The thin-layer drying behaviour of vegetable wastes (as a mix of lettuce and cauliflower leaves) from wholesale market for a temperature range of 50-150 ° C was determined. Drying of this material was found to take part only in the falling-rate period. The experimental data were fitted to the simple exponential model and the Page model. Both models have good prediction capability, Effective diffusion coefficient varied from 6.03*10 -9 to 3.15*10 -8 m3/s with an activation energy of diffusion of 19.82 kJ/mol. The temperature dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient was expressed by an Arrhenius-type relationship.
In a batch experimental equipment, the behavior of a sawdust dryer in a vibrating fluidized bed is analyzed. Empirical data concerning fluidization velocities, pressure drops and drying kinetics was obtained, and advantages of using vibration in the drying chamber, relative to a conventional fluidized bed, are shown. This technique is presented as an alternative to solve problems of solid agglomeration and bed defluidization. Results show that it is possible to dry sawdust with more than 2 kg/kg moisture, in a vibrating bed keeping a high degree of bed homogeneity and high quality of fluidized state.
The degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid in food products is presented in the paper. Vibrofluidized method of drying was considered. Experiments were carried out for a model substance (silica gel)and agricultural products, namely: fresh green peas, potatoes and cabbage. Experimental data were described by means of three mathematical methods: a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model, a mathematical model of degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid and a hybrid model. The hybrid model connects neural computation with the mathematical model. All approaches provide an excellent process description. In the case of multilayer perceptron, the proposed method is simpler to implement when compared to the mathematical and the hybrid methods.
Industrial and pilot plant spray-dried materials were obtained from various manufacturers and qualitatively examined in order to identify structural and morphological features. Three distinct categories of particle morphology were identified. Namely, crystalline, skin forming and agglomerate. A number of unusual morphological phenomena were also noted Selected properties such as powder flowability. particle size and particle friability, were found to be directly related to morphological structure. Single particles were also produced in a convective drying process analogous to spray drying, in which, different solids or mixtures of solids were dried from solutions, slurries or pastes as single suspended droplets. The localised chemical and physical structures were analysed, and the results related to experimental conditions viz. drying air temperature and initial solids concentration. There was a strong similarity between the industrial spray-dried material and those dried experimentally. The morphologies of multicomponent mixtures were found to be complex, with the respective migration rates of the solids being dependent on drying temperature. The results are of relevance to dryer optimisation and to the optimisation of product characteristics, They also go some way to validating the single droplet drying technique as a useful analytical tool in spray drying research, and possibly other particulate processing industries.
Pieces of banana, guava and potato were dried in a two-stage heat pump dryer capable of precise control of air humidity with predetermined cyclic variations of air temperature entering the drying chamber. The air temperature variations tested were : a cosine, a reversed cosine and three different square wave profiles with peak-to-valley variations from 20 ° C to 40 ° C. The cycle time was about 60 minutes with drying time of approximately 300 minutes. The drying samples were placed on trays in a thin layer. With appropriate choice of temperature-time variation, it is possible to reduce the overall color change while maintaining high drying rates.
Volumetric and thickness shrinkage evaluated by direct measurement and n-heptane displacement were determined during convective and freeze drying of Golden delicious apples. For convective drying, the influence of blanching and diameter/thickness ratio of the apple disks used were analysed at different levels of moisture content under constant conditions. It was found that shrinkage of dried samples, both by convection and by freeze-drying, is anisotropic to a level which depends on sample geometry (ratio diameter/thickness) used. Blanching did not affect shrinkage results. Based on results obtained a new model to predict bulk density of materials during drying is proposed, showing a better fit to experimental data than previous models reported in the literature. This model was further used to predict changes in apple porosity during drying.
The effect of pretreatment on color of convective dried products (namely apple, banana, potato and carrot) was investigated. Five different types of pretreatment were taken into consideration; microwave, osmotic, sulfite, water blanching and steam blanching. Color characteristics were identified by measuring the color parameters (namely, Lightness (L), Redness (a) and Yellowness (b)) using a Hunter Lab chromatometer. The type of pretreatment was found to significantly affect the three color parameters. In addition, Redness (a) and Yellowness (b) were found to follow a first order kinetic model. Untreated dried materials showed an extensive browning, indicated by a significant drop of the L parameter and a corresponding increase of a, b parameters. Osmotically and microwave pretreated samples supressed browning compared to the untreated samples. In this case, lightness decreased slightly, while a, b increased slightly. Sulfite pretreatment prevented significantly color deterioration, while water and steam blanching also prevented enzymatic browning during convective drying.
Shrinkage of potato cubes, parallelepipeds and cylinders was addressed during drying. A basic methodology by using image analysis was set-up in order to measure and monitor geometrical changes along the drying process. Both measurements by image analysis and directly with a calliper were carried out. Results from both methods showed a good agreement with no bias. Particle shape was found to influence shrinkage in a different way according to the axis. In fact the larger dimension shrinks less than the shorter one. This could be linked to the influence of the core drying in shrinkage. Experiments were also carried out for cauliflower stems. The difference in shrinkage between directions was greater for cauliflowers, due probably to the effect of alignment of fibers along the axis. Good agreement with existing data in the literature for specific volume was found.
The textural properties of apple, banana, carrot and potato were experimentally determined by uniaxial compressive tests of cylindrical specimens at a constant deformation rate of 5mm/min. Compression tests were performed, following air drying, at various moisture contents ranging from 0.2 to 6 kg/kg db. The tests were performed using a universal texture testing machine and simple mathematical equations were used to correlate the maximum experimental stress and the corresponding strain to the moisture content. It was shown that the maximum stress decreases as the moisture content decreases, until a critical moisture content of 1.8 kg water/kg dry solids. Further removal of water tends to increase the maximum stress. The maximum experimental strain was found to increase as water was removed. The stress-strain data of compression test were modelled using a simple mathematical model, containing parameters such as the maximum stress (ow), the maximum strain (dim), the elastic parameter (E) and the viscoelastic exponent (p). The effect of the moisture content on the compressive behavior of dried materials was introduced through its effect on the model parameters. The shift in compression behavior at 1.8 kg water/kg solids leads to the conclusion that there is an important change of structure at this moisture content.
Drying related properties of apple are evaluated for various different drying methods (namely, convective, vacuum, microwave, osmotic and freeze drying), and their corresponding process conditions. The examined properties are drying kinetics, equilibrium material moisture content, density, porosity, color and viscoelastic characteristics. The effect of various process factors on these properties is described through particular mathematical models. The model parameters are estimated by fitting the corresponding model equations on a wide range of experimental data. Drying kinetics is greatly affected by the characteristic particle size and drying air temperature for convective drying, while for the case of microwave drying they are affected by the vacuum pressure and the emitted radiation power. Equilibrium material moisture content is affected by the temperature and the humidity of the surrounding air, while the osmotic pretreatment shifts the sorption isotherms to higher water activity levels. The quality properties examined, are significantly affected by the drying method. More specifically, osmotic dehydration decreases the porosity of the final product, while it prevents color deterioration and enchances the viscous nature of dehydrated apple. Freeze-dried apples develop the highest porosity, have the most elastic structure and the lowest rate of color deterioration.
A new chemical heat pump (CHP) system for ecofriendly effective utilization of thermal energy in drying is proposed from the viewpoints of energy saving and environmental impact. CHPs can store thermal energy in the form of chemical energy by an endothermic reaction and release it at various temperature levels for heat demands by exo/endothermic reactions. CHPs have potential for heat recovery and dehumidification in the drying process by heat storage and high/law temperature heat release. In this study, we estimate the potential of the CHP application to drying systems for industrial use. Some combined systems of CHPs and dryers are proposed as chemical heat pump dryers (CHPD). The potential for commercialization of CHPDs is discussed.
An investigation of the thermal drying of lignite has been carried out, by using an indirect heat pilot rotary drum. The process aims at the production of dry lignite and clean steam as part of a gasification procedure. Both flighted and bare drum modes have been employed. Temperature profiles along the dryer length, the amount of evaporation (moisture conversion) and the solids residence time distribution (RTD) were measured. A non-isothermal model was tested under three different regimes of solids flow. Model integration, by taking account of experimental amount of evaporation at dryer exit and temperature profiles along the dryer length, has been utilized in the validation of drying kinetics and heat transfer correlations. Model predictions compare satisfactorily with the operating data of an indirect heat industrial lignite dryer. Overall heat transfer coefficients of the pilot rotary dryer were found to agree well with those reported for direct heat dryers.
Color and sorption characteristics of osmotically treated and air dried apple and banana were studied during air drying at 70 ° C. The color parameters: Lightness (L), Redness (a) and Yellowness (b) were studied, using a Hunter Lab chromatometer. A first order kinetic model was fitted to the experimental data adequately for color parameters, while sorption data for treated and air dried products were fitted to the GAB model. Untreated fruits showed an extensive browning which was monitored by a significant drop of the lightness (L) and an increase of redness (a) and yellowness (b). Osmotically pretreated samples did not brown as much as the untreated samples and the lightness L decreased only slightly while a, b increased slightly. Osmotic pretreatment resulted in a shift in sorption isotherm for both fruits. Osmotic dehydration prevented color damages and decreased the sorption capacity of dehydrated products.
A one-dimensional stress model was proposed for drying of radiata pine lumber, which has considered wood moisture shrinkage, instantaneous stress-strain relationships, mechano-sorptive creep, time-induced creep and temperature effects. In addition, wood hardening behaviour in the plastic region and differences between stress increase and decrease have been taken into account. The proposed Stress model can predict stress development and relief in a drying cycle once the required wood mechanical and Theological properties have been quantified. Drying experiments were performed to dry Pinus radiata sap wood boards of 100×40×590 mm in a tunnel dryer. In the experiment, wood temperature, moisture content gradient and residual stress through board thickness were measured. The drying cycle included HT drying, cooling and final steam conditioning. The measured stress patterns were in agreement with the model predictions. However, more accurate calculations will be made once the detailed experimental data for radiata pine wood mechanical and rheological properties are available.
Non-linear partial differential equations are presented for two dimensional heat and mass transfer within a single grain kernel during drying. In this model, the moisture evaporation inside the kernel is considered. The moisture is assumed to diffuse to the outer boundary of the kernel in liquid form and evaporate on the surface of the kernel. The influence of temperature and moisture content on grain properties is also considered in the simulation. The Non-linear partial differential equations are solved using the finite element method and simulation data is verified on a thin layer dryer for wheat kernels. The comparison shows that the simulated results have a high accuracy with average relative error of about 5%. The results of the finite element analysis can be used for grain quality evaluation, drying simulation studies and stress analysis of grain kernel.
Drying kinetics of four fruits (prune, quince, fig and strawberry) were studied by using a simple mass transfer mathematical model involving a characteristic parameter (K) as a function of process variables. The model was tested with data produced in a laboratory air dryer, using non-linear regression analysis. The investigation involved three values of sample thickness (5, 10, 15mm) and three different air temperatures (50, 60, 70 °C). The parameters of the model were found to be greatly affected by sample thickness and air temperature. The effect of moisture content on the porosity of three fruits (namely avocado, prune and strawberry) was also investigated. A simple mathematical model was used to correlate porosity with moisture content. It was found that porosity increased with decreasing moisture content. Samples of three fruits (avocado, prune and strawberry) were investigated to estimate color changes during conventional drying at 70 °C. A first order kinetic model was fitted to experimental data with great success. It is found that the color of avocado and strawberry change while the color of prune remains the same. Furthermore, the water sorption isotherms of three fruits (avocado, prune and strawberry) at 25° temperature were determined experimentally and the parameters at the GAB equation were evaluated by means of non-linear regression analysis. The use of the above equation produced a very good fit.
Experiments have been performed on a pilot scale, cylinder-on-cone spray dryer fitted with a vaned-wheel atomiser to observe air flow patterns, with and without water spray. A combination of tufts, smoke streams and a laser light sheet, was used to provide information about regions of recirculation, flow stability, spray trajectories and wall deposition. While atomiser-induced swirl dominated the flow patterns under typical operating conditions, some instability was observed, although different in type, for situations with and without atomiser rotation. Clockwise eddies were observed to form and collapse between the wall and the strongly anti-clockwise swirling core created by anti-clockwise atomiser rotation. Without swirl, large portions of the recirculation zones at the walls were observed to have a weak tendency to change randomly between clockwise, anticlockwise and chaotic behaviour.
Spray drying of jameed - a dried fermented dairy product, is investigated. The study covers the effects of the operating variables upon the physical and chemical characteristics of the dried product. The investigated variables were: feed total solids, feed flow rate, inlet air temperature, air flow rate and atomizer pressure. The product characteristics measured were: total solids, bulk density, average particle size, wettability, dipersibility, color, ash content, salt content, fat content and pH. Best overall results were obtained for a feed total solids of 17%, feed flow rate of 36.5 ml/min, inlet air temperature of 100 /C, air flow rate of 632 cm 3 /s, and atomizer pressure of 1.5 bar.
Moisture diffusivity is an important parameter needed in the analysis, design and optimization of drying processes for food and other materials. Published data on moisture diffusivities of food materials are scarce and, sometimes, inconsistent due to a lack of a precise and repeatable experimental technique. Most experimental data are limited to low and moderate drying temperature (<70°C), whereas in the food industry hot air of up to 100°C is usually used in the falling rate period to speed up the drying processes. In this study, the effective moisture diffusivities of Red Delicious apple tissues were determined from drying curves produced with a Perkin Elmer thermogravimetric analyzer, using the slope method. The experiments were conducted at lour temperatures 60, 80, 100 and 120°C. Two well defined falling rate periods were observed. The effective moisture diffusivity, for the four temperature levels ranged from 3.2 × 10 −7 to 7.9 × 10 −8 m 2 /s for the first falling rate period and 3.8 × 10 −8 to 4.7 × 10 −8 m 2 /s for the second falling rate period. The temperature dependence of the effective diffusivity can be described with an Arrhenius-type equation.