The influence of students' non-cognitive characteristics on their learning performance constitutes a significant but rather unexplored topic. The goal of the research presented in this article, is to examine the relation between the students' personality characteristics (as measured using the Big Five Personality Test) and their learning outcome in the context of four framed wiki-based learning activities. 368 university students participated in the studies. Meta-analysis of results indicates that learning gain was significant negatively correlated with one of the five basic personality dimensions, namely Extraversion. Also, agreeableness was significant positively correlated with learning gain. Moreover, conscientiousness and emotionally stability were significant positively correlated with logged wiki edits that students made in this activity. It is argued, and discussed, that results from such studies can lead to useful conclusions regarding the design of appropriate activities and the creation of more effective collaborative teams in the context of wiki-based web activities.
This article explores the feasibility of employing cooperative program editing tools in teaching programming. A quasi-experimental study was conducted, in which the experimental group co-edited the programs with peers using the wiki. The control group co-edited the programs with peers using only the face-to-face approach. The findings show that the co-editing platform was effective in assisting collaborative learning of programming, especially for program implementation. By observing editing histories, students could compare programs and then reflect more deeply about programming. The use of the wiki history tool also helped to illuminate nonlinear and dynamic procedures utilized in programming. Students who engaged more in the collaborative programming or interacted more with partners on the wiki showed greater program implementation achievements. The major benefit of using the wiki was the enhanced ability to observe the dynamic programming procedure and to encounter programming conflicts, which contributed to the process of procedural knowledge acquisition and elaboration.
The purpose of this article is to determine the opinions and experiences of participants who took both distance and formal education courses concerning practice. The case study method was employed for this study. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Distance education software and recorded virtual course videos were analyzed and observations were made. The participants comprised eight students enrolled in formal education courses and who also took distance education courses during the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 academic years, two instructors who were giving lectures through distance education and an instructor promoted in the students' education program. Findings indicated that the participants were aware of the time and space advantages of distance education but they do not use the system because they are not given sufficient information and they do not know how to use it. Findings also showed that virtual courses were almost never watched, and the most important factor related to this lack of use was the lack of interaction with instructors.
The world has encountered and witnessed the great popularity of various emerging e-learning resources such as massive open online courses (MOOCs), textbooks and videos with the development of the big data era. It is critical to understand the characteristics of users to assist them to find desired and relevant learning resources in such a large volume of resources. For example, understanding the pre-knowledge on vocabulary of learners is very prominent and useful for language learning systems. The language learning effectiveness can be significantly improved if the pre-knowledge levels of learners on vocabulary can be accurately predicted. In this research, the authors model the vocabulary of learners by extracting their history of learning documents and identify the suitable vocabulary knowledge scales (VKS) for pre-knowledge prediction. The experimental results on real participants verify that the optimal VKS and the proposed predicting model are powerful and effective.
In a traditional class, the role of the teacher is to teach and that of the students is to learn. However, the constant and rapid technological advancements have transformed education in numerous ways. For instance, in addition to traditional, face to face teaching, E-learning is now possible. Nevertheless, face to face teaching is unavailable in distance education, preventing the teacher from understanding the student's learning emotions and states; hence, a system can be adopted to collect information on students' learning emotions, thereby compiling data to analyze their learning progresses. Hence, this study established an emotional design tutoring system (EDTS) and investigated whether this system influences user interaction satisfaction and elevates learning motivation. This study determined that the learners' perception of affective tutoring systems fostered positive attitudes toward learning and thereby promoted learning effects. The experimental results offer teachers and learners an efficient technique for boosting students' learning effects and learning satisfaction. In the future, affective computing is expected to be widely used in teaching. This can enable students to enjoy learning in a multilearning environment; thus, they can exhibit higher learning satisfaction and gain considerable learning effects.
Online collaborative writing tools provide an efficient way to complete a writing task. However, existing tools only focus on technological affordances and ignore the importance of social affordances in a collaborative learning environment. This article describes a learning analytic system that analyzes writing behaviors, and creates visualizations incorporating individual engagement awareness and group ranking awareness (social affordance), and review writing behaviour history (technological affordance), to support student engagement. Studies examined the performance of the system used by university students in two collaborative writing activities: collaboratively writing a project proposal (N = 41) and writing tutorial discussion answers (N = 25). Results show that students agreed with what the visualization conveys and visualizations enhance their engagement in a collaborative writing activity. In addition, students stated that the visualizations were useful to help them reflect on the writing process and support the assessment of individual contributions.
E-books nowadays have greatly evolved in its presentation and functions, however its features for education need to be investigated and inspired because people who are accustomed to using printed books may consider and approach it in the same way as they do printed ones. Therefore, the authors compared the EPUB e-book content model with the SCORM e-learning content model from the respects of their content presentation, metadata and package structures. Drs. Chang and Hung found that 1) EPUB has the possibility to implement the advantage of content sharing and reusing. 2) EPUB e-books can present educational materials with multimedia and interactive components based on web technology. However, content creators should beware of the limited supported media types 3) EPUB lacks dedicated educational metadata. 4) EPUB e-books have a content reflow mechanism to adjust layouts to fit small screen devices and are able to use all resources offline. Finally, they determined the research issues and strategies that are worthy of further investigation and development for EPUB e-books in education based on our findings.
This article aims at characterizing the research community of Distance Education (DE) with respect to coauthorship, a special kind of collaboration among researchers, according to publications of 11 relevant DE journals. This article identified who the central researchers are, the topological properties of the coauthorship networks analyzed, the coauthorship patterns of each journal and the evolution of the DE community in the last 30 years. In order to achieve these goals, Social Network Analysis (SNA) was used, deriving centrality metrics, which depict the importance of researchers in the networks. This study found out that researchers who publish more papers are not necessarily the ones considered more central according to SNA. Besides, promising researchers, those linked to central researchers and are considered more likely to coauthor papers in the near future. Different coauthorship patterns among journals are described. Finally, a steep increase in the number of publications and coauthorships in the last decades was observed.
The authors report on three students' argumentative knowledge construction in an asynchronous online graduate level geometry course designed for in-service secondary mathematics (ISM) teachers. Using Weinberger and Fischer's framework, they analyzed the ISM teachers' a) geometry autobiography and b) discussion board posts (both comments and attached work including solutions to assigned problems and Geometric Sketchpad explorations) throughout an 8-week summer course. The goal was to better understand the key similarities and differences in the nature of their interaction with each other and the course content that may have contributed to the differences in their knowledge construction. Findings led researchers to re-conceptualize a rubric to (1) assist instructors in facilitating productive interaction among students, (2) prepare students to better utilize the discussion board with a critical eye, and (3) provide specific guidelines for a more productive engagement among students, using the framework as a guide.
The tremendous changes in the context of Higher Education motivate the organization to integrate new innovative ICT solutions to comply with quality challenge. This affects the trainers in their practices, looking for pedagogical tools to integrate into the course. In the framework of distance learning or WIL, note the usefulness of LMS and the asset of multimedia with educational videos to strengthen the blended course efficiency. This paper explores a set of solutions used in and for a hybrid course, integrating guidance and feedback to support the audience's evolution. Though such pedagogical devices are levers for increased knowledge ownership, the trainers have to overcome blocks: the IT basics for end-users to access trainings that integrate digital means, but also their personal expertise as IT independent-users with respect to multimedia, changing their teaching practices. They will “learn by integrating” the tool into their course, in reference to the Ldl approach (“learn by doing”), sharing and transforming the pedagogical culture in the Community of Practice (CoP).
This article presents a study on the variables promoting student retention in distance undergraduate courses at Federal University of Pará, aiming to help school managers minimize student attrition and maximize retention until graduation. The theoretical background is based on Rovai's Composite Model and the methodological approach is conditional probability analysis using the Bayesian Networks graphical model. Network modeling has shown that among internal factors after admission to the course (as defined in the Composite Model) face-to-face tutorial sessions need to be better planned and executed, learning materials are still not adequate to online course specificities and the support structure needs to be remodeled.
This study examined pre-service teachers' expertise, perceptions and integration of cloud applications in teaching of Arabic and English. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used as data collection methods. The findings of the study specified that pre-service teachers did not own sufficient expertise for effective integration of cloud applications. The findings also revealed that participants perceived cloud applications as a valuable tool to improve many aspects of language education. Nonetheless, participants concentrated on integrating limited features of cloud applications. While the study revealed that there was no significant difference in participants' expertise in integrating cloud applications based on the language they teach, it found that pre-service English teachers had significantly higher levels of positive perceptions and integration of cloud applications than pre-service Arabic teachers. Finally, a positive significant correlation was found between expertise, perceptions, and integration of cloud applications.
In recent years, the rapid advancement of information technology has had a great impact on our daily life and changed the world in which we operate; in particular, mobile devices have become more portable and powerful than ever. As a result, mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) and ubiquitous learning have been widely adopted in a variety of studies. However, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching English for specific purposes (ESP), i.e., the Business Language Testing Service (BULATS) for college students in a language laboratory and through the mobile LINE app. A total of 72 college students were randomly assigned to two groups, a language lab group and a mobile learning group, for 10 weeks of instruction. The findings revealed that the students in the mobile learning group had significantly positive attitudes toward the teaching method and learning content and high user satisfaction. In addition, the learning performance of the students in the mobile learning group was better than that in the language lab group.
The paper focuses on the field of learning styles in e-learning. The study is structured in two main parts: (1) a brief overview of traditional approaches to learning styles is presented and their role in the process of instruction is set; this part results in the reflection of current state, when learning styles are considered within e-learning; (2) results of meta-analysis dealing with learning styles in the e-learning environment are introduced focusing on two periods (2001-2007, 2008-2014) and journals in selected databases ProQuest Central, Elsevier Science Direct and ERIC. Totally 5,361 papers were collected and structured according to three criteria: (1) time period, (2) relevancy of information sources and (3) relevant key words. Collected data underwent the chí-squared test for independence and the analysis of adjusted residuals on the significance level a=0.05. No statistically significant changes were discovered in the research sample, however, some shifts were detected in this field. Finally, the results were discussed and relating conclusions provided.
It is important for distance learning institutions to be well prepared before designing and implementing any new technology based learning system to justify the investment and minimize failure risk. It can be achieved by systematically assessing the readiness of all stakeholders. This paper first proposes an m-readiness assessment process and subsequently describes different activities required to develop a m-readiness assessment model. The model was validated and applied to measure m-readiness index of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Pakistan. Primary data (N=612) were collected. Factor analysis was applied. Extracted factors were confirmed with confirmatory factor analysis. Based on the extracted factors, m-readiness index was calculated. Furthermore, m-readiness index association with age, gender, program of study, income, locality and province were also analyzed by applying one way ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis. The results reveal that there is a significant difference in m-readiness with respect to income, locality, age, gender, program of study and province.
The free nature and open access courses in the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) allow the facilities of disseminating information for a large number of participants. However, the “massive” propriety can generate many pedagogical problems, such as the assessment of learners, which is considered as the major difficulty facing in the MOOC. In fact, the immense number of learners who exceeded in some MOOC the hundreds of thousands make the instructors' evaluation of students' production quite impossible. In this work, the authors present a new approach for assessing the learners' production in MOOC. This approach combines the peer assessment with the collaborative learning and the calibrated method. It aims at increasing the degree of trust in peer-assessment. For evaluating the proposed approach, the authors implemented a MOOC dedicated for learning algorithms. In addition, an experiment was conducted during two months for knowing the effects of the proposed approach. The obtained results are presented in this paper. They are judged as very interesting and encouraging.
Fragmented connectivity in South Africa is the dominant barrier for digitising initiatives. New insights surfaced when a university-based nursing programme introduced tablets within a supportive network learning environment. A qualitative, explorative design investigated adult nurses' experiences of the realities when moving from paper-based learning towards using tablets within a blended learning environment. Purposive sampling was applied. 45 (N) participants were included, each receiving a preloaded tablet (15 running on iOS, 15 on Android 4.2.2 Jelly Bean and 15 on Windows® 8 operating systems), being WiFi-dependent, integrated into a supportive learning network. Participants completed eleven compulsory Internet-based activities. Three reflective focus groups with 18 (n) participants concluded the project. Through self-empowerment and supportive environment, students adopted seamlessly, overcame network and resource-related challenges. Valuable lessons were learned within the digital divide, integrate tablets into distance learning from a resilient and pragmatic approach.
Researchers in distance education are interested in observing and modelling of learner's personality profile, and adapting their learning experiences accordingly. When learners read and interact with their reading materials, they do unselfconscious activities like annotation which may be key feature of their personalities. Annotation activity requires the reader to be active, to think critically and to analyse what has been written, and to make specific annotations in the margins of the text. These traces are reflected through underlining, highlighting, scribbling comments, summarizing, asking questions, expressing confusion or ambiguity, and evaluating the content of reading. In this paper, the authors present a semi-automatic approach to build learners' personality profiles based on their annotation traces yielded during active reading sessions. The experimental results show the system's efficiency to measure, with reasonable accuracy, the scores of learner's personality traits.
In the past decades, various systems have been proposed to provide students with a better learning environment by taking personal factors into account. Learning styles have been one of the widely adopted factors in the previous studies as a reference for adapting learning content or organizing the content. However, very few researchers give an idea of matching e-media with appropriate teaching and learning styles and very few studies give an idea of which appropriate combinations of electronic media and learning styles are more effective than other. In this paper, the authors aim to prototype an AFDPC-FS system (Adaptation with Four Dimensional Personalization Criteria based on Felder Silverman model). Their system presents a general framework for combining and adapting teaching strategies, learning styles and electronic media according to Felder-Silverman's learning style model. An experiment was designed to explore the effect of adaptation to different learning styles when learning materials were matched with learning styles. In particular it was set up to see whether there are significant differences in learning achievement and cognitive load between two groups, an experimental group who studied with learning style-fit version and a control group who studied with non-fit version of the system without adaptation to learning styles. The experimental results showed that the proposed system could improve the learning achievements of the students. Moreover, it was found that the students' cognitive load was significantly decreased.
The practice of including online discussion posts to traditional courses is increasing. Online discussions allow for active learning to occur as students express their ideas and respond to others. The time and thought provided by online discussion posts allows students to utilize higher level cognitive skills. Web-based assessments are another technology tool that instructors are including in their courses. This study examined the impact of online discussion posts on achievement of web-based assessments for an upper level undergraduate business and technology writing intensive course. Using a treatment group and a control group, student achievement scores for the online assessments were measured. Results indicate that assessed grades of the treatment groups were higher than the control group, however statistical significance was mixed among the web assessments. The results further illustrate the need for additional research into online discussions applied to web-based assessments.