All our former experience with application of quantum theory seems to say that what is predicted by quantum formalism must occur in the laboratory. But the essence of quantum formalism entanglement, recognized by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, and Schrodinger-waited over 70 years to enter laboratories as a new resource as real as energy. This holistic property of compound quantum systems, which involves nonclassical correlations between subsystems, has potential for many quantum processes, including canonical ones: quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation, and dense coding. However, it appears that this new resource is complex and difficult to detect. Although it is usually fragile to the environment, it is robust against conceptual and mathematical tools, the task of which is to decipher its rich structure. This article reviews basic aspects of entanglement including its characterization, detection, distillation, and quantification. In particular, various manifestations of entanglement via Bell inequalities, entropic inequalities, entanglement witnesses, and quantum cryptography are discussed, and some interrelations are pointed out. The basic role of entanglement in quantum communication within a distant laboratory paradigm is stressed, and some peculiarities such as the irreversibility of entanglement manipulations are also discussed including its extremal form-the bound entanglement phenomenon. The basic role of entanglement witnesses in detection of entanglement is emphasized.
This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer quantum Hall effect. The electronic properties of graphene stacks are discussed and vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge (surface) states in graphene depend on the edge termination (zigzag or armchair) and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. Different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented.
Statistical physics has proven to be a fruitful framework to describe phenomena outside the realm of traditional physics. Recent years have witnessed an attempt by physicists to study collective phenomena emerging from the interactions of individuals as elementary units in social structures. A wide list of topics are reviewed ranging from opinion and cultural and language dynamics to crowd behavior, hierarchy formation, human dynamics, and social spreading. The connections between these problems and other, more traditional, topics of statistical physics are highlighted. Comparison of model results with empirical data from social systems are also emphasized.
This paper reviews recent experimental and theoretical progress concerning many-body phenomena in dilute, ultracold gases. It focuses on effects beyond standard weak-coupling descriptions, such as the Mott-Hubbard transition in optical lattices, strongly interacting gases in one and two dimensions, or lowest-Landau-level physics in quasi-two-dimensional gases in fast rotation. Strong correlations in fermionic gases are discussed in optical lattices or near-Feshbach resonances in the BCS-BEC crossover.
Topological quantum computation has emerged as one of the most exciting approaches to constructing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. The proposal relies on the existence of topological states of matter whose quasiparticle excitations are neither bosons nor fermions, but are particles known as non-Abelian anyons, meaning that they obey non-Abelian braiding statistics. Quantum information is stored in states with multiple quasiparticles, which have a topological degeneracy. The unitary gate operations that are necessary for quantum computation are carried out by braiding quasiparticles and then measuring the multiquasiparticle states. The fault tolerance of a topological quantum computer arises from the nonlocal encoding of the quasiparticle states, which makes them immune to errors caused by local perturbations. To date, the only such topological states thought to have been found in nature are fractional quantum Hall states, most prominently the nu=5/2 state, although several other prospective candidates have been proposed in systems as disparate as ultracold atoms in optical lattices and thin-film superconductors. In this review article, current research in this field is described, focusing on the general theoretical concepts of non-Abelian statistics as it relates to topological quantum computation, on understanding non-Abelian quantum Hall states, on proposed experiments to detect non-Abelian anyons, and on proposed architectures for a topological quantum computer. Both the mathematical underpinnings of topological quantum computation and the physics of the subject are addressed, using the nu=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state as the archetype of a non-Abelian topological state enabling fault-tolerant quantum computation.
The combination of the compactness of networks, featuring small diameters, and their complex architectures results in a variety of critical effects dramatically different from those in cooperative systems on lattices. In the last few years, important steps have been made toward understanding the qualitatively new critical phenomena in complex networks. The results, concepts, and methods of this rapidly developing field are reviewed. Two closely related classes of these critical phenomena are considered, namely, structural phase transitions in the network architectures and transitions in cooperative models on networks as substrates. Systems where a network and interacting agents on it influence each other are also discussed. A wide range of critical phenomena in equilibrium and growing networks including the birth of the giant connected component, percolation, k-core percolation, phenomena near epidemic thresholds, condensation transitions, critical phenomena in spin models placed on networks, synchronization, and self-organized criticality effects in interacting systems on networks are mentioned. Strong finite-size effects in these systems and open problems and perspectives are also discussed.
This Colloquium analyzes the interaction of light with two-dimensional periodic arrays of particles and holes. The enhanced optical transmission observed in the latter and the presence of surface modes in patterned metal surfaces is thoroughly discussed. A review of the most significant discoveries in this area is presented first. A simple tutorial model is then formulated to capture the essential physics involved in these phenomena, while allowing analytical derivations that provide deeper insight. Comparison with more elaborated calculations is offered as well. Finally, hole arrays in plasmon-supporting metals are compared to perforated perfect conductors, thus assessing the role of plasmons in these types of structures through analytical considerations. The developments that have been made in nanophotonics areas related to plasmons in nanostructures, extraordinary optical transmission in hole arrays, complete resonant absorption and emission of light, and invisibility in structured metals are illustrated in this Colloquium in a comprehensive, tutorial fashion.
The physics of Anderson transitions between localized and metallic phases in disordered systems is reviewed. The term "Anderson transition" is understood in a broad sense, including both metal-insulator transitions and quantum-Hall-type transitions between phases with localized states. The emphasis is put on recent developments, which include multifractality of critical wave functions, criticality in the power-law random banded matrix model, symmetry classification of disordered electronic systems, mechanisms of criticality in quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems and survey of corresponding critical theories, network models, and random Dirac Hamiltonians. Analytical approaches are complemented by advanced numerical simulations.
The canonical example of a quantum-mechanical two-level system is spin. The simplest picture of spin is a magnetic moment pointing up or down. The full quantum properties of spin become apparent in phenomena such as superpositions of spin states, entanglement among spins, and quantum measurements. Many of these phenomena have been observed in experiments performed on ensembles of particles with spin. Only in recent years have systems been realized in which individual electrons can be trapped and their quantum properties can be studied, thus avoiding unnecessary ensemble averaging. This review describes experiments performed with quantum dots, which are nanometer-scale boxes defined in a semiconductor host material. Quantum dots can hold a precise but tunable number of electron spins starting with 0, 1, 2, etc. Electrical contacts can be made for charge transport measurements and electrostatic gates can be used for controlling the dot potential. This system provides virtually full control over individual electrons. This new, enabling technology is stimulating research on individual spins. This review describes the physics of spins in quantum dots containing one or two electrons, from an experimentalist's viewpoint. Various methods for extracting spin properties from experiment are presented, restricted exclusively to electrical measurements. Furthermore, experimental techniques are discussed that allow for (1) the rotation of an electron spin into a superposition of up and down, (2) the measurement of the quantum state of an individual spin, and (3) the control of the interaction between two neighboring spins by the Heisenberg exchange interaction. Finally, the physics of the relevant relaxation and dephasing mechanisms is reviewed and experimental results are compared with theories for spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions. All these subjects are directly relevant for the fields of quantum information processing and spintronics with single spins (i.e., single spintronics).
Matter at high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, which is a degenerate Fermi gas of quarks with a condensate of Cooper pairs near the Fermi surface that induces color Meissner effects. At the highest densities, where the QCD coupling is weak, rigorous calculations are possible, and the ground state is a particularly symmetric state, the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase. The CFL phase is a superfluid, an electromagnetic insulator, and breaks chiral symmetry. The effective theory of the low-energy excitations in the CFL phase is known and can be used, even at more moderate densities, to describe its physical properties. At lower densities the CFL phase may be disfavored by stresses that seek to separate the Fermi surfaces of the different flavors, and comparison with the competing alternative phases, which may break translation and/or rotation invariance, is done using phenomenological models. We review the calculations that underlie these results and then discuss transport properties of several color-superconducting phases and their consequences for signatures of color superconductivity in neutron stars.
In the early 1970s, Wilson developed the concept of a fully nonperturbative renormalization group transformation. When applied to the Kondo problem, this numerical renormalization group (NRG) method gave for the first time the full crossover from the high-temperature phase of a free spin to the low-temperature phase of a completely screened spin. The NRG method was later generalized to a variety of quantum impurity problems. The purpose of this review is to give a brief introduction to the NRG method, including some guidelines for calculating physical quantities, and to survey the development of the NRG method and its various applications over the last 30 years. These applications include variants of the original Kondo problem such as the non-Fermi-liquid behavior in the two-channel Kondo model, dissipative quantum systems such as the spin-boson model, and lattice systems in the framework of the dynamical mean-field theory.
Today, coupled-cluster theory offers the most accurate results among the practical ab initio electronic-structure theories applicable to moderate-sized molecules. Though it was originally proposed for problems in physics, it has seen its greatest development in chemistry, enabling an extensive range of applications to molecular structure, excited states, properties, and all kinds of spectroscopy. In this review, the essential aspects of the theory are explained and illustrated with informative numerical results.
This review discusses instabilities of the Fermi-liquid state of conduction electrons in metals with particular emphasis on magnetic quantum critical points. Both existing theoretical concepts and experimental data on selected materials are presented; with the aim of assessing the validity of presently available theory. After briefly recalling the fundamentals of Fermi-liquid theory, the local Fermi-liquid state in quantum impurity models and their lattice versions is described. Next, the scaling concepts applicable to quantum phase transitions are presented. The Hertz-Millis-Moriya theory of quantum phase transitions is described in detail. The breakdown of the latter is analyzed in several examples. In the final part, experimental data on heavy-fermion materials and transition-metal alloys are reviewed and confronted with existing theory.
The theoretical and experimental issues relevant to neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The impact that a direct observation of this exotic process would have on elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and cosmology is profound. Now that neutrinos are known to have mass and experiments are becoming more sensitive, even the nonobservation of neutrinoless double beta decay will be useful. If the process is actually observed, we will immediately learn much about the neutrino. The status and discovery potential of proposed experiments are reviewed in this context, with significant emphasis on proposals favored by recent panel reviews. The importance of and challenges in the calculation of nuclear matrix elements that govern the decay are considered in detail. The increasing sensitivity of experiments and improvements in nuclear theory make the future exciting for this field at the interface of nuclear and particle physics.
Linear optics with photon counting is a prominent candidate for practical quantum computing. The protocol by Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn [2001, Nature (London) 409, 46] explicitly demonstrates that efficient scalable quantum computing with single photons, linear optical elements, and projective measurements is possible. Subsequently, several improvements on this protocol have started to bridge the gap between theoretical scalability and practical implementation. The original theory and its improvements are reviewed, and a few examples of experimental two-qubit gates are given. The use of realistic components, the errors they induce in the computation, and how these errors can be corrected is discussed.
This article reviews the electronic and transport properties of carbon nanotubes. The focus is mainly theoretical, but when appropriate the relation with experimental results is mentioned. While simple band-folding arguments will be invoked to rationalize how the metallic or semiconducting character of nanotubes is inferred from their topological structure, more sophisticated tight-binding and ab initio treatments will be introduced to discuss more subtle physical effects, such as those induced by curvature, tube-tube interactions, or topological defects. The same approach will be followed for transport properties. The fundamental aspects of conduction regimes and transport length scales will be presented using simple models of disorder, with the derivation of a few analytic results concerning specific situations of short- and long-range static perturbations. Further, the latest developments in semiempirical or ab initio simulations aimed at exploring the effect of realistic static scatterers (chemical impurities, adsorbed molecules, etc.) or inelastic electron-phonon interactions will be emphasized. Finally, specific issues, going beyond the noninteracting electron model, will be addressed, including excitonic effects in optical experiments, the Coulomb-blockade regime, and the Luttinger liquid, charge density waves, or superconducting transition.
A review of new developments in theoretical and experimental electronic-structure investigations of half-metallic ferromagnets (HMFs) is presented. Being semiconductors for one spin projection and metals for another, these substances are promising magnetic materials for applications in spintronics (i.e., spin-dependent electronics). Classification of HMFs by the peculiarities of their electronic structure and chemical bonding is discussed. The effects of electron-magnon interaction in HMFs and their manifestations in magnetic, spectral, thermodynamic, and transport properties are considered. Special attention is paid to the appearance of nonquasiparticle states in the energy gap, which provide an instructive example of essentially many-body features in the electronic structure. State-of-the-art electronic calculations for correlated d-systems are discussed, and results for specific HMFs (Heusler alloys, zinc-blende structure compounds, CrO2, and Fe3O4) are reviewed.
Tunneling spectroscopy has played a central role in the experimental verification of the microscopic theory of superconductivity in classical superconductors. Initial attempts to apply the same approach to high-temperature superconductors were hampered by various problems related to the complexity of these materials. The use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS) on these compounds allowed the main difficulties to be overcome. This success motivated a rapidly growing scientific community to apply this technique to high-temperature superconductors. This paper reviews the experimental highlights obtained over the last decade. The crucial efforts to gain control over the technique and to obtain reproducible results are first recalled. Then a discussion on how the STM and STS techniques have contributed to the study of some of the most unusual and remarkable properties of high-temperature superconductors is presented: the unusually large gap values and the absence of scaling with the critical temperature, the pseudogap and its relation to superconductivity, the unprecedented small size of the vortex cores and its influence on vortex matter, the unexpected electronic properties of the vortex cores, and the combination of atomic resolution and spectroscopy leading to the observation of periodic local density of states modulations in the superconducting and pseudogap states and in the vortex cores.
Recent work is reviewed in which compactifications of string and M theory are constructed in which all scalar fields (moduli) are massive, and supersymmetry is broken with a small positive cosmological constant, features needed to reproduce real world physics. In this work it is explained that there is a "landscape" of string/M theory vacua, perhaps containing many candidates for describing real world physics, and arguments are presented for and against this idea. Statistical surveys of the landscape are discussed, as well as the prospects for testable consequences of this picture, such as observable effects of moduli, constraints on early cosmology, and predictions for the scale of supersymmetry breaking.
In materials with strong local Coulomb interactions, simple defects such as atomic substitutions strongly affect both macroscopic and local properties of the system. A nonmagnetic impurity, for instance, is seen to induce magnetism nearby. Even without disorder, models of such correlated systems are generally not soluble in two or three dimensions, and so few exact results are known for the properties of such impurities. Nevertheless, some simple physical ideas have emerged from experiments and approximate theories. Here the authors review what we can learn about this problem from one-dimensional (1D) antiferromagnetically correlated systems. Experiments on the high-T-c cuprate normal state which probe the effect of impurities on local charge and spin degrees of freedom are discussed, and compared with theories of single impurities in correlated hosts, as well as phenomenological effective Kondo descriptions. Subsequently, theories of impurities in d-wave superconductors including residual quasiparticle interactions are reviewed and compared with experiments in the superconducting state. Existing data exhibit a remarkable similarity to impurity-induced magnetism in the 1D case, implying the importance of electronic correlations for the understanding of these phenomena, and suggesting that impurities may provide excellent probes of the still poorly understood ground state of the cuprates.