This article reviews recent theoretical and experimental advances in the fundamental understanding and active control of quantum fluids of light in nonlinear optical systems. In the presence of effective photon-photon interactions induced by the optical nonlinearity of the medium, a many-photon system can behave collectively as a quantum fluid with a number of novel features stemming from its intrinsically nonequilibrium nature. A rich variety of recently observed photon hydrodynamical effects is presented, from the superfluid flow around a defect at low speeds, to the appearance of a Mach-Cherenkov cone in a supersonic flow, to the hydrodynamic formation of topological excitations such as quantized vortices and dark solitons at the surface of large impenetrable obstacles. While the review is mostly focused on a specific class of semiconductor systems that have been extensively studied in recent years (planar semiconductor microcavities in the strong light-matter coupling regime having cavity polaritons as elementary excitations), the very concept of quantum fluids of light applies to a broad spectrum of systems, ranging from bulk nonlinear crystals, to atomic clouds embedded in optical fibers and cavities, to photonic crystal cavities, to superconducting quantum circuits based on Josephson junctions. The conclusive part of the article is devoted to a review of the future perspectives in the direction of strongly correlated photon gases and of artificial gauge fields for photons. In particular, several mechanisms to obtain efficient photon blockade are presented, together with their application to the generation of novel quantum phases. DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.85.299
This paper gives the 2010 self-consistent set of values of the basic constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) for international use. The 2010 adjustment takes into account the data considered in the 2006 adjustment as well as the data that became available from 1 January 2007, after the closing date of that adjustment, until 31 December 2010, the closing date of the new adjustment. Further, it describes in detail the adjustment of the values of the constants, including the selection of the final set of input data based on the results of least-squares analyses. The 2010 set replaces the previously recommended 2006 CODATA set and may also be found on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants.
One of the best signatures of nonclassicality in a quantum system is the existence of correlations that have no classical counterpart. Different methods for quantifying the quantum and classical parts of correlations are among the more actively studied topics of quantum-information theory over the past decade. Entanglement is the most prominent of these correlations, but in many cases unentangled states exhibit nonclassical behavior too. Thus distinguishing quantum correlations other than entanglement provides a better division between the quantum and classical worlds, especially when considering mixed states. Here different notions of classical and quantum correlations quantified by quantum discord and other related measures are reviewed. In the first half, the mathematical properties of the measures of quantum correlations are reviewed, related to each other, and the classical-quantum division that is common among them is discussed. In the second half, it is shown that the measures identify and quantify the deviation from classicality in various quantum-information-processing tasks, quantum thermodynamics, open-system dynamics, and many-body physics. It is shown that in many cases quantum correlations indicate an advantage of quantum methods over classical ones.American Physical Society
The science of quantum information has arisen over the last two decades centered on the manipulation of individual quanta of information, known as quantum bits or qubits. Quantum computers, quantum cryptography, and quantum teleportation are among the most celebrated ideas that have emerged from this new field. It was realized later on that using continuous-variable quantum information carriers, instead of qubits, constitutes an extremely powerful alternative approach to quantum information processing. This review focuses on continuous-variable quantum information processes that rely on any combination of Gaussian states, Gaussian operations, and Gaussian measurements. Interestingly, such a restriction to the Gaussian realm comes with various benefits, since on the theoretical side, simple analytical tools are available and, on the experimental side, optical components effecting Gaussian processes are readily available in the laboratory. Yet, Gaussian quantum information processing opens the way to a wide variety of tasks and applications, including quantum communication, quantum cryptography, quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and quantum state and channel discrimination. This review reports on the state of the art in this field, ranging from the basic theoretical tools and landmark experimental realizations to the most recent successful developments.
Hybrid quantum circuits combine two or more physical systems, with the goal of harnessing the advantages and strengths of the different systems in order to better explore new phenomena and potentially bring about novel quantum technologies. This article presents a brief overview of the progress achieved so far in the field of hybrid circuits involving atoms, spins, and solid-state devices (dincluding superconducting and nanomechanical systems). Howthese circuits combine elements from atomic physics, quantum optics, condensed matter physics, and nanoscience is discussed, and different possible approaches for integrating various systems into a single circuit are presented. In particular, hybrid quantum circuits can be fabricated on a chip, facilitating their future scalability, which is crucial for building future quantum technologies, including quantum detectors, simulators, and computers. DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.85.623
The electronic ground state of a periodic system is usually described in terms of extended Bloch orbitals, but an alternative representation in terms of localized "Wannier functions" was introduced by Gregory Wannier in 1937. The connection between the Bloch and Wannier representations is realized by families of transformations in a continuous space of unitary matrices, carrying a large degree of arbitrariness. Since 1997, methods have been developed that allow one to iteratively transform the extended Bloch orbitals of a first-principles calculation into a unique set of maximally localized Wannier functions, accomplishing the solid-state equivalent of constructing localized molecular orbitals, or "Boys orbitals" as previously known from the chemistry literature. These developments are reviewed here, and a survey of the applications of these methods is presented. This latter includes a description of their use in analyzing the nature of chemical bonding, or as a local probe of phenomena related to electric polarization and orbital magnetization. Wannier interpolation schemes are also reviewed, by which quantities computed on a coarse reciprocal-space mesh can be used to interpolate onto much finer meshes at low cost, and applications in which Wannier functions are used as efficient basis functions are discussed. Finally the construction and use of Wannier functions outside the context of electronic-structure theory is presented, for cases that include phonon excitations, photonic crystals, and cold-atom optical lattices.
The field of laser-matter interaction traditionally deals with the response of atoms, molecules, and plasmas to an external light wave. However, the recent sustained technological progress is opening up the possibility of employing intense laser radiation to trigger or substantially influence physical processes beyond atomic-physics energy scales. Available optical laser intensities exceeding 10(22) W/cm(2) can push the fundamental light-electron interaction to the extreme limit where radiation-reaction effects dominate the electron dynamics, can shed light on the structure of the quantum vacuum, and can trigger the creation of particles such as electrons, muons, and pions and their corresponding antiparticles. Also, novel sources of intense coherent high-energy photons and laser-based particle colliders can pave the way to nuclear quantum optics and may even allow for the potential discovery of new particles beyond the standard model. These are the main topics of this article, which is devoted to a review of recent investigations on high-energy processes within the realm of relativistic quantum dynamics, quantum electrodynamics, and nuclear and particle physics, occurring in extremely intense laser fields.
The problem of electron-electron interactions in graphene is reviewed. Starting from the screening of long-range interactions in these systems, the existence of an emerging Dirac liquid of Lorentz invariant quasiparticles in the weak-coupling regime is discussed, as well as the formation of strongly correlated electronic states in the strong-coupling regime. The analogy and connections between the many-body problem and the Coulomb impurity problem are also analyzed. The problem of the magnetic instability and Kondo effect of impurities and/or adatoms in graphene is also discussed in analogy with classical models of many-body effects in ordinary metals. Lorentz invariance is shown to play a fundamental role and leads to effects that span the whole spectrum, from the ultraviolet to the infrared. The effect of an emerging Lorentz invariance is also discussed in the context of finite size and edge effects as well as mesoscopic physics. The effects of strong magnetic fields in single layers and some of the main aspects of the many-body problem in graphene bilayers are briefly reviewed. In addition to reviewing the fully understood aspects of the many-body problem in graphene, a plethora of interesting issues are shown to remain open, both theoretically and experimentally, and the field of graphene research is still exciting and vibrant.
This review describes recent groundbreaking results in Si, Si/SiGe, and dopant-based quantum dots, and it highlights the remarkable advances in Si-based quantum physics that have occurred in the past few years. This progress has been possible thanks to materials development of Si quantum devices, and the physical understanding of quantum effects in silicon. Recent critical steps include the isolation of single electrons, the observation of spin blockade, and single-shot readout of individual electron spins in both dopants and gated quantum dots in Si. Each of these results has come with physics that was not anticipated from previous work in other material systems. These advances underline the significant progress toward the realization of spin quantum bits in a material with a long spin coherence time, crucial for quantum computation and spintronics.
The structures, the phase diagrams, and the appearance of a neutron resonance signaling an unconventional superconducting state provide phenomenological evidence relating the cuprates, the Fe-pnictides and chalcogenides as well as some heavy-fermion and actinide materials. Single-band and multiband Hubbard models have been found to describe a number of the observed properties of these materials so that it is reasonable to examine the origin of the pairing interaction in these models. In this review, based on the experimental phenomenology and studies of the pairing interaction for Hubbard-like models, it is proposed that spin-fluctuation mediated pairing is the common thread linking a broad class of superconducting materials.
The form of energy termed heat that typically derives from lattice vibrations, i.e., phonons, is usually considered as waste energy and, moreover, deleterious to information processing. However, in this Colloquium, an attempt is made to rebut this common view: By use of tailored models it is demonstrated that phonons can be manipulated similarly to electrons and photons, thus enabling controlled heat transport. Moreover, it is explained that phonons can be put to beneficial use to carry and process information. In the first part ways are presented to control heat transport and to process information for physical systems which are driven by a temperature bias. In particular, a toolkit of familiar electronic analogs for use of phononics is put forward, i.e., phononic devices are described which act as thermal diodes, thermal transistors, thermal logic gates, and thermal memories. These concepts are then put to work to transport, control, and rectify heat in physically realistic nanosystems by devising practical designs of hybrid nanostructures that permit the operation of functional phononic devices; the first experimental realizations are also reported. Next, richer possibilities to manipulate heat flow by use of time-varying thermal bath temperatures or various other external fields are discussed. These give rise to many intriguing phononic nonequilibrium phenomena such as, for example, the directed shuttling of heat, geometrical phase-induced heat pumping, or the phonon Hall effect, which may all find their way into operation with electronic analogs.
Massive gravity has seen a resurgence of interest due to recent progress which has overcome its traditional problems, yielding an avenue for addressing important open questions such as the cosmological constant naturalness problem. The possibility of a massive graviton has been studied on and off for the past 70 years. During this time, curiosities such as the van Dam, Veltman, and Zakharov (vDVZ) discontinuity and the Boulware-Deser ghost were uncovered. These results are rederived in a pedagogical manner and the Stuckelberg formalism to discuss them from the modern effective field theory viewpoint is developed. Recent progress of the last decade is reviewed, including the dissolution of the vDVZ discontinuity via the Vainshtein screening mechanism, the existence of a consistent effective field theory with a stable hierarchy between the graviton mass and the cutoff, and the existence of particular interactions which raise the maximal effective field theory cutoff and remove the ghosts. In addition, some peculiarities of massive gravitons on curved space, novel theories in three dimensions, and examples of the emergence of a massive graviton from extra dimensions and brane worlds are reviewed.
Multiphoton interference reveals strictly nonclassical phenomena. Its applications range from fundamental tests of quantum mechanics to photonic quantum information processing, where a significant fraction of key experiments achieved so far comes from multiphoton state manipulation. The progress, both theoretical and experimental, of this rapidly advancing research is reviewed. The emphasis is given to the creation of photonic entanglement of various forms, tests of the completeness of quantum mechanics (in particular, violations of local realism), quantum information protocols for quantum communication (e.g., quantum teleportation, entanglement purification, and quantum repeater), and quantum computation with linear optics. The scope of the review is limited to "few-photon'' phenomena involving measurements of discrete observables.
Domains in ferroelectrics were considered to be well understood by the middle of the last century: They were generally rectilinear, and their walls were Ising-like. Their simplicity stood in stark contrast to the more complex Bloch walls or Neel walls in magnets. Only within the past decade and with the introduction of atomic-resolution studies via transmission electron microscopy, electron holography, and atomic force microscopy with polarization sensitivity has their real complexity been revealed. Additional phenomena appear in recent studies, especially of magnetoelectric materials, where functional properties inside domain walls are being directly measured. In this paper these studies are reviewed, focusing attention on ferroelectrics and multiferroics but making comparisons where possible with magnetic domains and domain walls. An important part of this review will concern device applications, with the spotlight on a new paradigm of ferroic devices where the domain walls, rather than the domains, are the active element. Here magnetic wall microelectronics is already in full swing, owing largely to the work of Cowburn and of Parkin and their colleagues. These devices exploit the high domain wall mobilities in magnets and their resulting high velocities, which can be supersonic, as shown by Kreines' and co-workers 30 years ago. By comparison, nanoelectronic devices employing ferroelectric domain walls often have slower domain wall speeds, but may exploit their smaller size as well as their different functional properties. These include domain wall conductivity (metallic or even superconducting in bulk insulating or semiconducting oxides) and the fact that domain walls can be ferromagnetic while the surrounding domains are not.
This is a review of state-of-the-art theory and experiment of the motion of cold and ultracold atoms coupled to the radiation field within a high-finesse optical resonator in the dispersive regime of the atom-field interaction with small internal excitation. The optical dipole force on the atoms together with the backaction of atomic motion onto the light field gives rise to a complex nonlinear coupled dynamics. As the resonator constitutes an open driven and damped system, the dynamics is nonconservative and in general enables cooling and confining the motion of polarizable particles. In addition the emitted cavity field allows for real-time monitoring of the particle's position with minimal perturbation up to subwavelength accuracy. For many-body systems, the resonator field mediates controllable long-range atom-atom interactions, which set the stage for collective phenomena. Besides the correlated motion of distant particles, one finds critical behavior and nonequilibrium phase transitions between states of different atomic order in conjunction with superradiant light scattering. Quantum-degenerate gases inside optical resonators can be used to emulate optomechanics as well as novel quantum phases such as supersolids and spin glasses. Nonequilibrium quantum phase transitions as predicted by, e. g., the Dicke Hamiltonian can be controlled and explored in real time via monitoring the cavity field. In combination with optical lattices, the cavity field can be utilized for nondestructive probing Hubbard physics and tailoring long-range interactions for ultracold quantum systems. DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.85.553
Quantum mechanics is an extremely successful theory that agrees with every experimental test. However, the principle of linear superposition, a central tenet of the theory, apparently contradicts a commonplace observation: macroscopic objects are never found in a linear superposition of position states. Moreover, the theory does not explain why during a quantum measurement, deterministic evolution is replaced by probabilistic evolution, whose random outcomes obey the Born probability rule. In this article a review is given of an experimentally falsifiable phenomenological proposal, known as continuous spontaneous collapse: a stochastic nonlinear modification of the Schrodinger equation, which resolves these problems, while giving the same experimental results as quantum theory in the microscopic regime. Two underlying theories for this phenomenology are reviewed: trace dynamics and gravity-induced collapse. As the macroscopic scale is approached, predictions of this proposal begin to differ appreciably from those of quantum theory and are being confronted by ongoing laboratory experiments that include molecular interferometry and optomechanics. These experiments, which test the validity of linear superposition for large systems, are reviewed here, and their technical challenges, current results, and future prospects summarized. It is likely that over the next two decades or so, these experiments can verify or rule out the proposed stochastic modification of quantum theory. DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.85.471
Numerous correlated electron systems exhibit a strongly scale-dependent behavior. Upon lowering the energy scale, collective phenomena, bound states, and new effective degrees of freedom emerge. Typical examples include (i) competing magnetic, charge, and pairing instabilities in two-dimensional electron systems; (ii) the interplay of electronic excitations and order parameter fluctuations near thermal and quantum phase transitions in metals; and (iii) correlation effects such as Luttinger liquid behavior and the Kondo effect showing up in linear and nonequilibrium transport through quantum wires and quantum dots. The functional renormalization group is a flexible and unbiased tool for dealing with such scale-dependent behavior. Its starting point is an exact functional flow equation, which yields the gradual evolution from a microscopic model action to the final effective action as a function of a continuously decreasing energy scale. Expanding in powers of the fields one obtains an exact hierarchy of flow equations for vertex functions. Truncations of this hierarchy have led to powerful new approximation schemes. This review is a comprehensive introduction to the functional renormalization group method for interacting Fermi systems. A self-contained derivation of the exact flow equations is presented and frequently used truncation schemes are described. Reviewing selected applications it is shown how approximations based on the functional renormalization group can be fruitfully used to improve our understanding of correlated fermion systems.
Experimental advances with laser intensities above1 TW/cm(2), with pulse durations between roughly 50 and 5 fs, have led to the discovery of new atomic effects that include examples of startlingly high electron correlation. These phenomena have presented an unexpected theoretical challenge as they lie outside the domains of both of the nominally applicable theories, namely, straightforward perturbative radiation theory and quasistatic tunneling theory. The two liberated electrons present a new few-body collective effect. When they are not released independently, one by one, the term nonsequential double ionization has been adopted. Theoretical avenues of attack have emerged in two categories, which are strikingly different. They can be labeled as "all-at-once" and "step-by-step" approaches. Although different, even conceptually opposite in some ways, both approaches have been successful in confronting substantial parts of the experimental data. These approaches are examined and compared with their results in addressing key experimental data obtained over the past decade.
SrRuO3 is endowed with three remarkable features. First, it is a moderately correlated material that exhibits several novel physical properties; second, it permits the epitaxial growth of essentially single-crystal films; and third, because it is a good conductor, it has attracted interest as a conducting layer in epitaxial heterostructures with a variety of functional oxides. In this review, the present state of knowledge of SrRuO3 thin films is summarized. Their role as a model system for studying magnetism and electron transport characterized by intermediate electron correlation and large magnetocrystalline anisotropy is demonstrated. The materials science of SrRuO3 thin film growth is reviewed, and its relationship to electronic, magnetic, and other physical properties is discussed. Finally, it is argued that, despite all that has been learned, a comprehensive understanding of SrRuO3 is still lacking and challenges remain.
For many years, the Luttinger liquid theory has served as a useful paradigm for the description of one-dimensional (1D) quantum fluids in the limit of low energies. This theory is based on a linearization of the dispersion relation of the particles constituting the fluid. Recent progress in understanding 1D quantum fluids beyond the low-energy limit is reviewed, where the nonlinearity of the dispersion relation becomes essential. The novel methods which have been developed to tackle such systems combine phenomenology built on the ideas of the Fermi-edge singularity and the Fermi-liquid theory, perturbation theory in the interaction strength, and new ways of treating finite-size properties of integrable models. These methods can be applied to a wide variety of 1D fluids, from 1D spin liquids to electrons in quantum wires to cold atoms confined by 1D traps. Existing results for various dynamic correlation functions are reviewed, in particular, the dynamic structure factor and the spectral function. Moreover, it is shown how a dispersion nonlinearity leads to finite particle lifetimes and its impact on the transport properties of 1D systems at finite temperatures is discussed. The conventional Luttinger liquid theory is a special limit of the new theory, and the relation between the two is explained.