Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.
BACKGROUND: The impact of atrial fibrillation (AF) upon platelet reactivity has not been investigated.METHODS: Subjects were 33 individuals with AF who consented to elective electrical cardioversion (ECV) immediately before ECV determination of surface-bound fibrinogen after stimulation i.e. platelet reactivity was carried out. A flow cytometer was employed. ADP (1.7 and 8.5mumol/L) and a thrombin receptor activating peptide (54 and 74mumol/L) were used as agonists. The analyses were repeated after 26+/-8(SD) months.RESULTS: Compared to day 1 subjects with AF (n=18) had a trend towards lower platelet reactivity at study end. It reached significance when using 1.7mumol/L ADP. In contrast, after 26+/-8(SD) months sinus rhythm (SR) (n=15) was associated with significant lower reactivity with all agonists.CONCLUSION: After 26+/-8(SD) months patients returning with AF had higher platelet reactivity than those who remained with SR.