This review is a survey of prospective studies on the clinical performance of posterior resin composites published between 1996 and 2002. Material, patient- and operator-specific data, observation periods, isolation methods of the operative field, and failure rates are detailed in tables. The data were evaluated statistically in order to assess the role of materials (filler size, bonding system, base materials [e.g. glass ionomer cements], and lining materials), study design, and personnel on failure rates. The primary reasons for composite failure were secondary caries, restoration fracture, and marginal defects. The influence of different commercial material brands on failure rates was not evaluated due to the great variety of test substances and the lack of material-specific documentation. Effects of the isolation method of the operative field (rubber dam or cotton rolls) and the professional status of operators (university or general dentist) on composite failure rates were not found to be significant. Observation periods varied from 1 to 17 years, and failure rates ranged between 0% and 45%. A linear correlation between failure rate and observation period was found (P<0.0001). Thirteen of 24 studies were terminated after 3 years, while seven studies continued for more than 10 years, indicating that favourable results for composite materials are frequently based on short-term results, despite higher dropout rates in longer studies. To determine accurately the risk for patients, long-term, randomised, controlled clinical trials of treatment outcomes with composites used in posterior teeth are clearly needed.
Many oral pathologies, such as dental caries, periodontal disease and peri-implantitis are plaque-related. Dental plaque is a microbial biofilm formed by organisms tightly bound to a solid substrate and each other by means of an exopolymer matrix. Bacteria exhibit different properties when contained within a biofilm. Knowing the mechanisms controlling the formation and development of biofilms can help to understand the emergence and progression of such pathologies and to plan effective treatment. Most periodontal pathogens are common saprophytes of the oral cavity, expressing their virulence only in a susceptible host or when some changes come about in the oral environment. Physical, metabolic and physiological interactions may cause positive or negative effects among the various microbiota present. Such mechanisms of antagonism/synergy select the bacterial population and alterations of its composition affect the balance with the host and may lead to pathology. The effectiveness of antimicrobial agents, as measured through in vitro tests, is dramatically reduced in vivo due to the properties of the microbial community: mature, intact biofilms are less sensitive to such agents, as the exopolymer matrix, bacterial enzymes and slow growth rate hinder the action of chemotherapeutic agents. The present literature review aims to examine the most representative studies, focusing on the characteristics of bacterial communities and the crucial shift from oral health to plaque-related diseases.
To comprehend the results of a randomised controlled trial (RCT), readers must understand its design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation. That goal can be achieved only through total transparency from authors. Despite several decades of educational efforts, the reporting of RCTs needs improvement. Investigators and editors developed the original CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to help authors improve reporting by use of a checklist and flow diagram. The revised CONSORT statement presented here incorporates new evidence and addresses some criticisms of the original statement. The checklist items pertain to the content of the Title, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. The revised checklist includes 22 items selected because empirical evidence indicates that not reporting this information is associated with biased estimates of treatment effect, or because the information is essential to judge the reliability or relevance of the findings. We intended the flow diagram to depict the passage of participants through an RCT. The revised flow diagram depicts information from four stages of a trial (enrolment, intervention allocation, follow- up, and analysis). The diagram explicitly shows the number of participants, for each intervention group, included in the primary data analysis. Inclusion of these numbers allows the reader to judge whether the authors have done an intention- to-treat analysis. In sum, the CONSORT statement is intended to improve the reporting of an RCT, enabling readers to understand a trial's conduct and to assess the validity of its results.
The purpose of this randomized, clinical study was to evaluate the clinical performance of composite resin materials used for fillings and indirect inlays. Twenty-eight sets of five class II restorations (two fillings, three inlays) were placed in 88 premolars and 52 molars in 28 adults. Brilliant Dentin and Estilux Posterior were used for both fillings and inlays, and SR-Isosit for inlays only. After 11 years, 27 sets of restorations (96%) were evaluated clinically using modified United States Public Health Service criteria. Replaced or repaired restorations were observed in 16% of the fillings and 17% of the inlays, and a further 5% of the restorations were replaced for reasons not related to the restoration. The remaining 107 restorations exhibited optimal ratings in 30% of the fillings and 12% of the inlays (P0.05).
This study examined the role of free radical-induced tissue damage and the antioxidant defense mechanism of saliva in periodontal disease. Antioxidant activity of saliva was compared in 20 healthy individuals and 17 patients with periodontal diseases. We measured the scavenging capacity of saliva against free radicals generated in vitro by electrolysis, xanthine-xanthine oxidase, or stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Total protein content and total antioxidant activity of saliva were also determined. The results indicate that stimulated saliva of healthy individuals is significantly more effective (40–50%) than that of patients with periodontal diseases in scavenging a wide variety of free radicals generated in vitro. Under these conditions it appears that the total antioxidant activity of saliva is significantly decreased in these patients despite the fact that the levels of the three main antioxidants (uric acid, ascorbic acid, and albumin) are not significantly affected. We conclude that periodontal diseases are associated with an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former due to both an increase in free radical production and a defect in the total antioxidant activity of saliva.
The decreased mouth opening (microstomia) represents a frequent finding in patients with systemic scleroderma (SSD), but little information is available about the efficacy of nonsurgical management of this condition. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a nonsurgical exercise program on the decreased mouth opening in a group of 10 SSD patients with severe microstomia (maximal mouth opening ≤30 mm). The subjects were instructed to perform an exercise program including both mouth-stretching and oral augmentation exercises. The effects of such exercises were assessed after an 18-week period by measuring the maximal mouth opening of each subject. All patients completed the study and no adverse effects occurred, with the exception of transient muscular fatigue. The exercise program improved the mouth opening of all subjects (mean increase: 10.7±2.06 mm, P0.1). At the end of the 18-week period, all patients commented that eating, speaking and oral hygiene measures were easier. The edentulous subjects also experienced less difficulty inserting their own dentures. These findings suggest that regular application of the proposed exercise program may be useful in the management of microstomia in SSD patients.
Due to its location and functions, the tongue is one of the most important anatomic structures in the oral cavity. However, knowledge in regards to its role and implications in oral health and disease is scarce. Moreover, although the dorsum of the tongue seems to harbour one of the most complex microbiological niches in human ecology, the knowledge of the role of tongue flora in health and disease is also very limited. Similarly, the nature of the tongue coating and the factors that influence its development and composition are almost unknown. The interest in the study of the tongue niche has increased in recent years due to its association with oral halitosis and to its role as a suitable reservoir for periodontal pathogens. The structure of the tongue favours a unique and complex bacterial biofilm, in which periodontal pathogens are frequently found. However, little is known about how to control this bacterial niche, and factors affecting tongue coating composition and aspect are not fully understood. Studies available on the influence of mechanical or antimicrobial approaches against tongue biofilm are very limited. Mechanical treatments showed a transient reduction in halitosis-related variables but were limited in time. Different antimicrobials agents have been evaluated: chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide, metal ions, triclosan, formulations containing essential oils , and hydrogen peroxide. However, most studies were designed as short-term models. Some of these studies demonstrated that the reduction in halitosis-related variables was associated with significant changes in the tongue microflora.
This study assessed the protective potential of salivary pellicles formed in situ over periods ranging from 2 to 24 h. Pellicles were produced on enamel slabs mounted on the palatal aspect of removable acrylic splints and exposed to the oral environment in three subjects for 2, 6, 12 and 24 h. Enamel specimens with and without pellicles were immersed in citric acid (1%) for 60 s, and the amount of dissolved calcium was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In addition, specimens were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mean values (standard deviations) for calcium release (mg/l related to the specimen's surface area of 5×5 mm2) were: 2-h pellicle 6.94 (1.55); 6-h pellicle 6.69 (2.05); 12-h pellicle 6.57 (2.31); 24-h pellicle 5.71 (2.46); enamel without pellicle 8.95 (1.66). There were no significant differences in calcium release that were dependent on pellicle formation time, but in comparison to enamel specimens without pellicle, significantly less (p <0.05) demineralization of the enamel was observed in pellicle-covered specimens. TEM showed that the pellicle was partly, but not completely dissolved following acid exposure. It is concluded that even a 2-h in-situ-formed pellicle layer protects the enamel surface to a certain extent against demineralization.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the application and limitation of ultrasound in the diagnosis of midfacial fractures. Eighty-one patients with radiologically proved fractures of the facial skeleton were included in this study. Examinations were performed using a 7.5-MHz small-part applicator. Another ten patients without facial fractures served as controls with normal sonoanatomical findings. The most important deficiency of ultrasound in the diagnosis of midfacial fractures is the difficult detection of non-dislocated fractures. According to our own experiences, the application of ultrasound in midfacial fractures is most useful for visualization of the zygomatic arch and the anterior wall of the frontal sinus, with immediate imaging after closed reduction avoiding radiation exposure. Moreover, it is restricted to fractures of the orbital margin and nasal bone. If ultrasound is performed as the first imaging modality in cases of suspected facial fractures by an experienced investigator, the visualization of fracture lines can avoid conventional imaging, so that only an indicated CT scan can be added. In doubtful cases, an individual combination of conventional radiographs would be the next step. By this, an overall reduction of radiation exposure seems possible.
Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical performance of a packable fine hybrid dental composite (Prodigy Condensable) and the influence of the additional application of a flowable resin composite (Revolution, SDS Kerr) layer on marginal integrity after 2 years in stress-bearing posterior cavities according to the Ryge criteria. In 50 patients (40.5±17.5 years of age), 116 class II fillings (metal matrix system, glass ionomer-cement-base in 36%, rubberdam isolation in 70%) were placed, with at least two restorations per patient. The adhesive Optibond Solo Plus was used for all the restorations. In one of the two fillings in each patient, an additional layer of the flowable composite Revolution was applied in the entire cavity and separately light-cured. Baseline scores have been rated Alfa in ≥95% and Bravo in <5%. After 2 years, the results [%] of the Ryge evaluation for the two groups with/without the additional use of Revolution were: (1) Marginal Adaptation: Alfa:78/70, Bravo:16/27, Charlie:0/0, Delta:6/4; (2) Anatomic Form: Alfa:89/95, Bravo:6/2, Charlie:6/4; (3) Secondary Caries: Alfa:98/100, Bravo:2/0; (4) Marginal Discoloration: Alfa:76/68, Bravo:24/32, Charlie:0/0; (5) Surface: Alfa:90/91, Bravo:4/5, Charlie:0/0, Delta:6/4; (6) Color Match: Oscar:56/57, Alfa:44/39, Bravo:0/4, Charlie:0/0. Within the observation period (recall rate: 95%), three restorations out of 116 at baseline fractured, one restoration showed a secondary caries, one tooth received endodontic treatment, and all other restored teeth remained vital. After 2 years, no statistically significant difference (Chi-square test) in the overall survival rate between the group with the additional use of Revolution (92.8%) and that without Revolution (94.6%) was found. The combined survival rate for both groups together was 93.7% of clinically acceptable restorations.
The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of ceramic inlays, assess the quality of published clinical studies, and determine the clinical effectiveness of ceramic inlays compared to other forms of posterior restorations. Prospective clinical trials of ceramic inlays published from 1990 to 2001 were retrieved by electronic and hand searching. The methodological quality of each study was assessed by two calibrated reviewers using a standardised checklist. The clinical effectiveness of ceramic inlays was evaluated in terms of failure rate, postoperative pain, and aesthetics. The results were compared to those of other forms of posterior restorations by means of an odds ratio. Among 46 articles selected for quality assessment, only five (10.6%) reported randomised controlled trials and 15 (32.6%) presented controlled clinical trials. The remaining 26 papers (56.5%) were longitudinal clinical trials lacking control groups. Only three papers fulfilled the requirement for statistical analysis to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of ceramic inlays. The results indicate no significant differences in longevity or postoperative sensitivity between ceramic and other posterior restorations over assessment periods of up to 1 year. It is concluded that no strong evidence is available to confirm the clinical effectiveness of ceramic inlays in comparison to other posterior restorations. Greater attention is required to the design and reporting of studies to improve the quality of clinical trials of ceramic inlays.
Recurrent dislocation of the mandibular condyle poses a difficult problem for affected patients. In the course of time, dislocations often become more frequent and more difficult to avoid. Even with good patient compliance, conservative treatment is often not sufficient. Operative procedures have also been described for the treatment of temporomandibular joint dislocation. However, these interventions are invasive, involving open arthrotomy with possible complications, and cannot safely guarantee a successful outcome. On the other hand, botulinum toxin injections into the lateral pterygoid muscles offer the option of a predictable and prolonged period without renewed dislocation. We present the results of this treatment carried out in 21 patients with recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation. Four patients were treated following unsuccessful physical therapy and the use of occlusal splints. The remaining 17 patients were treated for a number of conditions resulting in dislocation, including some with senile dementia and mental impairment in whom compliance with conservative measures was poor or completely absent. Injections were given on a 3-month basis in order to have a sustained effect. Within the study period of 6 months to 3 years, only two of the 21 patients suffered further dislocation. There were no side effects recorded as a result of treatment.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of two "packable" posterior composites: Prodigy Condensable/Optibond Solo—Kerr (PC-OS) and Definite/Etch & Prime—Degussa (D-EP). Thirty-six patients participated in this study. A total of 78 restorations (40 with D-EP and 38 with PC-OS) were made. Each patient received at least two restorations (one of each studied material). The materials were handled according to the manufacturer's instructions. The occlusal adjustments were made at the placement visit. The restorations were finished and polished after 1 week. They were evaluated at baseline, and after 1 year and 2 years by two independent evaluators using the USPHS criteria. Colored slides were made of all the restorations. After 2 years, 34 patients and 74 restorations (38 with D-EP and 36 with PC-OS) were available for evaluation. A total of 50% of PC-OS restorations received A criterion and 50% received B criterion (2.8% color, 11.1% marginal staining, 27.8% superficial staining, 2.8% anatomic form and 5.6% marginal adaptation). For D-EP, 60.5% of restorations received A criterion and 39.5% received B criterion (2.6% color, 5.3% marginal staining, 10.5% superficial staining, 7.9% anatomic form and 13.2% marginal adaptation). The C criterion was observed only for marginal adaptation with D-EP (2 restorations—5.3%). The obtained data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using the Fisher, Chi-square and McNemar tests. After 2 years, PC-OS showed a significant increase in superficial and marginal staining. For D-EP the marginal adaptation and superficial staining became significantly worse than baseline.
Cast gold partial crowns (CGPC) are an accepted means of restoring posterior teeth. For aesthetic reasons, gold alloys are being increasingly substituted with ceramics. The aim of the present study was to investigate retrospectively the long-term clinical performance and survival of CGPC and compare the results to the ones already reported for ceramic partial crowns (CPC). The CGPC group consisted of 42 patients (24 male, 18 female) randomly sampled from a total of 106 patients with CGPC, with one restoration per patient. The CPC group consisted of 22 patients with a total of 42 restorations. Both types of restoration were done by one experienced dentist. Another two experienced dentists who were not involved in performing the restorations rated both kinds of partial crowns using the modified United State Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria . The Median age of the CGPC was 57 months (range 3–157) and of the CPC and 63 months (range 24–72). Forty-one (98%) of the CGPC and 27 (64%) of the CPC were placed in molars, the rest in premolars. In each group, 40 (95%) restorations were still functioning without any necessity of replacement. Two teeth with CGPC, in situ for 4.5 and 11 years, respectively, had been extracted for periodontal reasons. Two CPC fractured and had to be replaced after 2 and 6.5 years in situ. The USPHS criteria results were similarly good for the gold and ceramic groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed survival probabilities of 72±21% and 96±4% after 13 and 7 years, respectively, for the CGPC. Survival of the CPC was 81±15% after 7 years. No statistically significant difference among survival functions of CGPC and CPC was found. From this data, it can be concluded that the longevity of CPC is not inferior to that of gold alloys. However, more long-term studies comparing the clinical performance and longevity of these two types of indirect restoration in the posterior region with larger numbers of restorations are desirable.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare among Caucasians but very common among southern Chinese. No information is presently available on the relationship between salivary gland function and xerostomia in irradiated southern Chinese. Salivary gland function and xerostomia were measured in irradiated NPC patients, recently diagnosed NPC patients, and a matched control group. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and flow rate, pH and buffer capacity measured. All participants completed a multi-item dry mouth questionnaire. Comparisons were made using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests and correlations assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The mean saliva flow rate and pH were significantly lower and the buffer capacity impaired in irradiated NPC patients compared with the other groups (P<0.01). Significantly more irradiated NPC patients had negative impacts associated with dry mouth generally, sticky saliva, and hoarse voice (P<0.01). Subjective dry mouth symptoms and associated reduced saliva flow were also relatively common in non-irradiated participants. Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia were major complications in irradiated NPC patients. In irradiated and non-irradiated southern Chinese, subjective dry mouth symptoms appeared to be correlated with actual salivary gland function.
Patients who receive allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) for hematological malignancies are at increased risk of developing oral complications. To reduce morbidity pretransplantation dental evaluation and treatment of all sources of potential infection have become standard of care for these patients. This study examined the effect of dental foci on the posttransplantation (post-SCT) outcome in two groups of patients who underwent allogeneic or autologous SCT: those who had no dental foci or completed dental treatment preoperatively (n=36) and those who underwent SCT without dental interventions (n=22). Statistical analysis showed no significant correlations between dental foci and infections, mucositis, and survival rate post-SCT. We therefore do not recommend a radical dental treatment pre-SCT.
The aim of this study was to determine the age and sequence of eruption of permanent teeth, as well as gender differences, in children and adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. Cross-sectional data on permanent teeth eruption were collected by examining pre-school, primary and secondary school children of 5–17 years of age. The subjects were drawn by multistage random sampling from the school registers. There were 2,382 subjects in the sample, 1,062 boys and 1,320 girls. The data were subjected to probit regression analysis. The mean age of eruption of lower first molar was 6.0 (95%CI: 5.8, 6.2) years. The median age of eruption of each tooth was earlier in girls than in boys. Although the range of years during which the permanent teeth erupted was similar in both sexes, i.e. 6–12 years, the sequence of the tooth eruption differed. All mandibular teeth, with the exception of first and second premolars in both males and females, tended to erupt earlier than their maxillary counterparts. The findings seem to correspond to earlier studies done in the other parts of the world.
The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency and benefit of a chemomechanical system for carious dentin removal, Carisolv, in general practice. A revised caries classification, the site/stage concept, was used to describe the clinical situations of all carious lesions treated. The study was performed by 12 investigators, and 120 carious lesions were treated with Carisolv. Sixty percent of the cases were treated without anaesthesia, and we found a significant correlation between chemomechanical treatment without anaesthesia and absence of pain (P=0.01). In 78.3% of the cases, carious dentin was totally removed with Carisolv, and in 21.7%, the dentin treatment was completed by drilling. In cases performed with Carisolv alone, the time required to remove carious dentin was 11.1±9.51 min (mean±SD). Treatment time was equivalent for all sites and increased significantly with each successive stage of lesion progression (P<0.001). In 82.5% of cases, the clinicians were satisfied with Carisolv, and in 99.2%, so were the patients. We conclude that, using clinical examination methods, Carisolv seems to remove carious dentin at all sites and stages of carious lesions but must be made more efficient for use in general practice.
This study compared fracture resistance of fiber-reinforced and non-fiber-reinforced composite molar crowns under simulated oral stress conditions. Three groups of fiber-reinforced composite crowns were constructed using one polyethylene fiber (belleGlass/Connect) and two glass fiber reinforcement systems (Sculpture/FiberKor, Targis/Vectris). The non-fiber-reinforced crowns based on the facing material alone: Sculpture, Targis or belleGlass. Additionally, crowns were made of the non-reinforced composite Artglass. Each group consisted of eight crowns. All crowns were luted to human molars and exposed to thermal cycling and mechanical loading (6000×5°C/55°C; 1.2×106×50 N; 1.66 Hz). The fracture resistance was measured using a Zwick universal testing machine. Results: The non-reinforced Artglass crowns demonstrated the highest fracture resistance, significantly higher than the resistance shown with belleGlass, belleGlass/Connect or Targis. Artglass showed an extremely wide distribution of values, however. No statistically significant differences were found between the reinforced and non-reinforced composite crowns of Vectris/Targis, FiberKor/Sculpture or Connect/belleGlass although the reinforced crowns showed a tendency towards higher values. The fracture resistance values scattered markedly more for the reinforced crowns, and their lowest fracture values also reached the level of the lowest non-reinforced crowns. The small distribution of fracture values for the non-reinforced crowns indicates that they will be less susceptible for manufacturing faults and more reliable under clinical conditions. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that single molar composite crowns (tested in this study) do not benefit from fiber-reinforcement.