Defining and interpreting food security, and measuring it in reliable, valid and cost-effective ways have proven to be stubborn problems facing researchers and programs intended to monitor food security risks, This paper briefly reviews the conceptual and methodological literature on food insecurity measurment, describes a particular method for distinguishing and measuring short-term food insecurity at the household level, and discusses ways of generalizing the method, The method developed enumerates the frequency and severity of strategies relied on by urban households when faced with a short-term insufficiency off food, This method goes beyond more commonly-used measures of caloric consumption to incorporate vulnerability elements of food insecurity as well as the deliberate actions of household decision-makers when faced with food insufficiency. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Nutrition is not a recognized right in any of the major international human rights instruments. Access to food, basic health services and adequate caring practices, however, are explicitly recognized as rights in the International Bill of Human Rights and other important human rights instruments, such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). As food, health and care are all necessary, and in combination will ensure good nutrition, nutrition in this sense becomes a right. This paper describes the evolution of children's rights and how nutrition has become neglected. The CRC, which encompasses both civil and political rights and social, economic and cultural rights and thereby underlines the indivisibility of the international human rights system, provides a firm base for the promotion of nutrition as a right. The paper further emphasizes that development should ensure both a desirable outcome and an adequate process. Outcomes can be specified by goals, such as improved nutritional status of children. A high-quality process is characterized by a high degree of participation, community ownership, sustainability and empowerment. Outcome-focused strategies emphasize the achievement of goals; they are relatively easy to monitor, but often unsustainable. Process-focused strategies, on the other hand, emphasize participation and empowerment; they are difficult to monitor, and they often do not result in any significant outcome. Both outcome-focused and process-focused nutrition strategies alone should be avoided. A rights-based strategy combines the two positive extremes. Rights require the fulfilment of deontological criteria, inter alia a high quality process. Implementation, therefore, requires a holistic approach, which recognizes both the scientific and the ethical aspects of the problem at the theoretical as well as the practical level. A rights-based strategy goes beyond the fulfilment of needs because the state has obligations to respect, protect and fulfil these rights. A rights-based strategy for nutrition aims at the progressive achievement of nutritional goals and the progressive establishment of a high quality process in fulfilling these obligations.
This paper presents the normative framework of international human rights and the duty of states to cooperate for development, starting with the Charter of the United Nations and proceeding to examine the International Bill of Human Rights and the various international instruments (treaties and declarations) built upon it. By ratifying some of these instruments, a large majority of states have undertaken legally binding obligations to ensure freedom from hunger and to promote adequate standards of living, including food, nutrition and care. The paper notes that promotion of human rights and development, two purposes that are closely interrelated in the Charter of the United Nations, have since followed two separate trajectories, but efforts are now under way to bring them closer together, as manifested in particular by the Declaration on the Right to Development, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1986. The paper further points out that under international human rights law a comprehensive system of international reporting and monitoring by expert bodies has been developed. Full transparency has been achieved by ensuring that the state reports are made public and their examination by the international expert bodies are open to anyone interested. It is indicated that for reporting in the development field, comparable transparency and examination could be developed, including for international agencies and other bodies dealing with food and nutrition issues.
This paper presents a synthesis of results from various models that have assessed the impact of the Uruguay Round on global agriculture. The results, on the whole, show that the Uruguay Round is not expected to cause large price and income effects at the global level. The effects are likely to be more significant for individual regions and countries. The paper identifies a number of factors, explaining the differences in the impact assessed using various models. These include partial or non-incorporation of the specific reduction commitments under the Uruguay Round, different practices followed in modelling tariff reductions, differences in transmission elasticities, use of different base periods to apply Uruguay Round reduction commitments, model structure (i.e. partial versus general equilibrium), different aggregation of countries and commodities, and differences in the demand, supply and transmission elasticities. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
This paper reviews how the end of the Cold War is affecting acceptance of key international conventions and the policy environment relevant to the realization of the right to food. It focuses on the International Bill of Human Rights and finds that ratification of international human rights conventions including those containing the right to food have accelerated from 1989 to 1994. The paper goes on to analyse the policy environment for the realization of the right to food in less developed countries in relation to worldwide sociopolitical processes of fragmentation and integration taking place in the post-Cold War era, specifically: civil conflict and cultural chaos, liberalizing national and international economics, the spread of democratic governance, growing use of politically conditioned aid and reallocation of foreign assistance resources. It documents and discusses each as an impediment or opportunity to the practical realization of the right to food through improved food and nutrition security. The concluding section argues that the prospects for direct implementation of rights to food as national food and development policy have become unfavourable because such policies have been economically unsustainable and because of the declining capacities of government institutions in general. At the same time the application of a normative human rights approach is found to be of critical importance for evaluation and promotion of food and nutrition security by the nation state and by transnational and subnational institutions that are growing more powerful in the post-Cold War era.
This paper considers the detailed implementation of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture by the European Union (EU), and its likely impact on the CAP. The Agreement sets three constraints to agricultural support in developed countries. The commitment to reduce domestic support by 20 per cent will have no effect. Tariffication and the new access provisions will only marginally improve the competitiveness of imports into the EU in the short-run, but do set the scene for more meaningful tariff cuts in the next Round. It is the constraints on subsidized exports which will most limit the CAP, and impact on world markets, although even here the effects could easily be exaggerated. The export constraints will bite deeper in the longer run, particularly in the context of an enlargement of the EU to embrace several states from Central and Eastern Europe which could trigger a more fundamental CAP reform. Despite its limited impact, the Agreement should be judged a success in that it does impose limits on the CAP and sets the scene for the next Round of negotiations, proposed to begin in 1999. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
The conclusion of the Uruguay Round and the setting up of the World Trade Organization provide a major opportunity for establishing a new food aid regime within a liberalizing global economy. The paper covers several related areas: it provides details of the food aid provisions of the Final Act of the Uruguay Round; it reviews projections of future food aid requirements against current availabilities; it raises the basic question as to what constitutes food aid, including the large volume of transactions in the ''grey area'' between food aid, as currently statistically recorded, and commercial trade; and it makes proposals for a future food aid regime in terms of its main features, and how it should be administered. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
This paper assesses the potential impact of the Uruguay Round on agricultural trade preferences. The potential value of such preferences given by the European Union, Japan and the United States is estimated at US$1.9 billion in 1992, one-third going to Africa, 40 per cent to Latin America and the Caribbean, and the rest mainly to developing countries of the Far East and Oceania. After the Uruguay Round reduction in Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) rates, the potential value of preferences is estimated to fall by around US$0.7 billion, of which Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Far East account for 26 per cent, 39 per cent, and 28 per cent, respectively. On a commodity basis, the biggest losses are estimated for fruit and nuts, coffee and tea. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
The paper presents FAO's assessment of the Uruguay Round on world agricultural markets and the food security implications of such effects for developing countries, The analysis is based largely on FAO's World Food Model, which is used to compare the outcome for the year 2000 with and without the implementation of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, Although at the global level market effects for most agricultural commodities turn out to be small, the effects are relatively more important for the low-income food-deficit developing countries, especially with regard to their food import bills, The paper concludes, however, that the food security prospects of developing countries are largely determined by underlying factors which the Uruguay Round would not alter to any substantial degree. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd