development of simplified models, second derivative spectra and weighted PLS regression coefficients (BW) were utilised to select important wavelengths. However, the three wavelengths (930, 1121 and 1345 nm) selected from BW were competent and more preferred for predicting Enterobacteriaceae loads with of 0.89, 0.86 and 0.87 and RMSEs of 0.33, 0.40 and 0.45 log CFU g for calibration, cross-validation and prediction, respectively. Besides, the constructed prediction map provided the distribution of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria on chicken fillets, which cannot be achieved by conventional methods. It was demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is a potential tool for determining food sanitation and detecting bacterial pathogens on food matrix without using complicated laboratory regimes.
► The anti-proliferative activity of rosemary and sage extracts was monitored. ► Cytotoxic and antioxidant activity were correlated to phytochemical composition. ► Both extracts exerted direct cytocydal effect up-regulation of NO and TNF-α. ► Rosemary extract developed more pronounced cytotoxic and immunomodyfying activity. ► The primary cytotoxic components were determined. The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of and extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS ). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile.
and species could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. species were shown to be the richest source of tocopherols. ► High phenolic content correlated well with most antioxidant assays. ► No clear correlation existed between phenolics and Fe chelating activity. Water and ethanolic extracts of 16 species of seaweeds collected along the Danish coasts were screened for antioxidant activities using four antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power, ferrous ion-chelating and liposome model system). Furthermore their effectiveness in retarding lipid peroxidation in fish oil was evaluated by an accelerated stability test. Significant differences were observed in total and individual phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of seaweed species evaluated. Ethanol was more efficient for polyphenol extraction than water. and all the species tested showed highest radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system and in fish oil and were high in phenolic content. These seaweeds could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants for protection of foods against oxidation. In general, the various antioxidative assays correlated well with the total phenolic content, indicating that algal polyphenols are active components in these extracts. However, in some of the antioxidative assays some species with low total phenolic content also showed good antioxidative effects indicating that some other co-extracted active compounds such as pigments and tocopherols in ethanolic extracts and sulphated polysaccharides, proteins or peptides in water extracts may also contribute to the overall antioxidant properties and this needs further investigation.
► Relations between starch structure and digestibility of cooked rice are examined. ► Amylose (Am) content and degree of branching correlate with digestion rate. ► Fine molecular structural features also correlate with digestion rate. ► Correlations between starch digestibility and fine Am molecular structural features have not been previously reported. Statistically and causally meaningful relationships are established between starch molecular structures (obtained by size-exclusion chromatography, proton NMR and multiple-angle laser light scattering) and digestibility of cooked rice grains (measured by digestion). Significant correlations are observed between starch digestion rate and molecular structural characteristics, including fine structures of the distributions of branch (chain) lengths in both amylose and amylopectin. The digestion rate tends to increase with longer amylose branches and smaller ratios of long amylopectin and long amylose branches to short amylopectin branches, although the statistical analyses show that further data are needed to establish this unambiguously. These new relationships between fine starch structural features and digestibility of cooked rice grains are mechanistically reasonable, but suggestive rather than statistically definitive.
Licorice, the roots and rhizomes of several species (Leguminosae), is an important natural sweetening agent and a widely used herbal medicine. In this work, six flavonoids, 5-(1,1-dimethylallyl)-3,4,4′-trihydroxy-2-methoxychalcone ( ), licochalcone B ( ), licochalcone A ( ), echinatin ( ), glycycoumarin ( ) and glyurallin B ( ), were isolated from the extracts of licorice ( and ). Their structures were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods. To our knowledge, compound was isolated from natural plants for the first time. All the isolates were tested by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays. Compounds , and showed strong scavenging activity toward the ABTS radical, and compounds , , , and exhibited potent inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes compared with the reference controls. Compounds – dose-dependently inhibited LPS induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, compounds – were demonstrated to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Moreover, the contents of the six compounds, in different species, were quantified by HPLC–MS.
► A water-soluble polysaccharide CPP was purified from . ► The anticancer effect of CPP in HeLa cells were evaluated by MTT assay. ► Its physicochemical properties were elucidated by GPC, GC–MS, TGA, FTIR, DLS, etc. ► CPP exhibited strong inhibition effect on the growth of HeLa cells. A (Batal.) Iljinskaja polysaccharide (CPP) was isolated and purified by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, deproteinisation and anion-exchange chromatography. Its physicochemical properties were characterised by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), UV–visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and viscometry analysis. The anticancer effect of CPP in human gastric cancer HeLa cells was also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that the molecular weight of CPP was 900 kDa, and it contained 64.8% total sugar, 23.5% uronic acid, 9.26% protein, and six kinds of monosaccharides, including glucose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose and galactose, with molar percentages of 32.7%, 9.33%, 30.6%, 3.48%, 10.4%, and 13.5%, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that CPP exhibited a strong inhibition effect on the growth of human gastric cancer HeLa cells.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine protease involved in the degradation and inactivation of incretin hormones that act by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion after meal ingestion. DPP-IV inhibitors have emerged as new and promising oral agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of β-lactoglobulin as natural source of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. A whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin was hydrolysed with trypsin and fractionated using a chromatographic separation at semipreparative scale. Two of the six collected fractions showed notable DPP-IV inhibitory activity. These fractions were analysed by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to identify peptides responsible for the observed activity. The most potent fragment (IPAVF) corresponded to β-lactoglobulin f(78–82) which IC value was 44.7 μM. The results suggest that peptides derived from β-lactoglobulin would be beneficial ingredients of foods against type 2 diabetes.
, , , and were evaluated for their potential as a future protein source. Crude protein content ranged from 19% to 22% (Dumas analysis). Essential amino acid levels in all insect species were comparable with soybean proteins, but lower than for casein. After aqueous extraction, next to a fat fraction, a supernatant, pellet, and residue were obtained, containing 17–23%, 33–39%, 31–47% of total protein, respectively. At 3% (w/v), supernatant fractions did not form stable foams and gels at pH 3, 5, 7, and 10, except for gelation for at pH 7. At 30% w/v, gels at pH 7 and pH 10 were formed, but not at pH 3 and pH 5. In conclusion, the insect species studied have potential to be used in foods due to: (1) absolute protein levels; (2) protein quality; (3) ability to form gels.
► Antioxidant hydrolysate of blue mussel proteins was obtained by using neutrase. ► Peptide (BNH-P7) was prepared by using ultrafiltration, gel filtration and RP-HPLC. ► The structure of BNH-P7 was determined as YPPAK (Tyr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Lys). ► BNH-P7 showed high radicals scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. ► The high activity of BNH-P7 was due to the smaller size and Tyr and Pro residues. Protein derived from blue mussel ( ) was hydrolysed using four kinds of proteases (pepsin, papain, neutrase and alcalase), and the neutrase hydrolysate (BNH) obtained by 3-h hydrolysis exhibited the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity compared to other hydrolysates. By using ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), a novel antioxidant peptide (BNH-P7) was isolated from BNH, and its amino acid sequence was identified as YPPAK (Tyr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Lys) with molecular weight of 574 Da. BNH-P7 exhibited good scavenging activity on DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical with EC of 2.62, 0.228, and 0.072 mg/ml, respectively. BNH-P7 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. The high activity of BNH-P7 was due to the small size and the presence of antioxidant and hydrophobic amino acid residues (Tyr and Pro) within its sequence.
In this study, complex nanoparticles were developed from carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) and soy protein isolate (SPI) by a simple ionic gelation method. The effect of Ca2+ concentration, pH and CMCS/SPI mass ratio on the formation of nanoparticles was systematically investigated. Vitamin D-3 (VD), a hydrophobic micronutrient, was successfully incorporated into the polymeric complex, forming particles with sizes between 162 and 243 nm and zeta potentials ranging from -10 to -20 mV. In comparison with CMCS, the CMCS/SPI complex required a lower concentration of Ca2+, and it showed better particle forming capability over a broad range of pH. These features resulted in an increased loading efficiency to 6.06%. In addition, the complex nanoparticles achieved significantly higher encapsulation efficiency (up to 96.8%), possibly due to their compact structure and high capability of hydrogen bonding evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In contrast to the ones prepared with SPI, the complex nanoparticles exhibited a reduced (42.3% compared to 86.1%) release of VD in simulated gastric fluid and an increased (36.0% compared to 8.2%) release under simulated intestinal condition. These characteristics made the CMCS/SPI complex nanoparticles an attractive candidate for the encapsulation and controlled release of hydrophobic nutraceuticals and bioactives. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.