Background: Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. In the year 2017 alone, 2082 articles were published under the key words 'sport nutrition'. Consequently, staying current with the relevant literature is often difficult. Methods: This paper is an ongoing update of the sports nutrition review article originally published as the lead paper to launch the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in 2004 and updated in 2010. It presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to optimization of training and performance enhancement through exercise training and nutrition. Notably, due to the accelerated pace and size at which the literature base in this research area grows, the topics discussed will focus on muscle hypertrophy and performance enhancement. As such, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) How ergogenic aids and dietary supplements are defined in terms of governmental regulation and oversight; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated in the United States; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of nutritional approaches to augment skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the potential ergogenic value of various dietary and supplemental approaches. Conclusions: This updated review is to provide ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition with information that can be implemented in educational, research or practical settings and serve as a foundational basis for determining the efficacy and safety of many common sport nutrition products and their ingredients.
The present study investigates the effects of alternative fuel properties on combustion performance, in order to ensure reliable combustion performance using various fuel blends for powering an engine. The increasing rate of fuel cost and depletion of fossil fuels has led to the search for alternate fuels. Palm biodiesel derived from palm fatty acids meets the fuel requirements of an aircraft and is compatible with any engine without modifications. Viability of using a blend of present fossil fuels with biodiesel is studied. The engine was operated with petrol, diesel, palm biodiesel and a blend of these three fuels as a pair, with various ratios. The fuel was injected into the combustion chamber at an angle of 45o to the airflow and ignited using a spark plug. The blended fuel is found to have better efficiency than petrol or diesel. Furthermore, the low cost and abundant availability of the biofuel make it a viable alternative to the petroleum-based fuels currently in use. The combustion time and ignition delay are decreased with efficient biofuel due to high oxygen content and high octane number of the biofuel.