Microwave drying of food materials has been investigated over several years as a potential means for reducing the total drying time. However, some quality loss almost always accompanied when foods were dried completely using microwaves due to nonuniform temperature and moisture distribution. Some strategies used to improve dried product quality include combination of microwave and conventional hot air drying. pulsed or intermittent drying, and microwave-vacuum drying. Combination of pulsing and vacuum drying is a useful technique to maximize energy use efficiency and product quality especially for temperature sensitive products such as fruits. Some results of pulsed, microwave-vacuum drying of cranberries are presented. Pulsed drying is more energy efficient than continuous drying. In pulsed drying, the longer the pulsing ratio (i.e. longer power-off time in relation to power-on time) was more energy efficient. The quality of pulse-dried product was also generally better than that of continuous-dried product. The cycle power-on time and pulsing ratio should be carefully selected to obtain maximize the benefits of pulsed, microwave vacuum drying
At present, there is a growing interest in the field of dehydration for preserving food. Ultrasonic energy represents a means to obtain dehydration without affecting the food. This paper deals with an experimental study about the use of high-intensity ultrasound for vegetable dehydration by using a new power ultrasound generator and a procedure in which ultrasonic vibrations are applied in direct contact with the product and under a certain static pressure. The drying effect of this new process is compared with that obtained from forced-air drying assisted by air-bome ultrasonic radiation and from a conventional hol-air drying. The results show that by using the new technology and procedure it is possible to reduce dramatically the treatment time and it is relatively easy to reach a final moisture content in the samples less than 1%. In addition, the product qualities are well preserved, the sample rehydration is higher than 70% and, because of the high efficiency of the new ultrasonic system employed, the energy consumption is low. As a consequence of the results a new technology for industrial applications is under development
The effect of microwave and microwave-vacuum drying on some quality properties such as density, porosity, color and viscoelastic behavior of dehydrated apple, banana, carrot and potato was investigated. It is concluded that microwave drying and moreover microwave-vacuum drying tends to increase the product porosity and to prevent the color damages during drying. Microwave drying seems to decrease the maximum stress and maximum strain of dehydrated products, while it increases their elasticity and decreases their viscous nature
Conventional dryings at high temperatures often produce undesirable changes in the physical-chemical properties of materials. This paper describes the relatively novel technique of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying of apple slices, which did not cause any observable product degradation and extensive color changes. Multiple point-to-plate electrodes with AC high voltages, accelerated the initial drying rates to almost 4.5 times over the ambient air drying control. The size of the point electrode, electric field strength, electrode gap, and interelectrode separation were the determinant factors in EHD drying which could be maximized by optimizing these variables. A theoretical consideration showed the principal driving force behind EHD drying to be due to the generation of an electric wind which produced turbulence and thereby enhanced the drying rate of the slices. EHD drying is basically non-thermal and convective, and hence could provide an advantage to industries involved in manufacturing heat-sensitive materials
Mass transfer phenomena were investigated during osmotic dehydration of apple, banana and kiwi in glucose and sucrose osmotic solution. A complete set of experiments was performed for a wide range of temperature, sample size, speed of agitation, osmotic agent concentration and immersion time. An empirical model, based on a first order kinetic equation, was fitted satisfactorily to experimental data. Furthermore, the effect of solute molecular weight on mass transfer phenomena during the osmotic treatment was evaluated. The results showed that low molecular weight solute (glucose) leads to higher water loss and solids uptake than high molecular weight solute (sucrose), of osmodehydrated fruits under the same solution concentration.
Electrodewatering (EDW), the enhancement of conventional pressure filtration by an electric field, is an emerging technology with the potential to improve dewatering especially for difficult materials. CSIRO has many years of experience in EDW, ranging from bench scale tests to demonstration trials. A recent programme has investigated the applicability of EDW to aerobic wastewater treatment sludges which are particularly difficult to dewater using conventional equipment. The bench scale filtration experiments produced cakes with solids contents of 35-46 wt% using EDW, compared with 24-30 wt% using pressure filtration alone. This paper : * describes how the dewatering results were achieved; *identifies a relationship between moisture removal limits by EDW and the forms of water within the sludge; *shows the results of preliminary attempts to mathematically model the EDW process
Drying of diced carrot was studied experimentally in a laboratory batch-type vibrofluidized bed dryer (VFB) The kinetics of the degradation reaction of P-carotene chosen as the dominant quality index were determined for various time-temperature conditions. Relationships were obtained for instantaneous concentration of β-carotene, and for the degradation rate constant as a function of moisture content and material temperature. It was shown that the best quality product is obtained when carrot is dried in a VFB dryer down to the critical moisture content, than conditioned (tempered) in a single layer exposed to ambient air, and then finish dried to the final moisture content in a VFB dryer.
The fissuring of rough rice during intermittent drying was studied through experimental and numerical methods. The moisture distribution inside the rice kernel during drying and tempering was obtained by diffusion model. The moisture gradients were used to analyze the hydro stresses in the rice kernel during intermittent drying. Discontinuing the drying process with tempering can decrease the hydro stresses in the rice kernel. Decreased unit drying time or increased intermittent ratio caused decrease of the stresses in the rice kernel during intermittent drying. Less fissured rice was also observed by discontinuing the drying process in the experiments. Higher intermittent ratio or lower unit drying time caused lower percentage of fissured rice in the experiments.
Electrodewatering (EDW), the enhancement of conventional pressure filtration by an electric field, is an emerging technology with the potential to improve dewatering especially for difficult materials. CSIRO has many years of experience in EDW, ranging from bench scale tests to demonstration trials. A recent programme has investigated the applicability of EDW to aerobic wastewater treatment sludges which are particularly difficult to dewater using conventional equipment. The bench scale filtration experiments produced cakes with solids contents of 35-46 wt% using EDW, compared with 24-30 wt% using pressure filtration alone. This paper : describes how the dewatering results were achieved; identifies a relationship between moisture removal limits by EDW and the forms of water within the sludge; shows the results of preliminary attempts to mathematically model the EDW process.
The influence of microwave power (0 to 8.0 W/g, dry basis) and hot air temperature (25°C to 95 °C) on drying rate and product temperature of diced apples (from 31 % to 5% moisture content, dry basis) in a laboratory microwave and spouted-bed combined dryer was investigated. Product temperature initially increased sharply to a plateau about 12 to 15°C above the spouted bed air temperature at a microwave input power 6.4 W/g. This temperature remained almost constant thereafter. Uniform microwave heating was achieved as evidenced by uniform product color and product temperature. Drying rates increased with increasing spouted-bed air temperature or microwave power level, But higher microwave power caused more darkening of the product. Drying of the diced apples in the microwave and spouted bed drying system exhibited two falling rates periods. The influence of air temperature on effective moisture diffusivity followed an Arrhenius type equation. The activation energies were 23.7 kJ/mol and 26.7 kJ/mol for the first and second falling rate periods, respectively.
Microwave drying characteristics of sliced foods were investigated using potatoes (Solarium tuberosum) as a test model. Sliced samples were dried to 7-10% moisture content at microwave power levels between 2.2 W/g and 3.6 W/g (raw material). Moisture and temperature changes during drying were monitored. Semi-empirical models were developed that followed temperature and moisture changes during microwave drying. Sliced potatoes experienced three distinct periods: a warming-up period with little removal of moisture; a constant temperature period in which most of the drying took place; and a heating up period in which the drying rate decreased and sample temperature increased rapidly, often causing partial charring. Product temperature during the second period of microwave drying increased with sample thickness and microwave power. Drying rates were not affected by slice thickness, but increased with the microwave power/mass ratio. Product charring towards the end of drying may be avoided by reducing microwave power and increasing ambient air velocity.
D.C, electric field has been usually used for electroosmotic dewatering. Under the condition of D.C., however, electrical contact resistance between the electrode and dewatering material is increased considerably with the process of dewatering. Such a circumstance hinders continuation of effective electroosmotic dewatering. To reduce the hindrance, application of A.C, electric field with periodic reversals of the electrode polarity can be expected as an improvement of electroosmotic dewatering. Electroosmotic dewatering under the condition of A.C. was experimentally investigated mainly in the region of low frequency below 1 Hz for the electrode polarity reversals. In the dewatering process, the A.C. electric field could reduce the hindrance caused by the D.C., and final dewatered amount was increased more than that under the D.C. electric field. For constant applied voltage, the frequency condition, at which electric current passing through the material was almost not changed with time, gave the maximum of the final dewatered amount.
Heal and moss transfer in a slab of potato potato during baking were explained using a multiphase porous media model that includes internal evaporation and capillary, diffusive, and pressure driven transport of water and vapor. The model also includes the effect of the formation of a surface "skin" during baking. Model predictions were validated using experimental data. Most of the temperature drop in the material occurs in a relatively thin and dry surface region, while much of the interior stays at somewhat uniform temperature. Moisture content inside the material stays uniform except near the surface region where it drops to very low values. Evaporation occurs over a significant region, as opposed to at a sharp front. Baking time reduces significantly with thickness, however at d slower rate compared to conduction-only heating (no moisture transport). In addition, the surface temperature also reaches a higher value for a thinner material, which may help develop the often
Moisture adsorption characteristics of okra were evaluated at 10, 20, 30 degrees C. Isotherms were found to be of type III. Monolayer moisture contents were evaluated with GAB model. Drying was carried out at 60, 70, 80 degrees C and drying data were analysed to obtain diffusivity values from the period of first falling drying rate. Effective diffusivity increased with increasing temperature. Calculated values of the effective diffusivity showed an Arrhenius type temperature dependence.
Low-fat snack products are the driving forces for the drying of tortilla chips before frying. Super-heated steam impingement drying of foods has the advantage of improved energy efficiency and product quality. The temperature profile, drying curves, and the physical properties (shrinkage, crispiness, starch gelatinization and microstructure) of tortilla chips dried at different superheated steam temperatures and heat transfer coefficients were measured. Results indicated that the steam temperature had a greater effect on the drying curve than the heat transfer coefficient within the range of study. The microstructure of the samples after steam drying showed that higher steam temperature resulted in more pores and coarser appearance. The modulus of deformation and the shrinkage of tortilla chips correlated with moisture content. A higher steam temperature caused less shrinkage and a higher modulus of deformation. The pasting properties showed that samples dried under a higher steam temperature and a higher heat transfer coefficient gelatinized less during drying and had a higher ability to absorb water. Comparison of the superheated steam drying and air drying revealed that at elevated temperatures the superheated steam provided higher drying rates. Furthermore, there was a less starch gelatinization associated with air drying compared to superheated steam drying.
In this work a sophisticated numerical model is presented that describes the drying of porous media. This model, which is known as TransPore, has evolved over the years through the direct inputs of both authors. Nowadays, TransPore can be used to analyse the drying of media that are of completely arbitrary shape and size, under a variety of drying conditions. The engine of the computational model uses a number of state-of-the-art numerical methods that ensure the simulation results describe the particular drying process accurately, whilst guaranteeing the most efficient and effective usage of computer resources. For example, the numerical discretisation method is based on a completely conservative hybrid finite element control volume technique that uses a finite element mesh for its background gradient interpolation. Furthermore, flux limiting is used to reduce numerical dispersion in the drying kinetics and the generated non-linear system is resolved using the full Newton method for the outer iteration coupled together with a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique for the inner iteration. A graphical interface has been linked to the model to enable online visualisation of the drying process. The mathematical model allows both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media to be simulated. The resultant software is an extremely powerful and effective tool for investigating existing dryer designs and for proposing new and innovative drying schedules that provide optimal drying quality in minimal drying time.
Biofilms are edible films formed from biopolymers. In the casting process technique, the biofilm is obtained by the drying of a colloidal solution in the final process stage The aim of this work was to analyse the drying process of gelatin based biofilms, in room frontier conditions. The biofilms were prepared initially by dissolving gelatin in water and adding sorbitol as plasticizer. The filmogenic solution was dried in an automatic drier under various drying conditions, for 1mm film: air temperature (T= 35, 40 and 45 °C), relative humidity (ϕ= 60 and 75 %) and air velocity (v= 3m/s). The drying kinetics was measured for 15, 30 and 45 % sorbitol concentrations. Sorption isotherms at 25, 35 and 45 °C were determined for the 15% sorbitol concentration films by the static gravimetric method. The glass transition and the melting temperature for various moisture contents were determined with a Differential Scanning Calorimeter TA 2010. The results showed an unusual behaviour for temperature dependence: decreasing drying kinetics with increasing air temperature. Also separation of gelatin and sorbitol were seen when the temperature increased. This phenomenon occurs when the film temperature during the drying process gets close to the melting temperature of the film.
Strawberries pretreated with 2% ethyl oleate and 0.5% NaOH were osmotically dehydrated and their osmotic dehydration rate is compared with untreated berries. It was found that treated berries dehydrated belter compared to untreated berries. Osmotically dehydrated berries were convective and microwave dried at different power levels and results were compared with respect to drying time and rate. The rehydration ratio, texture, color and sensory values are compared with freeze dried strawberries with the same pretreatment. It was found that microwave drying was short in time and the quality parameters of the microwave dried berries were comparable to those of freeze dried berries.
The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to water sorption for grapes of Italy variety. The moisture sorption isotherms were analyzed using the static gravimetric method at 35, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 75 degrees C. For isotherms construction, the skin and pulp of the grape were used separately and it was possible to observe significant differences. The GAB equation was fitted to the experimental data, using direct nonlinear regression analysis; the agreement between experimental and calculated values was satisfactory. The net isosteric heat or enthalpy of water sorption, determined from the equilibrium sorption data, showed a different behavior when compared with other works, as it was obtained for skin and pulp separately. Plots of Delta h vs Delta S for skin and pulp provided the isokinetic temperatures T-Bs = 423.2 +/- 27.6 K and T-Bp = 424.5 +/- 25.3 K, respectively, indicating an enthalpy-controlled desorption process over the whole range of moisture content considered.
Strawberries were pretreated with ethyl oleate and sodium hydroxide solution to make the skin transparent to moisture diffusion. The treated berries were dried with convective air at 45°C and microwaves at two power levels of 0.1 and 0.2 W/g. During the drying process change in shrinkage ratio with respect to moisture ratio was studied. Also, the change in equivalent diameter of strawberries in correlation with moisture ratio was investigated. During drying the variation in surface and centre temperatures with moisture content and time was studied. It was observed that there is a direct relation between the shrinkage and moisture ratio. The equivalent diameter of the berry has a logarithmic function with respect to the moisture ratio.